Open source applications make it easy to create, listen to and view digital audio and video content.
Suitable for professional use, Blender is a 3D animation suite that offers modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, video editing and game creation capabilities. It also features a customizable interface, and it can import and export from a wide variety of file formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Replaces: AutoDesk Maya
Art of Illusion isn8217;t quite as polished as Blender, but its developers claim the latest version (released September 2013) 8220;is both stable and powerful enough to be used for serious, high-end animation work.8221; Impressive examples of artwork created with the tool can be found in the website8217;s online art galleryOperating System: OS Independent.
Replaces: AutoDesk Maya
A good option for amateur artists, K-3D boasts an easy-to-use interface and extensive documentation. According to the project website, it 8220;excels at polygonal modeling, and includes basic tools for NURBS, patches, curves and animation.8221; Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Replaces: ToonBoom Software
If you prefer traditional 2D cartoons to the fancy 3D stuff, Pencil might be right for you. It8217;s not meant as an alternative to professional vector graphics tool like Flash; instead, it8217;s aimed at those who enjoy playing around with 2D animation as a hobby. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Replaces: ToonBoom Software
Unlike Pencil, Synfig Studio does strive to meet the needs of professionals, billing itself as an 8220;industrial-strength solution for creating film-quality animation.8221; It helps users save time and money by eliminating the need to animate content on a frame-by-frame basis. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This full-featured music player integrates with a wide variety of Web audio services. The latest release adds an updated interface, a new visualization tool, smooth fade-out when pausing music, enhanced MusicBrainz tagging and improved power management. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, iOS.
A fork of Amarok, Clementine boasts a fast and easy-to-use interface. It plays audio CDs, locally stored music, streaming Internet radio and podcasts. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android.
Aqualung8217;s claim to fame is gapless playback, in other words, no awkward pauses between adjacent tracks. It supports most audio formats and plays CDs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This Java-based music player and manager displays complete information—including lyrics—for the song currently playing. It8217;s a good option for users with particularly large music collections. Operating System: OS Independent.
Audacious is very light on system resources, making it possible to play music and do intensive computing tasks without sacrificing performance. The interface is basic and very easy to use. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
Popular with reviewers, Jajuk makes it easy to sort, search and view large audio libraries. It combines an intuitive interface with advanced features, making it suitable for both light users and power users. Operating System: OS Independent.
Designed for DJs and 8220;serious music lovers,8221; Jukes began life as a Windows application called 8220;Put Up Your Jukes.8221; It8217;s since been re-written and released for multiple platforms, but it hasn8217;t been updated in a while. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Inspired by iTunes, Rhythmbox is a music management system designed for the Gnome desktop. Key features include easy search and sort, visualizations, Internet radio, CD playing and burning, playlists and more. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Windows Media Player
Designed to be super fast, CoolPlayer is extremely light on system resources. It doesn8217;t have all the advanced music management features in many other applications, but it does play most audio formats. Operating System: Windows.
Replaces: Windows Media Player
Bluemindo 8220;aims to provide a very simple audio player.8221; It8217;s customizable, Web-oriented and available in multiple languages. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Windows Media Player
Similar to Bluemindo, Decibel is a simple audio player without other features like content tags and CD burning. Its modular structure makes it easy to disable any unwanted features to free up resources. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Windows Media Player
Zinf offers a simple audio player with powerful capabilities. It supports a wide variety of file formats, and a number of different interface themes are available. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
This music player caters to those who prefer to operate from the command line and does not have a GUI. It8217;s a client-server application that plays most common audio formats. Operating System: Linux/Unix.
Named for a magic number used in debugging, DeaDBeeF aims to be the 8220;ultimate music player for GNU/Linux.8221; It also now comes in an Android version. Operating System: Linux, Unix, Android.
This simple, skinnable audio player supports dozens of audio formats. Its name stands for 8220;Qt-based multimedia player.8221; Operating System: Windows, Linux
Audio Recorders and Editors
Ardour is an advanced, professional-grade digital recording, editing and mixing tool. It supports most hardware and offers features like flexible recording, unlimited multi-channel tracks, unlimited undo/redo, easy import and export, tools for creating video soundtracks and more. Operating System: Linux, OS X.
A perennial favorite among Linux users, Audacity makes it easy to record and edit multi-track audio. It8217;s ideal for hobbyists who want an intuitive product that also includes some of the high-tech features you would find in an application designed for professionals. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Java-based Frinika calls itself a 8220;complete music workstation software containing sequencer, midi support, soft synthesizers, audio recorder, piano roll/tracker/notation editing and more.8221; It8217;s another good option for home users. Operating System: OS Independent.
Lightweight WaveShop boasts “bit-perfect” performance, meaning that samples aren’t changed unless necessary. Noteworthy features include unlimited undo, normalizing, fading, sample rate conversion, audio generation, plug-ins and peak, RMS and spectral analysis. Operating System: Windows.
Audio Ripping and Conversion
Downloaded more than 45 million times, CDex is a very popular tool for extracting the digital data from audio CDs and converting it to an MP3 or other compressed formats. It supports many different encoders and multiple languages. Operating System: Windows.
Its name is short for 8220;free audio converter,8221; and free:ac can transform CDs or digital audio files into MP3, MP4/M4A, WMA, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, AAC, WAV and Bonk formats. It8217;s optimized for multi-core systems, making it particularly fast, and it also runs from a thumb drive. Operating System: Windows.
Audio Mixing/DJ Tools
Designed for DJs performing live, Mixx boasts a powerful mixing engine that supports most popular audio file formats. Other key features include iTunes integration, BPM detection and sync, and support for more than 30 different MIDI controllers. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
An older project that hasn8217;t been updated in a while, Mixere boasts a simple, spreadsheet-style interface. It offers similar capabilities as Mixx, but it isn8217;t quite as advanced. Operating System: Windows.
This app is a vinyl emulator that allows DJs to 8220;scratch8221; digital tracks as if they were on vinyl records. Supported features include needle drops, pitch changes, scratching, spinbacks and rewinds. Operating System: Linux.
