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WRC Resources

Early Warning Systems:

Garcia C, Fearnley CJ (2012) Evaluating critical links in early warning systems for natural hazards. Environmental Hazards 11(2):123-137 (doi:10.1080/17477891.2011.609877)

Fearnley, C., Wilkinson, E., Tillyard, C.J., Edwards, S.J. (2016). Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction Putting Research Into Practice. Routledge.

Day, S. & Fearnley (2015) A classification of mitigation strategies for natural hazards: implications for the understanding of interactions between mitigation strategies. Natural Hazards - online first (doi: 10.1007/s11069-015-1899-z)

Kelman, I., & Glantz, M. H. (2014). Early warning systems defined. In Reducing disaster: Early warning systems for climate change (pp. 89-108). Springer, Dordrecht.(doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8598-3_5)

Kelman, I. (2006). Warning for the 26 December 2004 tsunamis. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal. (doi: 10.1108/09653560610654329)  

Kelman, I., Ahmed, B., Esraz-Ul-Zannat, M., Saroar, M. M., Fordham, M., & Shamsudduha, M. (2018). Warning systems as social processes for Bangladesh cyclones. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal. (doi: 10.1108/DPM-12-2017-0318) 


Fernandez de Cordoba Farini, C. (2023). Are current warning and responses systems suitable to respond to emerging infectious diseases? Research Directions: One Health, 1, E17. (doi:10.1017/one.2023.10)


Ahmed, B.; Rahman, M. S.; Sammonds, P.; Islam, R.; Uddin, K. (2020). Application of geospatial technologies in developing a dynamic landslide early warning system in a humanitarian context: the Rohingya refugee crisis in Cox’s Bazar, BangladeshGeomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 11(1), 446–468.

Ahmed, B.; Rahman, M.S.; Islam, R.; Sammonds, P.; Zhou, C.; Uddin, K.; Al-Hussaini, T.M. (2018). Developing a Dynamic Web-GIS Based Landslide Early Warning System for the Chittagong Metropolitan Area, BangladeshISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information7(12): 485.


Fearnley, C.J., Bird, D.K., Haynes, K., McGuire, W., Jolly, G. (Eds.), (2017). Observing the Volcano World: Volcano Crisis Communication. Springer. - available open access for free to download as ebook or separate chapters.

Fearnley, C. J., & Dixon, D. (2020). Early Warning Systems for Pandemics: Lessons Learned from Natural Hazards. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction.

Fearnley, C. J., & Beaven, S. (2018). Volcano alert level systems: managing the challenges of effective volcanic crisis communication. Bulletin of Volcanology, 80(5), 46.

Fearnley, CJ (2013) Assigning an alert level at the USGS: negotiating uncertainty and risk in decision-making processes for volcanic hazards. Environment and Planning A45(8): 1891-1911 (doi: 10.1068/a4542)

Fearnley, CJ, McGuire, WJ; Davies, G, Twigg, J (2012) Standardisation of the USGS Volcano Alert Level System (VALS): analysis and ramifications. Bulletin of Volcanology 74(9): 2023-2036 (doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0645-6)

Key Reports:

Global survey of early warning systems (2006): https://www.undrr.org/publication/global-survey-early-warning-systems

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning: https://www.unisdr.org/2006/ppew/

Collins, A., Maunder, N., McNabb, M., Moorhead, A., & van Aalst, M. (2009). World Disasters Report 2009-Focus on early warning, early action

https://www.ifrc.org/en/publications-and-reports/world-disasters-report/wdr2009/ .

Key Books:

Zschau, J., & Küppers, A. N. (Eds.). (2013). Early warning systems for natural disaster reduction. Springer Science & Business Media. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783642632341?utm_campaign=3_pier05_buy_print&utm_content=en_08082017&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=google_books#otherversion=9783642559037

Glantz, M. H. (2007). Heads Up! Early Warning Systems for Climate, Water and Weather.


Funk, C., & Shukla, S. (2020). Drought Early Warning and Forecasting: Theory and Practice. Elsevier.


Brown, M. E. (2008). Famine early warning systems and remote sensing data. Springer Science & Business Media.


Margottini, C., Canuti, P., & Sassa, K. (Eds.). (2013). Landslide Science and Practice: Volume 2: Early Warning, Instrumentation and Monitoring (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media.


Key Websites:

Landslide early warning system website by Bayes Ahmed: https://www.landslidebd.com/

Volcanic Alert Level Systems Working Group - IAVCEI WOVO Commission: https://vhub.org/groups/volcanicalertlevelworkinggroup 

Forewarned: https://forewarned.info