Peer review is a process often used prior to articles being published in journals whereby other academics will review a paper and provide feedback to be taken into consideration prior to final submission/publication.
It can be a formal process or researchers may choose to ask colleagues to review their work informally. Often another pair of eyes can spot errors or inconsistencies that the author may not identify.
It is important to check the submissions guidelines of journals regarding peer review as well as any local guidelines regarding submission of funding bids.
For staff who have been asked to peer review another's work Organisational Development run Peer reviewing academic papers as part of the Researcher Development Programme. The aim of which is to inform participants of the procedures, methods and constraints of writing a peer review.
In addition, the UCL Teaching and Learning Portal has published an article entitled Peer review of virology essays explaining the process used when introducing peer review for student essays.