Need to burn a DVD? AVStoDVD can convert a wide variety of audio and video media files and simplify the process of creating a DVD. Operating System: Windows.
This Mac-only tool aims to keep the process of burning a disc simple while still providing lots of options. It supports multiple audio and video formats. Operating System: OS X.
For Windows only, InfraRecorder can create audio, video, data or mixed-use CDs and DVDs. It can also erase re-recordable discs and copy discs even if you have only one optical drive. Operating System: Windows.
If you8217;re looking to create a more professional-looking DVD, this tool lets you set up attractive menu screens that will work on most standard DVD players. It also supports the creation of digital slide shows. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
For those who are comfortable working from the command line, CDRtools is a collection of apps for converting and recording CDs, DVDs and Blu-Ray. Under development since 1996, this is a mature tool that has been around a long time. Operating System: Linux.
This utility can burn data discs, audio CDs, XCDs, (S)VCDs and video DVDs. It provides the same functionality as CDRtools, but runs on Windows. Operating System: Windows.
36. eMule/eMule Plus
One of the more popular file sharing clients, eMule (and eMule Plus) boasts an easy-to-use interface, fast performance and good search capabilities. The latest version supports Windows 7 and 8. Operating System: Windows.
This file sharing client includes a chat functionality that makes it easy to meet and interact with other Ares users. Other key features include fast downloads, a built-in media player and a helpful library management tool. Operating System: Windows.
38. Shareaza P2P
Calling itself the 8220;ultimate P2P client,8221; Shareaza supports the EDonkey2000, Gnutella, BitTorrent and Gnutella2 networks. It also has multiple-source downloads, sophisticated file hashing, global search, customization capabilities, preview filters and more. Operating System: Windows.
BitTornado is an alternative front-end for accessing the BitTorrent file-sharing network. Be warned that it8217;s not particularly user-friendly for those who are new to file sharing. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Forked from BitTornado, ABC also supports the BitTorrent network. Features include multiple downloads in a single window, a prioritized queuing system, customizable interface and more. Operating System: Windows.
FrostWire is a BitTorrent client with a built-in media player. It also plays Internet radio and sends downloaded files to iTunes. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Highly rated DC++ has been downloaded more than 50 million times. It has a basic interface with no ads, and it offers plenty of help for newbie users. Operating System: Windows.
43. ANts P2P
Designed to protect users from tracking, ANts P2P promises excellent security. It encrypts all traffic and hides your IP address. Operating System: OS Independent.
Like ANtS, Mute focuses on security and privacy protection. Its routing mechanism is based on research into how ants forage for food. Operating System: OS Independent.
Multimedia File Conversion
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
This tool allows users to copy DVDs, convert videos to other formats, convert DVD audio to digital audio formats, merge and split files and more. It supports most popular file types. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
46. DVD Flick
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
DVD Flick makes it easy to incorporate video files on your system into a playable DVD. It includes the ability to add a custom soundtrack, subtitles and a menu. Operating System: Windows.
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
HandBrake aims to be able to convert video from nearly any file format. Basic operation is simple and fast, but it also includes a lot of options for those with more complicated needs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
48. Media Converter
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
For Macs only, this tool leverages code from ffmpeg, Burn and several other open source tools to convert video files among various formats. It offers a simple drag-and-drop interface and batch processing capabilities. Operating System: OS X.
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
The 8220;Swiss Army knife of sound processing programs,8221; SoX can convert audio files to and from most file formats and add special effects. It’s a command line program, so you’ll need to be comfortable working without a GUI to use it. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
Based on FFMpeg, MEncoder and MPlayer, TEncoder is a multi-threaded multimedia converter that supports most file formats. It can run up to eight processes simultaneously and can run two passes to improve quality on converted files. Operating System: Windows.
Replaces: Movavi Video Converter
This tool makes it easy to download videos from Internet sites like Yahoo, Vimeo, and many others and convert them to any file format you like. It’s very popular and has won numerous awards. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
52. VLC Media Player
Extremely popular, VLC can play DVDs, CDs, streaming files and most digital audio and video formats. It can also convert files from one format to another. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
This VLC fork offers a streamlined, full-screen interface with large font sizes. It’s also portable and can be run from a thumb drive or portable hard drive. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
This tool not only plays multimedia files, it can also record, convert and stream audio or video. It’s a full suite of tools and libraries for end users and developers working on similar projects. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
While many media players place a premium on features, Miro aims to be beautiful as well as functional. It imports files from iTunes and other media management systems, and it syncs with your mobile devices. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS.
Banshee describes itself as “Simple enough to enjoy. Powerful enough to thrill.” It’s a full-featured multi-media player and management system with the ability to sync with smartphones and tablets. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS.
Most of the video players on this list support traditional 2D playback, but Bino supports 3D and multi-display video, such as powerwalls and virtual reality interfaces. Key features include dual camera support, scriptability and support for high precision color. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
With a huge library of codecs, UMPlayer aims to play anything. Key features include skinnable interface, built-in subtitles search, audio/subtitles sync, enhanced filter rendering, and YouTube playback and recording. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Award-winning MPlayer is a favorite among Linux users. It comes in both command-line and GUI-based versions. Operating system: Linux.
SMPlayer is based on the code from MPlayer, but it adds an intuitive graphic interface. When you play a file, it remembers your settings—in other words, if you turn off a movie before it is finished, it will start at the same place when you return. Operating system: Linux.
This fork of MPlayer plays 3D video. It can also extract and convert audio files. Operating system: Windows, Linux.
Designed for big screens and home theater PCs (HTPCs), this media player comes with built-in support for remote controllers. A large number of add-ons connect it to various services and add functionality. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
MediaPortal boldly claims to offer the “best media experience.” Like XBMC it was designed for use on a TV or large screen, and add-ons connect it to various services. Operating System: Windows.
Totem is the Gnome desktop’s movie player. It includes features like playlist, full-screen mode, seek and volume controls, keyboard navigation and a Firefox plug-in for watching movies in your browser. Operating System: Linux.
If you remember the old version of Windows Media Player fondly, you’ll probably like this app, which attempts to recreate that experience. Because it’s very lightweight, it’s a good option for older or underpowered systems. Operating System: Windows.
