Lens focal length is the most important characteristic of a lens. One of the prime advantages of a single·lens reflex camera or a view camera is the interchangeability of its lenses; the reason photographers own more than one lens is so that they can change lens focal length. 8230;
A lens of normal focal length, as you might expect from the name, produces an image on film that seems normal when compared with human vision. The image includes about the same angle of view as the human eye sees clearly when looking straight ahead, and the relative size and spacing of near and far objects appear normal. 8230;
Lenses of short focal length are also called wide-angle or sometimes wide-field lenses, which describes their most important feature they view a wider angle of a scene than normal. A lens of normal focal length records what you see when you look at a scene with eyes fixed in one position. 8230;
A lens of long focal length seems to bring things closer, just as a telescope does. As the focal length gets longer, less of the scene is shown (the angle of view narrows), but what is shown is enlarged (the magnification increases). 8230;
The zoom, or variable focal length lens offers several technical and visual advantages. To begin with you can just take out one lens instead of two or three of varying focal lengths. And within the limits of its zoom range you can continuously vary the size of the image-enlarging or reducing it until the right parts of the subject exactly fill the frame. 8230;
1 Under red lighting best quality writing paper is dipped in weak silver nitrate solution, followed by potassium iodide solution, and wiped dry.
2 One side is coated with an 8216;exciting8217; solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, applied with a brush. The sensitised paper is then dried in front of the fire, and placed in a light-proof holder to take to the camera.
3 Exposure in the camera for about 1-3 min.
4 Development, in the same exciting solution as 2 but diluted to half strength.
5 Fixing in hyposulphite of soda, washing and drying.
6 Another sheet of paper is soaked in salt solution and wiped dry.
7 Under red light it is brushed over with silver chloride solution, and dried.
8 Pressed in tight face contact with the negative in printing frame, the paper is exposed to bright sunlight until it forms a strong brownish image (about 20 min).
What are camera movements? Essentially, they are controlled independent movements of lens or film plane which enable us to form a more usefull image under a particular set of conditions. They enable us, for instance, to increase depth of field over important parts of the subject, change image shape, and use images of subjects well above, below or to the side of the lens. Camera movements offer us all sorts of image controls, from simple square-on views of mirrors without the camera showing, to a complete change in the apparent perspective of a building. Here, indeed, is valuable 8216;professional magic.8217;
With wide angle lenses covering between 63° and 115°, there is some distortion on the wider angles. For a 35mm SLR, a 35mm focal length covering 63° may not be wide enough if your standard lens is 50mm; 28mm covering 75° would be a better choice. A 24mm covering 84° is going to extremes and, unless you particularly need this coverage with its risk of image distortion, the 28mm is the most sensible all-round choice. 8230;
Altering distance and focal length. Each picture was taken with a lens of different focal length 135 mm format, but the camera distance was altered each time so that the near end of the monument remained about the same height. 8230;
Once upon a time to work with 3d software you8217;d need a small fortune to get you started – a few thousand Euros for the software, and a few more to partake in a premium rate course or two to learnthe basics. Or you could save your pennies and buy a mute tutorial book, which would invariably goout of date as newer versions of your program would surface, and keyboard short cuts, terminologyand layout would change. Now the world of 3D computer graphics has opened up and its anyone8217;s game. Blender potentially replaces the industry standards of Maya, Cinema4D and 3DS Max, happily quelling the age olddilemma of 8216;which 3D program is best / should I fork out on?8217; (8216;try Blender, its free and its great8217;).Your premium rate teacher is replaced by the hoards of helpful souls wandering Blender forums,waiting and eager to help, and to get you started you can search for the array of video tutorials onYouTube and beyond, lovingly created to make learning easy.In the year and a half I have been learning and working with Blender
Like all digital media, video-games can be designed, produced, deconstructed and re-appropriated within the context of art. Even though the history of video-games is relatively short, it is already rich with examples of artistic experimentation and innovation. Unlike film or video, games still represent a fairly immature medium, slowly evolving to locate itself in mainstream culture. The majority of games often present simplistic or crude visions of interactivity, narrative and aesthetics, but the mediumoffers unique potential for the creation of exciting new forms of art. Like any digital medium the evolution of art/games is closely tied to the development of software, hardware and thesocio-cultural forms that grow around this technology.
In this article, we will cover a few questions and principles of open content licensing. We will discuss why to use a license and how it helps to give a stable legal background to start a collaboration. As choosing a license means accepting a certain amount of legal formalism, we will see the conditions required to be entitled to use an open license. Using the comparison of the Free Art License and the Creative Commons, we will try to give an accurate picture of the differences that co-exist in the world of open licensing, and approach what distinguishes free from open licenses. We will end by envisioning briefly the case of domain specific licenses and with a more practical note on how to apply a license to a work.
This article introduces the possibilities of the software Pure Data (Pd), explains a bit why it8217;s so popular among artists and shows what Pd can be used for. The goal is to help artists decide if Pd is a tool for their own work.
