The Chemicals: There are three basic chemicals in the printing process. These are Developer, Stop and Fix. Developer brings out the latent image, the magic part of the process. Stop does what it says, stops the image from coming out any further. Fix prevents any white light from darkening, fogging, fading or otherwise affecting the finished print i.e. fixing it.
Most black and white paper is coated on a base consisting of paper fibre sealed front and back in clear plastic. Chemicals cannot sink into the base, so that processing, washing and drying times are shortened. The plastic coated paper has a layer of silver halide emulsion and a gelatine supercoat at the top to protect the emulsion surface from normal handling damage. Plastic paper may also have an antistatic backing. 8230;see full text
Once the overall density (the lightness or darkness) of a print is right, you will often find smaller areas that could be a little lighter or darker. For example, a face might be too dark or the sky too light, even though most of the scene looks good. Burning in (shown below and opposite) adds light after the basic exposure is made in order to darken an area. Dodging (shown on page 114) holds back light during the basic exposure to lighten an area. 8230;see full text
The cyanotype process or blue printing was discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1842. Ifs first extensive use was in a book of botanical photograms of British algae by Anna Atkins. Around the turn of the century prepared blueprint paper was available to photographers for making proofs. The process was also used to produce postcards and stereographs of the period. The process never gained any real popularity and so was primarily used as a copying process (as engineers and architects do now). 8230;
The cyanotype printing process , commonly known as 8216;Blue Print8217;, was invented in 1842 by the English astronomer Sir John Herschel, who wanted to create a method by which he could copy or reproduce his calculations and notes. It is one of the oldest and most permanent printing processes. Because this process is simple, inexpensive, and has clear line-production, it plays an important role in the industrial field today as a method of reproducing documents and line drawings. In addition it was also popular among photographers8230;
It makes good sense to work with a limited range of well-chosen films. You get to know their performance intimately 8211; what each can contribute to your particular style of picture, its response to different subject situations and, when necessary, just how far you can abuse the film before results become unacceptable. 8230;
Film is, very simply, a light-sensitive emulsion on a plastic base. An easy way to think of film is to compare it with bread and butter. Think of the bread as the base, the butter as the emulsion. When you hold this combination in your hand, what you feel and see is mostly bread, the base 8211; not butter, the emulsion. The base (bread) holds and supports the emulsion (butter), the active part of the film. 8230;
How sensitive a film is to light, that is, how much it reacts to a given quantity of light, is indicated by its film speed. The more sensitive-or faster-the film, the higher its number in the rating system. 8230;
Most people8217;s experience of colour film will be buying a colour negative daylight balanced film. This means the image goes onto the negative film and then is reversed into a positive colour image in the printing process. 8230;
Hato Press is a print and publishing house which runs a Risograph RP 3700 stencilduplicator. The risograph covers a gap in the market that has been held by digital and lithograph printing.
We apply this printing process to the production of artist publications, invites, flyers, posters, illustration prints and zines, though it was traditionally used for high volume printing and photocopying in schools, churches and small political parties.
Our main press is a Risograph RP 3700 stencil duplicator. Traditionally, Risographs have been used for high volume photocopying in schools, churches and small political parties. We have customized the process for the production of artist publications, invites, flyers, posters, illustration prints and zines.
Many of the books we produce not only make use of risograph printing but also letterpress, screen printing and offset lithography.
A photogram is a picture made without using a camera; it records not the image of an object produced by a lens but the shadow cast by the object itself i. e. using the photographic printing process but without using a negative. They tend to be strong-silhouetted images. With experimenting you can create a fairly intricate image using marks, shapes and textures. 8230;