Xine is a fast, extensible player that supports a wide range of file formats. Capabilities include a skinnable GUI, Linux InfraRed Control support, closed caption support, playlists, audio resampling, fullscreen display and more. Operating System: OS X, Linux.
Multimedia Library Management
67. Data Crow
If your inner librarian has been wanting an application that makes it easy to catalog your music, videos, books, video games and other stuff, Data Crow might be for you. It creates an easy-to-use database for organizing just about anything you collect—and if you loan things to friends, it can even track who borrowed your stuff. Operating System: OS Independent.
This app, which integrates with VLC Media Player, strives to be 8220;Del.icio.us for your video collection.8221; Use it to organize, tag and search your video library. (Source code is available through GitHub.) Operating System: Windows, OS X, Linux.
Music Composition and Production
Turn your Linux/Unix system into a full-featured drum machine. The latest version includes a sample editor, time stretch and pitch functions, playlists, a director window with a visual metronome and more. Operating System: Linux.
Java-based orDrumbox includes features like auto-composition, poly-rhythms, an unusual arpeggiator, automatic sounds/track matching, custom softsynths, lowfi rendering and more. There’s a “lite” online version so you can try it out before you download. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Replaces: FL Studio
Designed as a free alternative to FL Studio, LMMS allows users to create melodies and beats, synthesize and mix sounds, and arrange samples. It works with MIDI keyboards and comes with a lot of built-in plugins, presets and samples. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
TuxGuitar lets you create and playback tab scores. Features include multi-track display, auto-scroll, effects and import/export to popular audio file formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
There’s no need to spend hundreds of dollars on software that creates sheet music. MuseScore makes it easy to “create, play and print beautiful sheet music,” and it’s absolutely free. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
74. Ubuntu Studio
Replaces: Microsoft Windows
This variant of Ubuntu Linux is specifically designed for multimedia content creation. It includes tools for audio and video production, graphic design, photography and publishing, and it8217;s supported by Canonical.
Replaces: Microsoft Windows
This multi-media friendly version of Linux is designed to run from a live CD. Because it8217;s very lightweight, it can run on older systems or even an Xbox.
Replaces: Microsoft Windows
Despite the name, this operating system includes tools for graphic design and video editing as well as music production and audio editing. It8217;s based on Debian and runs from a live CD.
77. 64 Studio
Replaces: Microsoft Windows
Another Debian/Ubuntu variant, 64 Studio is optimized for multimedia and digital content creation. It hasn8217;t been updated in a while, but paid support is available.
Screen Video Capture
Need to record what’s happening on your screen? CamStudio makes AVI videos of on-screen activities, including sound. It’s a good option for educators, trainers and tech support staff. Operating System: Windows.
Java-based Krut records both audio and video and creates wav and mov files. Key features include support for two different frame rates, moveable recording areas, timer controls and more. Operating System: Windows, Linux OS X.
Webinaria not only allows users to record screen video, it also allows them to share videos on its website. It includes a rating and comment system. Operating System: Windows, Linux OS X.
Ampache allows users to set up their own streaming servers so that they can see and hear their audio and video files from any device. Note that in order to use it you’ll need your own Web server running Apache, Nginx or similar software. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
VideoLAN can stream “MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 files, DVDs, digital satellite channels, digital terrestrial television channels and live videos on the network in unicast or multicast.” It comes bundled with VLC Media Player. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Calling itself the “most complete personal streaming system,” Subsonic offers a huge range of features for setting up your own streaming server. Download the free version or use the premium version for $1 per month. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Roku, others.
Designed to perform well even on older, slower systems, AmpJuke is an audio-only streaming solution that lets you listen two different ways: each end user can select which music he or she wants to hear or you put together a broadcast, similar to a traditional radio show, where everyone hears the same thing. It can run over the Internet or a LAN. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This Java-based app also supports audio files only. Use it to search, browse and play your MP3 collection from any Internet-connected device. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
PHP-based kPlaylist makes it easy to manage and listen to your music collection via the Web. It can also work with video files, and it supports multiple users. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
This open source application was developed by Apple and is built on the same code as the QuickTime Streaming Server. It supports QuickTime and MPEG-4 media formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
The Universal Media Server allows you to stream videos from your PC so that you can watch them on your TV or other devices. It supports UPnP and DLNA, and it can handle most common types of media files. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Award-winning Amara claims to be “simply the best subtitling toolset in the world.” The organization also offers paid pro and enterprise versions, which are used by companies like TED, Netflix, Udacity, Twitter, Mozilla and many Hollywood production companies. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Create subtitles from scratch or edit existing subtitles. Includes real-time preview, spell check, translation mode and more. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This app can create, edit and convert text-only subtitles. Key features include a customizable interface, support for multiple languages, automatic durations, smart line adjusting, spell check and more. Operating System: Windows.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
Designed to be “useful and fast,” Cinelerra invites users to “unleash the 50,000 watt flamethrower of content creation in your Linux box.” It includes a long list of features and built-in special effects. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
This community-focused version of Cinelerra offers some advanced features and help that isn’t available with the standard version of Cinelerra. As new features are added to the regular version, they also get added to this community version. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
Very easy to use, OpenShot is a good option for people who are new to video editing. It exports completed videos to DVD, YouTube, Vimeo, Xbox 360 and several other common formats. Operating System: Linux.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
Both intuitive and powerful, Kdenlive offers multi-track video editing with some advanced features. It supports a wide range of codecs and formats. Operating System: Linux, OS X.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
Best for simple cutting, filtering and encoding projects, Avidemux isn’t quite as full-featured as some of the other applications on this list. However, it does have some helpful automation, queuing and scripting capabilities. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
This new video editor hasn8217;t released a 1.0 version yet, but it8217;s under very active development. It offers an intuitive, very stylish interface plus a full slate of features. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
VirtualDub also offers video capture and processing capabilities without all the advanced editing capabilities of some other tools. Thanks to its batch processing features, it can handle large numbers of files at once. Operating System: Windows.
