Slade has a UCL recycling point for batteries. Located inside the main entrance, the box is orange and black in the shape of a very oversized battery.
Please take advantage of this recycling point for any used batteries.
Perspective: the impression of depth. Few lenses (except for the fisheye) noticeably distort the scene they show. The perspective in a photograph-the apparent size and shape of objects and the impression of depth-is what you would see if you were standing at camera position. 8230;
Cameras and Accessories
View cameras come in a variety of sizes, ranging in inches from 2 1/48243; x 3 1/48243; up to 11 x 14 formats. There are larger models, but those are usually used only for special-purpose photography because of the limits imposed by their massive size and weight. The two most popular sizes are 4215;5 and 8 x 10. All monorail cameras are modular in design. These can be specifically configured in terms of bellows, monorail length, and type of back and front components to serve a wide variety of photographic needs. 8230;
The view camera is unique because its lens and back are not rigidly fixed in one position; they can be moved readily. These movements change the relationship between the film and the lens and consequently reposition the area of sharpness or alter the shape of the subject. Each movement produces a specific effect and is defined in relation to the camera8217;s neutral position. 8230;
Rising-falling and lateral movements
These movements alter the position of the image-up, down or sideways with respect to the film (Fig. 50). Identical results can be achieved with the swings and tilts combined with a change in the angle of the camera bed. There are two reasons for using the risingfalling and lateral adjustments, however. 8230;
Tilting by using Lens or the Back Adjustments
Either the lens or the back adjustments can be used to control the plane of sharp focus, whereas the shape of the image is controlled solely by the back. Both the lens and back can be adjusted when either one alone does not provide sufficient control. However, if it is necessary to control shape and the plane of sharp focus on the same photograph, the back must be used to control the shape and the lens to control the plane of sharp focus, and the back must be adjusted first. 8230;
Photographing a Flat Surface
To photograph a flat, rectangular subject, so that the entire image is in focus and all vertical and horizontal lines are parallel. 8230;
Photographing a Flat Surface at an Angle
To photograph a flat subject at an angle and have the subject sharp from one end to the other. 8230;
Photographing a Box or Building From Ground Level
How to maintain both parallels and sharp focus in two planes. 8230;
Using the Rising Front
Only a single adjustment is required to include the top of the building. 8230;
Photographing a Subject With Two Inclined Planes
To photograph an inclined plane that is skewed, or tilts both to the side and from front to rear. 8230;
Improving the Image Sharpness by using Tilts and Swings. 8230;
Loading and Exposure
A step by step guide to making an exposure on the 5215;4 camera. 8230;
PDF: Loading and Exposure
A introduction and step by step guide to making an exposure on the 5×4 camera. 8230;
Bellows Extension Calculations
As the bellows on the camera are extended in order to focus and magnify the image, the amount of light reaching the film decreases rapidly. To ensure an accurate exposure it is vital to compensate for this loss of light by opening the aperture in the lens or by adding more time onto the shutter speed. This can be calculated using the following method 8230;
DIY for beginners series, we tackle screwing and drilling. Rachel Holmes explains the basics 8211; and gets her hands on a power tool.
Another cold November night, another trip down to the dark railway arches of Waterloo for a spot of screwing and drilling. Yes, it was the second class in my beginners DIY course. This week we were to learn all about which screw goes into which surface using which wall fixing 8211; and finally get our hands on a power tool.
Back to the class on drilling and fixing. We started simple, with screws:
Pozidriv screw head.
Three main kinds exist for basic DIY: slot, Phillips (aka crosshead), and Pozidriv. Slot (-) and crosshead (+) are fairly obvious 8211; their heads look like minus and plus signs. Pozidriv, however, I8217;d never heard of. Rather than try to describe it in words, I8217;ll let the picture do the work.
Each has a corresponding screwdriver. If you use the wrong one, or one that is the right shape but too small, you8217;ll notice shearing: small slivers of metal coming off your work. That8217;s a sign you8217;re wearing down the head of your screwdriver and screw. Shearing is less likely to happen with a Pozidriv screw and screwdriver, because there are more points of contact. Don8217;t buy cheap screws 8211; they8217;ll wear down very quickly and be difficult to remove.
Easy enough 8211; the 8216;bit8217; is the end of a screwdriver. If you want to fix the slow way, then you can use normal screwdrivers. Otherwise you can buy screwdriver bits for ratchet screwdrivers, electric combi-drills or cordless screwdrivers. Magnetic ones are the easiest to fix into your (compatible) device.
Screwdriver, bradawl, ratchet screwdriver and screws
This will save you from what I like to call 8216;palm fatigue8217;; that blistering feeling from constantly moving the screwdriver handle around as you make the next turn. The ratchet screwdriver has a mechanism that allows continuous linear or rotary motion in one direction while preventing motion in the opposite direction. You can also get a ratchet offset screwdriver, which turns at 90° to the bit so that you can get into tight spaces.