Pure Data, or PD for short, is a software written by mathematician and musician Miller S. Puckette. It has become one of the most popular tools for artists working with digital media. Originally conceived in the late 90s as an environment to create sounds and to compose music, it was soon extended by modules to work with video and graphics. Pd is freely available for no cost, and it is Free Software in that the source code can be obtained, modified and distributed without restrictions as well. Pd runs on many operating systems including the big three: Linux, OS-X and MS-Windows.
It is of course a truism, often repeated, that the Internet has been the basis for a revolution in (remote) interpersonal communications, collaboration and data sharing. It is probably safe to say that there would be very few of the Free/Libre and Open Source (FLOSS) projects that exist today without the collaboration technologies the Internet supports. One of the many effects of the powerful tools FLOSS has put in to the hands of creative people is that it has potentially made them more independent. No longer are they reliant on specialists with access to expensive software and hardware to carry out aspects of their projects for them. Their limitations are now time and knowledge, not the lack of access. It is in fact precisely this issue that the Digital Artists8217; Handbook seeks to address, by providing authoritative information to guide practitioners in to new fields of endeavour.
The downside of this independence is that many artists find themselves more isolated, working alone at home rather than interacting with others at shared studios or where shared resources were previously found.
The Internet, being fundamentally a communications medium, offers potential solutions to this isolation, but the solutions themselves have, to date, largely dictated that collaboration happens in new ways, shaped by the technology. For some, the thousands of FLOSS coders for example, the tools have made possible projects that would otherwise be virtually inconceivable, but for other artists looking to enhance their existing practice with new digital methods the situation is perhaps more double-edged.
It maybe be useful to step back for a moment and consider what we mean when we talk about working, or collaborating with others. For a start it could be divided in to five broad types of collaboration:
Scenes that are light overall, such as a snow scene, can look too dark in the final photograph if you make just an overall reading or let an automatic camera make one for you. The reason is that the meter will make its usual assumption that it is pointed at a scene consisting of light, medium, and dark tones, and it will expose the film accordingly. But this will underexpose a scene that consists mostly of light tones, resulting in a too-dark final photograph. Try giving one or two stops extra exposure to such scenes.
The Zone System is the simplest and best method yet devised for planning an exposure. Created by Ansel Adams and expounded by Minor White and others, it is more than just a shirt-sleeve approach to sensitometry; it is an elegant method of integrating all the decisions and techniques of exposure control. 8230;
The zone system was invented by Ansel Adams, one of the most famous photographers ever. He was a master of technique, and had an eye for light that few are blessed with. His photographs were the result of a happy combination of comprehensive technique and the knack of taking a picture when the light was at its best. A distinguishing feature of his black and white photographs is how light and dark areas play off each other in an instantly appealing manner.
Fill light makes shadows less dark by adding light to them. Photographic materials can record detail and texture in either brightly lit areas or deeply shadowed ones but generally not in both at the same time.
Filter is optical device to remove or absorb selected wavelengths or proportion of all wavelengths. Types and description of special effects filters, close-up filters, trick filters, filters for b&w and colour. 8230;
Glazes can be classified into two simple groups, which are earthenware and stoneware. These groups can also be classified by firing ranges for individual glazes. Earthenware glazes mature in the range 950°C to 1190°C, where as stoneware glazes fire in the range 1200-1300°C. Some crossover can occur between the high earthenware and low stoneware temperatures. For ease of selection sub-groups are arranged within these groups based on temperatures ranges. Other methods of grouping are based on colour or finish (e.g gloss, opaque, matt etc) or even speciality (e.g. raku). At Clayman we also include a third large group called Brush-on. These are glazes that were initially developed for the hobby market. but are now used by many studio potters and education, for the many additional qualities they offer. All glazes under brush-on start out life as a earthenware or stoneware glaze, but are then added to a media or gel that places them into permanent suspension to make application by brush easy. All brush-on glaze manufactured by Clayman are available in powder form as well.
The term high and low key refer to the dominant prevailing tones 8211; light or dark 8211; used in a picture. A high key photograph consist mostly of white and light tones and some middle tones, whereas a low key photograph is composed predominately of black and dark tones. 8230;
This chapter discusses how our light-sensitive camera materials work, especially colour films. It traces the way that ingenious principles have been put into practice and compares how films record relative to the way our eyes see subjects directly. So the chapter begins by describing how eyes and brain receive and interpret the sensation of colours and comparing this with the far more fixed chemical response of colour films. Differences between seeing and photographing are important to grasp in order to control results. 8230;
Colour Film consists of three light sensitive layers. Each of which responds to about one-third of the colours in the light spectrum. Each layer is matched to a primary colour dye that is built into the emulsion or added during processing, and every colour in the spectrum can be produced by mixing varying proportions of the colour primaries. 8230;
The Inverse square Jaw is the basis for flash exposure calculations. The farther the light travels, the more the light rays spread out and the dimmer the resulting illumination. …see full text
To Calculate your own Flash Exposure
To calculate your own flash exposure you need to know two things: the distance that the light travels to the subject and the guide number (a rating given by the manufacturer for the flash when used with a specific film speed) …see full text
Bounce Flash Travels an Extra Distance
If you are calculating a bounce flash exposure, measure the distance not from flash to subject but from flash to reflecting surface to subject. …see full text
Infrared, photographing the unseen (or simply create very interesting) images.