Replaces: Adobe Premiere
Want to turn your photos into a video slide show? PhotoFilmStrip makes it easy to showcase your pictures and move across them with the “Ken Burns” effect. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
LiVES serves two different functions: standard video editing or live video mixing performed by VJs. It makes it easy to mix, switch and add effects in real time. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
There is no doubt that WordPress is the best content management system (CMS) for your website. Sure, countless CMS’ are available, ranging from open-source to paid, and you’ll hear evangelists on all sides swearing that their choice is the best. But Drupal, Joomla or any other CMS doesn’t hold a candle to WordPress for its ease of use, security and reliability.
It’s no wonder that Web developers have built over 50 million websites on its sturdy back, or that so many designers would never dream of using anything else. For the sake of this article, let’s agree that WordPress is the way to go, no looking back. With that established, let’s lay out a 15-step checklist to help you create the perfect WordPress website.
At the end of the twentieth century, intellectual property rights collided with everyday life. Expansive copyright laws and digital rights management technologies sought to shut down new forms of copying and remixing made possible by the Internet. International laws expanding patent rights threatened the lives of millions of people around the world living with HIV/AIDS by limiting their access to cheap generic medicines. For decades, governments have tightened the grip of intellectual property law at the bidding of information industries; but recently, groups have emerged around the world to challenge this wave of enclosure with a new counter-politics of 8220;access to knowledge8221; or 8220;A2K.8221; They include software programmers who took to the streets to defeat software patents in Europe, AIDS activists who forced multinational pharmaceutical companies to permit copies of their medicines to be sold in poor countries, subsistence farmers defending their rights to food security or access to agricultural biotechnology, and college students who created a new 8220;free culture8221; movement to defend the digital commons. Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property maps this emerging field of activism as a series of historical moments, strategies, and concepts. It gathers some of the most important thinkers and advocates in the field to make the stakes and strategies at play in this new domain visible and the terms of intellectual property law intelligible in their political implications around the world. A Creative Commons edition of this work will be freely available online.
Edited: Gaëlle Krikorian and Amy Kapczynski
Contributors: Ahmed Abdel Latif, Philippe Aigrain, Jeffrey Atteberry, Yochai Benkler, Yann Moulier Boutaing, Carlos Correa, Laura DeNardis, Sarah Deutsch, Peter Drahos, Hala Essalmawi, Rick Falkvinge, Sean Flynn, Vera Franz, Spring Gombe, Anil Gupta, Ellen 8216;t Hoen, Charles Igwe, Eddan Katz, Kannikar Kijtiwatchakul, Gaëlle Krikorian, Lawrence Liang, Jiraporn Limpananont, James Love, Leena Menghaney, Viviana Munoz, Sisule F. Musungu, HeeSeob Nam, Chan Park, Eloan Pinheiro dos Santos, Achal Prabhala, Onno Purbo, Manon Ress, Caroline Rossini, Susan Sell, Sangeeta Shashikant, Roberto Verzola, Jo Walsh
Website: Free eBook download
Discover Adobe® Kuler® — the web-hosted application for generating color themes that can inspire any project. No matter what you8217;re creating, with Kuler you can experiment quickly with color variations and browse thousands of themes from the Kuler community.
DID YOU KNOW…
Adobe Kuler is now available as a tablet app
The Adobe Kuler app, an extension of the full Adobe Kuler service, enables you to generate and view color themes on the go. Initially available for Android only.
Kuler is available online at no charge
Explore, create, and share color themes.
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Kuler is accessible from your favorite Creative Suite 5 software
Explore, search, and create new color themes right where you work with the Kuler panels built into Adobe Illustrator® CS5, Photoshop® CS5, InDesign® CS5.5, Fireworks® CS5, and Flash® Professional CS5.5 software.
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I think in moving images, and I don8217;t think moving images are objects.
I place these moving images in domain names. Each URL is the title and the location of each art piece. These websites are public, their ownership is exclusive. Domain names are one of the internet’s few scarcities. They are unique, they can8217;t be forged or copied.
This contract explains the rights and duties of the artist and the collector, to make sure the work remains intact as long as possible. It was drafted by Aernoud Bourdrez, attorney at law. You can download the document here. It can be used by anyone who wants to buy or sell an art-piece-in-a-domain-name.
web: Rafaël Rozendaal
Are you a print designer, photographer, fine-artist, or general creative person? Do you have a shitty website that you slapped together yourself in Dreamweaver in that ONE web design class that you took in college? Do you not have a site at all because you’ve been waiting two years for your cousin to put it together for you? Well, we’re here to help. We know that you have little to no desire to do web design professionally, but that doesn’t mean that you want an ugly cookie-cutter site or to settle for one that hasn8217;t been updated since Hackerswas in theaters. Through short tutorial videos, you’ll learn how to take a basic wordpress blog and manipulate the css, html (and even some php!) to match your aesthetic. You’ll feel empowered rather than crippled by the internet and worst case scenario you’ll at least end up having a better idea of how professional web designers turn your design dreams into a reality on screen.
Our traditional notion of privacy is coming under pressure from a political system obsessed with security and control and a commercial sector avid for sales. More and more measures are being taken that conflict with our constitutional right to privacy. New technologies are being developed and implemented in order to keep an eye on citizens and collect data about their comings and goings. Societal resistance to this is relatively scarce, particularly in the Netherlands. At the same time people harbour fewer and fewer qualms about voluntarily revealing personal information in the media and on the Internet. Apparently the protection of privacy is subordinate to people’s desire to manifest themselves publicly in society. If the perception of privacy is changing then this raises questions about the extent to which the existing principle of privacy remains tenable and whether there are alternative subjectivities or rights that are considered more important. Are new strategies being introduced for the protection of personal autonomy or for the evasion of instruments that violate privacy? Beyond Privacy attempts to give an impression of the current sociopolitical and technological violators of privacy as well as of what is on the horizon beyond privacy.
