Medical Education


Handedness and Lateralisation

Timothy hand print

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McManus,I.C., Buckens,G., Harris,N., Flint,A. Ng,H.L.A., Vovou,F. (2018). Faking handedness: Individual differences in ability to fake handedness, social cognitions of the handedness of others, and a forensic application using Bayes' theorem, Laterality: 23(1), 67-100.


Page,A.L., McManus,I.C., González,C.P. and Chahboun,C. (2017) Is Beauty in the Hand of the Writer? Influences of Aesthetic Preferences through Script Directions, Cultural, and Neurological Factors: A Literature Review, Frontiers in Psychology, 03 August 2017

Chahboun,S., Flumini,A, Peréz-González,C., McManus,I.C. and Santiago,J. (2017) Reading and writing direction effects on the aesthetic appreciation of photographs, Laterality: 22(3), 313-339.


Corballis,M.C., McManus,I.C., Bulman-Fleming,M.B. (2016) Memories of Phil Bryden, Laterality, 21(4-6), 297-311.
McManus,I.C., Van Horn,J.D. Bryden,P.J. (2016) The Tapley and Bryden test of performance differences between the hands: The original data, newer data, and the relation to pegboard and other tasks, Laterality, 21(4-6), 371-396


J. A. L. Armour, A. Davison, T. D. Spector, and I. C. McManus (2014). Genome-wide association study of handedness excludes simple genetic models. Heredity 112:221-225.

R. Chamberlain, I. C. McManus, N. Brunswick, Q. Rankin, H. Riley, and R. Kanai (2014). Drawing on the right side of the brain: a voxel-based morphometry analysis of observational drawing. NeuroImage 96:167-173.


McManus, I.C., Davison, A., and Armour. J.A.L. (2013) Multi-locus genetic models of handedness closely resemble  single locus models in explaining family data and are compatible with genome-wide association studies. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2013 Jun;1288:48-58. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12102. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Groothuis,T.G.G., McManus,I.C., Schaafsma,S.M. and Geuze,R.H. (2013) The fighting hypothesis in combat: How well does the fighting hypothesis explain human left-handed minorities? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2013 Jun;1288:100-9. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12164.


McManus, I.C. (2012) Is is true that left-handed people are smarter than right-handed people?, Scientific American Mind, May 2012.


Suitner, C, and McManus, I.C. (2011) Aesthetic asymmetries, spatial agency, and art history: A social psychological perspective, pp 277-301 in Spatial dimensions of social thought, edited by Thomas W Schubert and Anne Maas, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

McManus,I.C. (2011) Simmetria e Asimmetria in Estetica e nell'Arte in the online journal Cultor.   (An Italian translation of McManus, I. C. (2005). Symmetry and asymmetry in aesthetics and the arts. European Review, 13 (Supplement 2), 157-180).

McManus, I.C. (2011) Review of Rik Smit's The Puzzle of Left-handedness, BBC Focus Magazine, September 2011, p.105.


McManus, I.C. (2010) Note: Poetry, the corpus callosum, and visceral asymmetries, Laterality, 15: 659-662.

McManus,I.C. (2010) Precisely wrong? The problems with the Jones and Martin genetic model of sex differences in handedness and language lateralisation, Cortex. 46:700-702.

McManus, I.C. & Snowman, J. (2010) A Left-Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks, Laterality, 15: 270-288

McManus, I.C., Rawles, R. Moore, J. and Freegard, M. (2010) Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. I: A BBC television programme broadcast in 1953. Laterality: 15: 136-165

McManus, I.C., Rawles, R. Moore, J. and Freegard, M. (2010) Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. II: The duck-rabbit figure. Laterality: 15: 166-185

McManus, I.C., Rawles, R. Moore, J. and Freegard, M. (2010) Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. III: Estimating historical rates of left-handedness. Laterality: 15: 186-208

McManus, I.C., Nicholls, M. and Vallortigara,G. (2010) Introduction: The right hand and the left hand of history, Laterality: 15: 1-3


McManus,I.C. (2009) The history and geography of human handedness, pp 37-57 in Language lateralization and psychosis (editors: Sommer,I.E.C & Kahn,R.S.), Cambridge University Press. [1.6 Mb]

McManus, I. C., Nicholls, M. and Vallortigara, G. (2009). Editorial commentary: Is LRRTM1 the gene for handedness?, Laterality, 14: 1-2.


McManus, I. C. (2008, July 9). Dextrous dilemma [Commentary]. New Scientist, p. 81. [1.93 MB pdf]

McManus, I.C. (2008). Left-right discrimination in medicine, British Medical Journal, 337, 1426-7.


McManus, I. C. & Hartigan, A. (2007). Declining left-handedness in Victorian England seen in the films of Mitchell and Kenyon. Current Biology, 17, R793-R794.


McManus, I. C. (2006). The modern mythology of the left-handedness of Alexander the Great. Laterality, 11, 566-572.

Whalley, S. & McManus, I. C. (2006). Living with primary ciliary dyskinesia: A prospective qualitative study of knowledge sharing, symptom concealment, embarrassment, mistrust, and stigma. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 6:25.


McManus, I. C. (2005, January 29). Letter on Einstein's non-lefthandedness. Guardian, p. 23.

McManus, I. C. (2005). Reversed bodies, reversed brains and (some) reversed behaviours: Of zebrafish and men. Developmental Cell, 8, 796-797.

McManus, I. C. (2005). Symmetry and asymmetry in aesthetics and the arts. European Review, 13 (Supplement 2), 157-180. [1.13 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. & Wysocki, C. J. (2005). Left-handers have a lower prevalence of arthritis and ulcer. Laterality, 10, 97-102.


