Lens Performance, Getting the Most from a Lens

  Camera motion causes blur. Though some photographers claim to be able to hand hold a camera steady at slow shutter speeds-V” sec. or even slower-it takes only a slight amount of camera motion during exposure to cause a noticeable blur in an image. If a sharp picture is your aim, using a fast shutter speed or supporting the camera on a tripod is a much surer way to produce an image that will be sharp when enlarged. … PDF: Lens Performance Getting the Most from a Lens

Lens Focal Length: Normal, Short, Long, Special Lenses

  Lens focal length is the most important characteristic of a lens. One of the prime advantages of a single·lens reflex camera or a view camera is the interchangeability of its lenses; the reason photographers own more than one lens is so that they can change lens focal length. … PDF: Lens Focal Length, The Basic Difference Between Lenses   Normal Focal Length The Most Like Human Vision A lens of normal focal length, as you might expect from the name,  produces an image on film that seems normal when compared with human vision. The image includes about the same angle of view as the human eye Read more


  Strictly speaking solarisation is reversal, or partial reversal, of the image due to gross overexposure. The effect discussed here, although described by photographers as solarisation, is the Sabattier* effect or ‘pseudo-solarisation’. Whatever the name, the effect is easily distinguished – the reversal of weakest densities, and the formation of a thin contour line around strong tone boundaries. It therefore contains some of the characteristics of the tone line effect, but is achieved quite differently. … PDF: Solarisation   Making a solarised print i)  Selecting an image – This should be a bold image with a strong pattern. The image could contain blocks of differing tone or strong graphic Read more

Liquid Emulsion Technique

  Many  photographers feel somewhat restricted by conventional, commercial papers.  Surface textures are limited and do not always suit the artistic vision of the individual. One way around this  limitation is by using liquid emulsions, which can be coated onto many surfaces: paper, fabric, stones, tiles, wood, metal, and more. … PDF: Liquid Emulsion Technique

Cyanotype Process

  Cyanotype Process The cyanotype process or blue printing was discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1842. Ifs first extensive use was in a book of botanical photograms of British algae by Anna Atkins. Around the turn of the century prepared blueprint paper was available to photographers for making proofs. The process was also used to produce postcards and stereographs of the period. The process never gained any real popularity and so was primarily used as a copying process (as engineers and architects do now). … PDF: Cyanotype Process   Cyanotype Printing Process The cyanotype printing process , commonly known as ‘Blue Print’, was invented in 1842 by the English astronomer Sir Read more