With contributions by Rudi Laermans, Maurizio Lazzarato, Rob van Kranenburg, Martijn de Waal, Armin Medosch and others
booru WebCam 2.0 will assist you in capturing images from your web camera, publishing them on your homepage, archiving them on your harddrive or storing them on the Internet. The program makes it easy to apply effects such as picture and text overlays to the camera image. The main purpose of booru Webcam is to increase the fun factor and usefulness of webcams!
Party Cam: Use your web camera as a party cam, documenting the party to your local hard drive. You can later on look through the archive to find all the highlights from yesterday8217;s party. Or why not share your fun with others on the Internet?
Surveillance: Use your web camera as a simple surveillance camera, documenting the things happening in its view.
Share in Style: Publish images on the Internet with dynamic text and custom made overlay images.
Free: The program can be freely downloaded below for private, non-commercial use. No nagging, no trial period. See the online manual for installation instructions.
Bundled, Buried & Behind Closed Doors is a short documentary explaining internet infrastructure, focusing on the art deco building 60 Hudson Street in Tribeca, which is now one of the most concentrated carrier hotels in the world. The internet has an 8220;ironically very limited geography in terms of big strategic concentrations,8221; explains Stephen Graham, professor of cities and society, Newcastle University, in the short film. 8220;The big affluent high tech information rich regions8221; is where the infrastructure is densely located. And 60 Hudson Street was especially ideal as a hub, given that the building was already designed to accomidate cables as it was first fitted for pneumatics tubes, then telegraph cables and telephone lines.
In an interview with The Atlantic8217;s Kasia Cieplak-Mayr von Baldegg, director Ben Mendelsohn explains, 8220;The issue of how this infrastructure is hidden fascinates me. Andrew Blum has a book coming out in May about physical Internet infrastructure, which I8217;m very excited for. He was giving a lecture and handing out postcards of 8220;data monuments8221; in New York City, and I asked him: if these are monuments, what do they reveal about the culture that built them? Their message is really one of ambivalence. Service providers need to let potential clients know where they are, but they generally decline to make their presence widely known beyond that marketing purpose. Andrew did say that he envisions 8221;brewery tour8221; style visits or class field trips to Internet buildings in the future, and I think that would be great, but the industry is not there yet.8221;
Nice tool for converting between colour systems, such as RGB to RAL
Many other tools on the site
Create your own website easily without code and using well designed simple templates
One of the most common misunderstandings artists have about websites is the idea that an online virtual gallery or portfolio can function as a comprehensive marketing strategy. I often read articles encouraging artists to simply develop an online portfolio to drive audiences (and potential buyers) toward their works. Unfortunately, the internet is so saturated with images, audio, texts and videos that creative manifestations without context can easily become engulfed in the abyss of the World Wide Web.
Creating your successful artist website is not about simply displaying art. It’s about engaging your site visitors through a compelling story about you as an artist that includes your artistic vision and your ability to create unique works. Your story should be interwoven throughout the structure of the website in such a way that visitors’ navigation through your site should reveal different aspects of your larger narrative.
The resulting relationship from visitors’ encounter with your site’s narrative is what has the potential to create audiences and potentially generate opportunities and sales for you.
The significance and potential of your website will allow it to function as the anchor of your artistic online identity. It is a place where you can maintain full control of your personal narrative (artistic journey, history and vision). It should be the most official and complete version of your artistic identity available on the web.
CONSTRUCTING A NARRATIVE:
Just like the blank pages of a book or white walls of a gallery, your website should be a simple and stark background that highlights your unique vision and ability. The goal is to use the website design and content to present a clear narrative that weaves your story together in a way that it is accessible to a broad general audience.
The most basic, common, and effective narrative structure for your website is as follows:
Homepage - The homepage is a brief introduction to the intent and content of your website. It is here that visitors first encounter you and your work. It is also the place where the look and feel of the website should be established. This includes elements such as font, color scheme, layout, and logo (if one exist) that should be found on every page.
A standard artist homepage typically involves the strong pairing of one image that epitomizes your work or vision as an artist with sparse text that conveys basic information about you and the your site’s contents (ex. Lisa Smith. Graphic Designer. Futurist. Feminist.).
Selected Works – Works included on the website should expand upon the story introduced on the homepage.
You should not feature your entire body of work online, since it will make the site look cluttered and unfocused. Instead, make a selection that will give a viewer an idea of your style(s), theme(s), message, and breadth of work, while still conveying a sense of cohesiveness.
If you work in more than one medium (such as photography, performance, and painting), feature a few selected works from each. However, this should only be done if you have a reasonable amount of work in each medium, or if the selected works are in some way related to the works done in your primary medium.
Regardless of what medium is featured, all media should be sized and compressed in a manner that will allow it to quickly load on the website. Site visitors may lose interest, if they are subjected to a long wait before they can see or hear featured work. The specifications for the appropriate media file size will depend on the capabilities of whatever platform the website has been built upon. Therefore, it is up to you (or your website developer) to test the load time of the site’s media on several different web browsers (i.e. Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer), before launching the final version of the site.
Artist Statement – The statement should demonstrate how the sparse description on the homepage blooms into a full-blown story about your vision and creative process. It may include information about your influences, inspiration and creative intent.
This is the area of the website that most clearly provides visitors with context for your work. It should be free of esoteric language and discipline-specific analysis, to ensure that it can be understood by a broad audience.
Biography/CV – Your biography and CV should connect your statement to your broader personal and artistic journey. This section should include mention of your training (apprenticeships and professional development fellowships), past experience working in the arts (teaching, conference presenter, commissions), awards, grants, and exhibitions.
Store/Representation (optional) – Knowledge of the entities that elect to represent and sell your work gives visitors a sense of your established (and potential) value in the art market. It also allows them to become part of your story, by enabling them to purchase the works.
If your art is being sold through a gallery or agent, it is worth listing their contact information, so potential buyers know where to turn to make their purchase(s).
Depending on your needs and resources, an online store may be an efficient way for you to sell art independently. Creating links through a service such as PayPal is an easy and low-cost way to integrate a purchase option into a website that will allow a buyer to use their PayPal account or credit/debit card to purchase art.
Press – This section serves as an archive of press coverage received by you, and thus presents a history of you as an artist in the public eye.
