Lighting Diagrams, General Lighting Arrangement

  1. The Key light or Principal light is the one light which dominates all the others, creating the most noticeable highlights and casting the most important shadows. 2. The Fill-in light is used to illuminate the shadows cast by the Key light, bringing the overall contrast of the subject within the range of the sensitive material. …see full text PDF: Lighting Diagrams  

How To Calculate your own Flash Exposure

  The Inverse square Jaw The Inverse square Jaw is the basis for flash exposure calculations.  The farther the light travels, the more the light rays spread out and the dimmer the  resulting illumination. …see full text To Calculate your own Flash Exposure To calculate your own flash exposure you need to know two things: the distance that the light travels to the subject and the guide number (a rating given by the manufacturer for the flash when used with a  specific film speed) …see full text Bounce Flash Travels an Extra Distance If you are calculating a bounce flash exposure, measure the distance not from flash to subject but Read more

Film Processing

Processing Your First Black and White Film 1. Your darkroom (kitchen, bathroom or cupboard) needs to be completely blocked out to stop light from entering. For windows use thick card cut to shape and held in place with blade canvas tape. …see full text PDF: Processing Your First Black and White Film   Processing a Film Easy Even if you have never developed a film before, you are unlikely to find it very difficult. You do not need a specially-built darkroom, and once you have loaded the film into the developing tank, the rest of the process takes place in daylight. …see full text PDF: Processing a Film Easy   Black and Read more


Types and Technical Data It makes good sense to work with a limited range of well-chosen films. You get to know their performance  intimately – what each can contribute to your particular style of picture,  its response to different subject situations and, when  necessary, just how far you can abuse the film before results become unacceptable. … PDF: Films – types and technical data   Understanding Film …The Basics Film is, very simply, a light-sensitive emulsion on a plastic base. An easy way to think of film is to compare it with bread and butter. Think of the bread as the base, the butter as the emulsion. When you Read more

Colour Photographic Printing

  The colour processing that we shall be using is the subtractive method. Using the subtractive filters of yellow magenta and cyan. In practise you will only use two filters at any one time, as a third filter will simply reduce the effect of the other two.  In practise you will only use the filters magenta and yellow. …see full text PDF: Colour Printing   Min Test Strip  Print Size Exposure: Aperture – start at f8, First Test Strip: 5,10,20,40  sec, Adjust aperture to target 20  sec exposure… see full text A ring-around chart for neg/pos colour printing Filtration data shows what  to subtract from present filter settings Read more

Black & White Photographic Printing

  The Chemicals: There are three basic chemicals in the printing process. These are Developer, Stop and  Fix. Developer brings out the latent image, the magic part of the process. Stop does what it says, stops the image from coming out any further. Fix prevents any white light from darkening, fogging, fading or otherwise affecting the finished print i.e. fixing it. Printing Equipment and materials you’ll need Making a Contact Print Step by Step Processing a Print Step by Step Development …see full text PDF: Black  & White Photographic Printing   Photographic Paper Most black and white paper is coated on a base consisting of paper fibre sealed Read more

The View Camera

  Cameras and Accessories View cameras come in a variety of sizes, ranging in inches  from 2 1/4″ x 3 1/4″ up to 11 x 14 formats. There are larger models, but those are usually used only for special-purpose photography because of  the limits imposed  by  their massive size and weight. The two most popular sizes are 4×5  and 8 x 10. All monorail cameras are modular  in  design. These can be specifically configured in terms of bellows, monorail length, and type of back and front components to serve  a wide variety of photographic needs.  … PDF: Cameras and Accessories   Definitions The view camera is unique because its lens and back are Read more