We used a surprisingly small cordless screwdriver in the class. I confess to doubting their power at first, expecting a power tool to be a big, heavy beast of a thing. However, for doing fiddly little tasks, it turns out that a small cordless screwdriver is quite a handy tool. When using it, if you hear a woodpecker noise it8217;s the drill bit whipping around, bashing the inside of the screw. Make sure you have the right bit for the screw you8217;re using and that you8217;re putting enough pressure on the drill as you8217;re screwing in. This is a two-handed tool, so use one hand on the trigger and the other to add pressure. Remember, to unscrew you need to push just as hard as if you were screwing in.
My dad said I should get a corded drill 8220;because it8217;s more manly8221;. He8217;s had his for 16 years and, being resistant to change, thinks the batteries on cordless ones run out in 10 seconds flat. However, in 16 years technology has moved on quite a bit, and if you get a good drill this won8217;t happen. Go for a cordless one if you don8217;t want to faff around finding extension leads. Look for a lithium battery drill 8211; an 18V one is a good choice for DIY. Think about what you8217;re likely to be drilling 8211; if it8217;s going to include hard surfaces such as brick, you8217;ll need a hammer drill. If you have DIY mates, ask if you can try out their drills to get a feel for what you like and how easy they are to use. Or take a DIY class where you can try out different brands and sizes of drill.
Lots of machines have depth gauges included so that you can drill to a specific depth. If yours has fallen off or doesn8217;t have one, you can always use masking tape on the bit to mark how deep you want to drill.
First, remember your safety goggles! Make sure your bit is fully secured in the chuck of the drill. Your drill should have lots of torque so it can turn at high speed or low. When drilling holes, move the drill in and out in one smooth motion with the drill running. Don8217;t stop halfway through and then try to yank out the motionless drill; you8217;re likely to snap off the bit. If you don8217;t want splinters on the edges of the hole you8217;ve drilled, clamp an off-cut of wood underneath and drill into that.
Different walls need different fixings. A solid wall is made from brick, concrete or stone. A hollow wall will probably be a stud wall 8211; a wooden, brick or metal frame with plasterboard panels on top. Some walls might be bits of both. You can either knock on them to find the solid/hollow bits, or you can use a stud finder: a battery-operated tester for finding studs and voltage (so you don8217;t drill through wires).
A strip of Rawlplugs
Wall fixings are commonly known as Rawlplugs, although this is actually a brand name. You need these if you8217;re drilling things that are hard and won8217;t expand like wood 8211; we8217;re talking plasterboard, brick, cement. The wall fixing will hold and grip your screw.
A strip of plasterboard plugs
Different fixings do different jobs. A solid wall will need a bullet-shaped fixing, while a hollow wall needs one with wings (aka a plasterboard plug). All wall fixings are colour coded, and if you look closely at the strip there are etched indications of which screw and drill bit you need to use with them. If you8217;re unsure of what size hole/fixing/screw you should be using to hang something heavy or put up a shelf, err on the side of caution and go bigger.
Different materials need different drill bits. For drilling into a solid wall, you8217;ll need a masonry bit. It has a tip that looks like a Monopoly house from the side, and is made of super-strong tungsten carbide. A tile bit will drill through tiles; a twist or wood bit through wood. It8217;s a good idea to buy a set of drill bits that match the materials you8217;re likely to drill into around the house.
Many people think that you can8217;t attach heavy things to hollow walls. Not true. First, see if you can drill into a stud (the frame sitting behind the plasterboard). If not, then you can use a baton 8211; a strip of wood screwed or possibly even glued (with grab adhesive such as No More Nails) to the wall to spread the load. Fix your heavy item to this strip of wood.
A pilot hole is a useful thing to drill if you8217;re making a big hole. Use a small drill or bradawl to make a hole that guides the route for a larger drill bit or screw.
LIVE WIRES AND WATER
Fear of drilling into live wires is well founded. No one wants to end up as a spent human catherine wheel, spinning around the axis of the drill. Reassuringly, electricians these days have to place wires a certain depth into the wall. This is officially deeper than a Rawlplug. However, if your house is old these regulations may not have been in place when it was wired, so it makes sense to be extremely careful. Don8217;t drill directly above or below light switches and plug sockets. Invest in a stud finder/metal detector (as mentioned above) that will detect wires and pipes. If you do mistakenly drill into a water pipe, think of the little boy with his thumb in the dyke and LEAVE THE DRILL BIT IN THERE. Then turn off your water and call out a professional.
The fear when it comes to drilling tiles is that you8217;ll crack or split them, but this is easily avoided with confidence and masking tape. First, attach the correct drill bit 8211; you need a specific tile one. Second, put a few layers of masking tape over the drilling area. This gives the bit purchase and stops it skittering over the tile when you first apply it. Use quite a bit of pressure (but not too much), and be aware that it takes a while to get through the glaze, which is the hardest bit. You8217;ll be able to hear when the drill has broken through the glaze and is drilling the tile underneath.
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