Over time, as the archive builds, you should weed out articles that have very little specific coverage about you (such as a review about a group show). You should also become more discerning about the news outlets represented.
Contact/Email List/Social Network – This is one of the most important aspects of the website, since it is the portal through which site visitors can interact with you directly. This section should contain one (or more) ways for visitors to be in conversation with you.
Email – Providing an email address is the most direct line of communication that you can make available between yourself and your site visitors.
Contact Form – A contact form offers optimal privacy for you, since it doesn’t require that you provide an email address. Visitors simply enter their email address and a message in the designated fields of the form. Once they have submitted it, it is sent to your email address and you have the option to respond directly.
Email List – Embedding an email list sign-up option allows visitors to submit their email addresses to you, via an eMarketing service, such as iContact, MailChimp andConstant Contact. This list can then receive mass messages from you about upcoming exhibitions, broadcasted interviews, fundraising campaigns, and other related matters.
Social Network Links – While your website is the foundation of an your online presence, social media networks* on platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram provide a means through which you can post commentary and minor announcements, as well as correspond with your audience and fellow artists.
Most social network sites offer easy to embed code that will allow a direct link from an artist’s website to their social media account.
*You should note that current policies held by some popular social networking companies call into question the ownership of posted material. Some sites include in their user agreement a clause that allows the site to use images or materials posted on their service for marketing purposes. Therefore, you should be wary when posting images, audio or video of your work.
PUBLISHING THE STORY:
Once you have generated all of the content needed to populate your website, the next step is to upload it onto the internet. To do this, a crucial decision about the construction and maintenance of the website needs to be decided.
Hired Assistance vs. Do it Yourself (DIY)
Depending on your computer and internet literacy, you may grapple with the decision to hire an experienced web designer versus constructing a website on your own. The decision is informed by many pros and cons.
The pros of hiring a web designer include:
- Working with a designer allows for the construction of a completely customized website
- Working with a designer allows you to be hands-off with matters surrounding acquiring a domain name and hosting service, updating security features, conducting routine data backup, and of course web coding.
The cons of hiring a web designer include:
- Depending on what you want from a website, the initial fee for a designer can run from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars.
- In addition to the initial development and launch of a site, you will need to pay a designer to add new content to the website as well as run security updates, data backups, and other website maintenance.
The pros of the DIY approach include:
- If you have a strong command of coding, then you can have full control over the look, feel and operation of your website.
- If you have little to no coding expertise, there are a plethora of art-specific pre-fabricated sites (e.g. WordPress.com, Weebly, Wix that you can easily customize to develop a professional looking website. These sites often take care of security and back-up issues, leaving you to focus on the website’s content and aesthetic.
The cons of the DIY approach include:
- You are responsible for the continual maintenance and content update of your website, in addition to continuing your practice. 8211; Even if you elect to use a prefabricated template service, you may find the need to pay an annual fee to add advance features on the website (e.g. video hosting, customized domain name, additional space).
- While prefabricated templates do allow for minor modifications, you must know some level of code to achieve a significant degree of customization.
- Should the company providing the prefabricated site fold, you may be is faced with the responsibility of transferring your data to another readymade service or considering converting to a custom-built solution.
If you elect to use the DIY approach to website design, a list of services that offer prefabricated sites specifically designed or well-suited for an artist website can be found here.
BEYOND PUBLISHING — MAKING AN ARTIST SITE VISIBLE
The internet is a vast library of resources. Therefore, once a publishing approach has been implemented and your website is live, it will need an ongoing marketing campaign to drive visitors towards it.
Methods for driving an audience towards your website:
Email List – In addition to informing audiences about important announcements regarding your career, email lists can be used to encourage people to revisit your website. Whenever new content is added to your site, an announcement should be sent out to the list. The announcement should be truncated and linked to the full announcement that is posted on the website. This will encourage people to visit the website to read the full story.
Know that in addition to collecting email addresses through your website, you can manually enter email addresses into your list. These can be acquired by receiving business cards from interested parties and having a paper sign-up sheet available at events where you are presenting your work. Make sure to avoid adding email addresses to your email list if you have not received consent from the address holder. Email recipients can report the unauthorized inclusion of their email in someone’s list to eMarketing services, which can lead to having your account deactivated.
Social Network – Social media allows you to do more than just interact with your audience. The ease in which you can connect with other members of the social media community also allows you access to another avenue through which you can expand your audience. With these expanding networks, you can drive more traffic to your site by including a link to your website in the social media profile. You can also post comments or announcements (with direct link to a specific page of your site), on your account feed.
Business Cards, Postcards and Emails – Any means of communication that you distribute should include mention of your website. General business cards and postcards that are advertising a specific event or show should have your website listed clearly on them. The signature of your email (the area right below your name at the end of an email) should also include a link to the site.
Search Engine Optimization(SEO) – SEO are strategies that can be used to elevate the presence of a website in search engine queries.
- Increased traffic means increased popularity.
The more people you can encourage to visit your site, the higher a search engine will position your site in a search result list.
- Search engines recognize words and associate them with websites
Whenever possible, your site should contain as many commonly used and discipline-specific descriptive words as possible. Everything from the file names of images, videos and audio files, to the website’s narrative should contain words and phrasing that people are likely to enter into a search engine. This will help increase the likelihood that the website will appear, when those words are entered into a search.
See Website Resources, by Lisa Szolovits , for a quick guide to popular website-building services and resources.
Toccarra Thomas is NYFA8217;s Program Associate, NYFA Source.
visualization.ch put together a selection of data visualization tools that they use the most and that they enjoy working with. It includes libraries for plotting data on maps, frameworks for creating charts, graphs and diagrams and tools to simplify the handling of data. Even if you’re not into programming, you’ll find applications that can be used without writing one single line of code. They will keep this list as a living repository and add / remove things as technology develops.