Discover where a circuit board may be overheating - where hot water pipes are buried in masonry 8211; and where heat loss is occurring through a building8217;s' roof. This would be an ideal use for infrared film. However: let me quash this myth right now! You cannot, under any circumstances, photograph heat loss with an infrared film. Infrared film can see the visible spectrum and also the near infrared up to just under 1000 nanometres.
Creative photographer are always challenging conventions and looking for new ways of coming up with eye-catching images. To kick off the brand new series on Pro Techniques, Lee Frost takes a look at how to get the best out of using infrared film.
Camera motion causes blur. Though some photographers claim to be able to hand hold a camera steady at slow shutter speeds-V8221; sec. or even slower-it takes only a slight amount of camera motion during exposure to cause a noticeable blur in an image. If a sharp picture is your aim, using a fast shutter speed or supporting the camera on a tripod is a much surer way to produce an image that will be sharp when enlarged. 8230;
Many photographers feel somewhat restricted by conventional, commercial papers. Surface textures are limited and do not always suit the artistic vision of the individual. One way around this limitation is by using liquid emulsions, which can be coated onto many surfaces: paper, fabric, stones, tiles, wood, metal, and more. 8230;
The photojournalist generally responds to a situation, whereas the studio photographer creates a situation to fit a pre-conceived image. The ultimate control that the photographer has is the manipulation of the image itself. At its most sophisticated, the photographer can take on the role of an director. By combining studio techniques with photo-composites and re-touching, for example, you can achieve the graphic freedom of an illustration yet retain the basic realism of photographic images. Sophisticated image manipulation such as this is found mainly in advertising, where the commercial results justify the often high cost and lengthy technical work.
Combining images: by Sandwiching, Projection, and Multiple exposure
How do you utilise mixed lighting indoors? What problem arise and how can you solve them? This article by David Askham will give some of the answers, based on the author’s experience in a wide range of commercial assigments in work places, stately homes and domestic interiors. …
Light from any source – a window, a continuously burning lamp, a flash – foltows the same general rule: The light falls off (gets dimmer) the farther the light source is from an object. But light from a flash comes and goes so fast that you can’t see the effect of the flash on a scene at the time you are taking the picture. Special exposure meters are designed for use with flash; you can’t use an ordinary exposure meter to meas.
Perspective: the impression of depth. Few lenses (except for the fisheye) noticeably distort the scene they show. The perspective in a photograph-the apparent size and shape of objects and the impression of depth-is what you would see if you were standing at camera position. 8230;
A photogram is a picture made without using a camera; it records not the image of an object produced by a lens but the shadow cast by the object itself i. e. using the photographic printing process but without using a negative. They tend to be strong-silhouetted images. With experimenting you can create a fairly intricate image using marks, shapes and textures. 8230;
The first glossy coated photographic print. In general use c. 1855-1890. Thin paper was first coated with a mixture of whisked egg white and salt, then sensitized with silver nitrate. It was usually printed-out in sunlight under the negative in a printing frame.
Photographic colour print made from a colour negative: the most widely-used form of colour photograph today. 8230;
By using common household materials, you can make a camera that will produce pictures. Making and using a pinhole camera will acquaint you with the basic elements of photography while providing an inexpensive and interesting way to take pictures. This bulletin explains how to make and use two types of pinhole cameras-a cartridge pinhole camera and a can or box pinhole camera. You8217;ll be proud of the pictures you can take with the camera you have constructed.
ONLY switch the Pack ‘ON’ AFTER the Flash Heads have been correctly connected. Never disconnect the Flash Head cables with out first switching the power off. High voltage goes through these cables and care should always be taken when using them.
Controlling the exposure. Both shutter speed and aperture affect the amount of light reaching the film. To get a correctly exposed negative, one that is neither too light nor too dark, you need to find a combination of shutter speed and aperture that will let in the right amount of light for a particular scene and film.
Many fine portraits have been made using simple lighting setups. You don’t need a complicated arrangement of lights to make a good portrait. In fact, the simpler the setup, the more comfortable and relaxed your subject is likely to be.
Strictly speaking solarisation is reversal, or partial reversal, of the image due to gross overexposure. The effect discussed here, although described by photographers as solarisation, is the Sabattier* effect or 8216;pseudo-solarisation8217;. Whatever the name, the effect is easily distinguished 8211; the reversal of weakest densities, and the formation of a thin contour line around strong tone boundaries. It therefore contains some of the characteristics of the tone line effect, but is achieved quite differently. 8230;
There are a number of photographic processes which enjoyed great popularity in the early year of the century. In some the actual photographic print formed only an intermediate stage in the production of the final image. Typical examples are carbon processes, the carbo process, and the bromoil processes. Of these three, the bromoil process is probably easiest to master, in terms of technique and availability of suitable materials. 8230;
The most realistic and usually most pleasing lighting resembles daylight, the light we see most often: one main source of light from above creating a single set of shadows. Lighting seems unrealistic (though there may be times when you will want that) if it comes from below or if it comes from two or more equally strong sources that produce shadows going in different directions.