Masters in the conservation of new media art
Media art archives
Image reigns supreme. From the thousands of films churned out each year from Nollywood, to the persistent recording of images by security cameras in London to the scaling of windows on your desktop computer, you are already a pixel pusher. But, how can you reign supreme over images? How can you become an active participant in the creation of graphics and move beyond passive consumption. While the distinction between amateur and professional is erased in the Youtube-record-a-video-get-rich-generation, the focus upon high-quality content controlling tools is key. What is the point of mastering verion 3.5 of Killer Graphics App 978242;s fuzz filter  if you don8217;t have a use, or you have become locked into a niche application that costs 2000 Euros for each new version? The focus of this chapter is about exploring free and open source tools that empower you to do what you want to say and if the tools aren8217;t working out, you are allowed to change them from the inside-out! The major tools in this chapter to be discussed are bitmap editor Gimp, vector drawing tool Inkscape, 3d graphics with Blender, and algorithmic graphics creation with Processing . By the way, these tools are free! They have huge constructive communities around them waiting to help you with your tasks, adding new features and supporting vibrant actively producing pixel pushers.
In working with any graphics application, it is important to understand the difference between vector and pixel graphics. Vector graphics describe the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, Bezier curves, and polygons to represent images in computer graphics . It is used in contrast with the term raster graphics (bitmap graphics), which is the representation of images as a collection of pixels (dots). Vector graphics are math equations to define curves, generally have a smaller file size than raster graphics and also, can be scaled from tiny to massively huge billboards with no loss in quality. The letterforms for these words I8217;m typing are vector graphics. Bitmaps on the other-hand, are the types of images that a camera outputs, for example. Maybe your camera is a 5-megapixel camera, meaning it can record 5 million pixels per image. With bitmap graphics the more data about an image, then generally the better quality image, and thus a larger file size.
Gimp is one of the oldest free and open source applications. It is now 10 years old and is on par with major closed-source  applications. Gimp is primarily a tool you can use to edit all aspects of a bitmap image, from color retouching of photos, to painting on a canvas to fixing blemishes on a face, Gimp is chock full of tools. Its vector-based sibling is Inkscape, an Open Source drawing tool. With it you can make complex typography, make huge billboards, draw architectural plans and make lovely charts. This powerful tool implements the World Wide Web consortium8217;s Scalable Vector Graphics specification (SVG) and points out another strength of Open Source graphics tools in supporting free and open standards that won8217;t just vanish because a company closes shop, or locks down a format under proprietary patents.
Another important concept for graphics is the difference between two (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). Most graphics applications, including Gimp and Inkscape, are two-dimensional, meaning they deal with height and width of graphics, also called X and Y coordinates. Think of 2D graphics as a piece of paper. 3D graphics, like those operated on by the free software editor, Blender, add depth (Z-axis) to 2D graphics. This is what you see in the famous Pixar movies like Toy Story and Cars .
These typical 3D animations also add a fourth dimension (4D), time. While Blender does handle the fourth dimension by allowing 3D creators to animate, for these chapters, the concept of 4D also includes the concept of graphics through time and interactivity. When Casey Reas and Ben Fry developed Processing, a simple Java-based language and runtime for creating generative graphics, the tools for creating graphics primarily relied upon manual creation with Gimp and Inkscape, or more sophisticated knowledge of graphics programming in C/C++. Processing lowered the barriers for participation in creating interested graphics from code, and also allowed for these graphics to take on a life of their own through user interaction. It should also be noted that Inkscape, Gimp and Blender all offer forms of scripting and automation as well to enable creators to be extended quickly. The main difference between these three apps and Processing, is that Processing generates standalone applications which can be run anywhere. This is great for artists who are making interactive installations, but way too much manual controls for simple photo retouching.
In addition to these great free and open source tools that exist, there are projects as well, which focus on the community of graphics creation and on connecting together graphics applications into a coherently focused suite. The Open Clip Art Library encourages the upload and remix of public domain vector graphics under the guise of “clip art” and the Open Font Library goal is to build the world8217;s largest free and open collection of fonts . The Open Clip Art Library has approximately 15,000 pieces of high quality public domain clip art, meaning anyone can do anything they want with these resources. The Open Font Library is still a fairly new project with ~40 high quality fonts that are either in the public domain or under the new SIL Open Font License . The most notable font on the system is by famed kottke.org blogger, Jason Kottke. He created the super-popular font Silkscreen, a small bitmap-looking font used everywhere on the web. He recently licensed it under the Open Font License and uploaded it to the collection, signally clearly to other font creators that they can build upon it and make it better.
While all these projects exist in the free and open source software universe, the projects did not talk very much until two key projects developed. The first is the Create Project, whose goal is to provide a third-party space for creation applications to work together on standards, shared resources (palettes, brushes, patterns, keyboard mappings), and to encourage inter-project communication . The other key development is the annual Libre Graphics Meeting  which is the major event where artists and developers come together to work on making free and open source tools better, seeing what is possible by artists, and massive amounts of cross-pollination to create the future for graphics pixel pushers.
The major difference to closed source proprietary drawing apps is that you can8217;t reign supreme over images. You can8217;t become a true pixel pusher. You can only be the pixel pusher that someone else wants you to be. By using Gimp, Inkscape, Blender, Processing or one of the many other free and open source applications, you can dig deep into the code and communities of these projects. You can even shape the direction of these projects by joining in the discussions, filing bugs about problems with the tools, and showing off how much you reign supreme over images pixel pusher.
 Please note, this is vast satire over learning tools rather than having a reason to use them. Also, please note, this should be called the cheese filter.
 My Vector Graphics definition is based onhttp://www.webopedia.com/TERM/v/vector_graphics.html because of the object-oriented reference.
 I dare not link to the various Adobe applications you all know I8217;m referring to: Adobe Photoshop for the GIMP, Adobe Illustrator for Inkscape
 The irony of this is that 3D graphics are rendered back into a 2D representation onto a screen, or in a movie theater.
Jon Phillips, December 2007
In this article, we will cover a few questions and principles of open content licensing. We will discuss why to use a license and how it helps to give a stable legal background to start a collaboration. As choosing a license means accepting a certain amount of legal formalism, we will see the conditions required to be entitled to use an open license. Using the comparison of the Free Art License and the Creative Commons, we will try to give an accurate picture of the differences that co-exist in the world of open licensing, and approach what distinguishes free from open licenses. We will end by envisioning briefly the case of domain specific licenses and with a more practical note on how to apply a license to a work.
Self publishing is not a new phenomenon. It is the publishing of all media by the author/artists of those works rather than by established, third party publishers. Although self publishing has been around since the beginning of publishing , it has seen a huge increase in activity with the advancement of publishing technology and the World Wide Web.
PDF: Publishing your work
This article introduces the possibilities of the software Pure Data (Pd), explains a bit why it8217;s so popular among artists and shows what Pd can be used for. The goal is to help artists decide if Pd is a tool for their own work.
Pure Data, or PD for short, is a software written by mathematician and musician Miller S. Puckette. It has become one of the most popular tools for artists working with digital media. Originally conceived in the late 90s as an environment to create sounds and to compose music, it was soon extended by modules to work with video and graphics. Pd is freely available for no cost, and it is Free Software in that the source code can be obtained, modified and distributed without restrictions as well. Pd runs on many operating systems including the big three: Linux, OS-X and MS-Windows.
You might have come across the 8216;made with Processing8217; hyperlink on the internet or heard ofProcessing before. Over the past six years it has become a real phenomenon, allowing creative mindsto access the digital world. Based on a rather simple syntax and minimal interface, Processingsmoothly drives beginners into the scary world of programming.This article is not a tutorial, but rather an attempt to give you a global idea of what the programmingenvironment is, looks like and why it was created. Should you decide it is the tool you need, thisarticle will hopefully provide enough pointers to online and offline resources to get you started on theright track.
What and who was it designed for ?
As the Processing web site mentions: “Processing is an open source programming language andenvironment for people who want to program images, animation, and interactions. It is used bystudents, artists, designers, researchers, and hobbyists for learning, prototyping, and production. It iscreated to teach fundamentals of computer programming within a visual context and to serve as asoftware sketchbook and professional production tool. Processing is developed by artists anddesigners as an alternative to proprietary software tools in the same domain.”
It is of course a truism, often repeated, that the Internet has been the basis for a revolution in (remote) interpersonal communications, collaboration and data sharing. It is probably safe to say that there would be very few of the Free/Libre and Open Source (FLOSS) projects that exist today without the collaboration technologies the Internet supports. One of the many effects of the powerful tools FLOSS has put in to the hands of creative people is that it has potentially made them more independent. No longer are they reliant on specialists with access to expensive software and hardware to carry out aspects of their projects for them. Their limitations are now time and knowledge, not the lack of access. It is in fact precisely this issue that the Digital Artists8217; Handbook seeks to address, by providing authoritative information to guide practitioners in to new fields of endeavour.
The downside of this independence is that many artists find themselves more isolated, working alone at home rather than interacting with others at shared studios or where shared resources were previously found.
The Internet, being fundamentally a communications medium, offers potential solutions to this isolation, but the solutions themselves have, to date, largely dictated that collaboration happens in new ways, shaped by the technology. For some, the thousands of FLOSS coders for example, the tools have made possible projects that would otherwise be virtually inconceivable, but for other artists looking to enhance their existing practice with new digital methods the situation is perhaps more double-edged.
It maybe be useful to step back for a moment and consider what we mean when we talk about working, or collaborating with others. For a start it could be divided in to five broad types of collaboration:
For those of us who aren’t code slingers, what’s the easiest way to build a digital book? I’ve noticed a small but growing number of tools, ranging from big guns like those on offer from Adobe to iPad-based efforts that aim to make publishing a touch and drag affair. Below is a list I’ve been compiling over the past few weeks. Some of these solutions get you an iPad app, some get you ePub, some are for web-based books.
More and more I hear people talking on the subject of the preservation of internet art. It is a new medium and no one knows what exactly will happen. Will we still browse the web in 15 years? Will information be injected straight into our mind without any screens?
Art works should last a long time. I love seeing old art, and I think it’s not until an artist dies that we get the big picture of their work.
Many media came before the internet. Lots of those media were lost, and some were saved. Paintings, sculptures, books, celluloid, vinyl, tapes, they can all rot and wither. The internet is different. It is a universal, decentralized, universal library, controlled by no one.
When a file exists on the internet, it gets copied. If it is an interesting file, many copies are made. The data is no longer connected to any single physical medium, it exists on many locations at the same time. Old lost music and movies resurface as torrents. These torrent files exists on many machines and media at the same time. Those same movies might have deteriorated on celluloid. I think the internet is the safest place for data.
Operating systems, programs and protocols change all the time. The survival of software is both by emulation and translation. If you look at old video games, they have always survived. They are kept alive by communities of enthusiasts. Passionate geeks re-code old software for new platforms.
The context might change, but we will always be able to revisit old software in some form.
Transferring software to new platform is peanuts compared to preserving traditional art.
Sharks deteriorate in formaldehyde.
If something is interesting, it will survive. As long as someone cares, a copy will exist.
Your files, anywhere
Any file you save to Dropbox also instantly saves to your computers, phones, and the Dropbox website.
2GB of Dropbox for free, with subscriptions up to 100GB available. Your files are always available from the secure Dropbox website. Dropbox works with Windows, Mac, Linux, iPad, iPhone, Android and BlackBerry. Works even when offline. You always have your files, whether or not you have a connection. Dropbox transfers just the parts of a file that change (not the whole thing). Manually set bandwidth limits 8212; Dropbox won8217;t hog your connection.
Website: Dropbox for ucl.ac.uk email address 500MB extra free!
Shopify offers a complete ecommerce solution that allows you to set up an online store and easily sell your goods. It lets you organize your products, customize your storefront, accept credit card payments through payment gateways, track and respond to orders — all with a few clicks of the mouse.
CREATE a new file: 72 pixels/inch
1 >go to navigator on right > add layers by clicking on small square with turned up edge
2 >create your images on each layer (rem to click eye on left pic to view individual layers)
3 >click window in top toolbar > click animation, a box will appear at bottom of page >create new layers in this box to correspond to your layers in navigation box. eg: click the layer icon (small square with turned up edge) to duplicate selected frames
4 >rem to apply each layer to your image layer