Berdon, W. E., McManus, I. C., & Afzelius, B. (2004). More on Kartagener's syndrome and the contributions of Afzelius and A.K. Siewert. Pediatric Radiology, 34, 585-586.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Grappling with the Hydra [Review of the book Handedness and brain asymmetry by Marian Annett]. Cortex, 40, 139-141.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Höger Hand, Vänster Hand (G. Grip, Trans.). Stockholm: Fahrenheit Bokförlag.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Right-left and the scrotum in Greek sculpture. Laterality, 9, 189-199.

McManus, I. C., Buckman, J., & Woolley, E. (2004). Is light in pictures presumed to come from the left side? Perception, 33, 1421-1436.

McManus, I. C. & Drury, H. (2004). The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: a tale of the complexities of lateralisation. Brain and Cognition, 55, 262-268.

McManus, I. C., Martin, N., Stubbings, G. F., Chung, E. M. K., & Mitchison, H. M. (2004). Handedness and situs inversus in primary ciliary dyskinesia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 271, 2579-2582.  

McManus, I. C. & Tomlinson, J. (2004). Objects look different sizes in the right and left eyes. Laterality, 9, 245-265.


McManus, I. C., Mitchison, H. M., Chung, E. M. K., Stubbings, G. F., & Martin, N. (2003). Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Siewert's /Kartagener's Syndrome): Respiratory symptoms and psycho-social impact. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 3:4.


McManus, I. C. (2002). Right hand, left hand: The origins of asymmetry in brains, bodies, atoms and cultures. London, UK / Cambridge, MA: Weidenfeld and Nicolson / Harvard University Press.


McManus, I. C. (2001). Charles Dickens: A neglected diagnosis? Lancet, 358, 2158-2161.


Elias, L. J., Bulman-Fleming, M. B., & McManus, I. C. (1999). Visual temporal asymmetries are related to asymmetries in linguistic perception. Neuropsychologia, 37, 1243-1249.

McManus, I. C. (1999). Handedness, cerebral lateralization and the evolution of language. In M.C.Corballis & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), The descent of mind: Psychological perspectives on hominid evolution (pp. 194-217). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McManus, I. C. (1999). Of geminates and gemellology [Editorial]. Laterality, 4, 193-196.

McManus, I. C., Porac, C., Bryden, M. P., & Boucher, R. (1999). Eye dominance, writing hand and throwing hand. Laterality, 4, 173-192.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Winder, B. C. (1999). Do UK medical school applicants prefer interviewing to non-interviewing schools? Advances in Health


McManus, I. C. (1998). Written by the right hemisphere [Review of the book Of two minds: the revolutionary science of dual-brain psychology by Fredric Schiffer]. Nature, 396, 132.

Saudino, K. J. & McManus, I. C. (1998). Handedness, footedness, eyedness and earedness in the Colorado Adoption Project. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 167-174.


Bryden, M. P., Roy, E. A., McManus, I. C., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1997). On the genetics and measurement of human handedness. Laterality, 2, 317-336.

McManus, I. C. (1997). Autism and schizophrenia are not due to a single genetic locus. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2, 226-230.

McManus, I. C. & Cornish, K. M. (1997). Fractionating handedness in mental retardation: What is the role of the cerebellum? Laterality, 2, 81-90.


Bourassa, D. C., McManus, I. C., & Bryden, M. P. (1996). Handedness and eye-dominance: A meta-analysis of their relationship. Laterality, 1, 5-34.

Bryden, M. P., Corballis, M. C., & McManus, I. C. (1996). Editorial. Laterality, 1, 1-3.

Corballis, M. C., Lee, K., McManus, I. C., & Crow, T. J. (1996). Location of the handedness gene on the X and Y chromosomes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 67, 50-52.

Cornish, K. M. & McManus, I. C. (1996). Hand preference and hand skill in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 597-609.

McManus, I. C. (1996). Handedness. In J.G.Beaumont, P. M. Kenealy, & M. J. C. Rogers (Eds.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Neuropsychology (pp. 367-376). Oxford: Blackwell. [1.57 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C., Bryden, M. P., & Bourassa, D. C. (1996). Handedness and eye-dominance: Explaining the association. Brain and Cognition, 30, 357-358.

McManus, I. C., Corballis, M. C., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1996). Philip Bryden: November 14, 1934 - August 18, 1996. Laterality, 1, 257-268.


Bryden, M. P., McManus, I. C., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1995). GBG, hormones, genes, and anomalous dominance: A reply to commentaries. Brain and Cognition, 27, 94-97.

McManus, I. C. (1995). Achilles' right heel: the vulnerabilities of the right shift theory. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/ Current Psychology of Cognition, 14, 565-574.

McManus, I. C. (1995). Familial sinistrality: the utility of calculating exact genotype probabilities for individuals. Cortex, 31, 3-24. [1.09 MB pdf]

Woodruff, P. W. R., McManus, I. C., & David, A. S. (1995). Meta-analysis of corpus callosum size in schizophrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 58, 457-461.


Bryden, M. P., McManus, I. C., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1994). Evaluating the empirical support for the Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda model of cerebral lateralization. Brain and Cognition, 26, 103-167. [3.21 MB pdf]

Bryden, M. P., McManus, I. C., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1994). GBG, BMB, R&L, X&Y ... Reply to commentaries. Brain and Cognition, 26, 312-326.

Corballis, M. C., Lee, K., McManus, I. C., & Crow, T. J. (1994). Evidence for the location of the handedness gene on the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 67, 401-402.

Grimshaw, G. M., McManus, I. C., & Bryden, M. P. (1994). Controlling for stimulus dominance in dichotic listening tasks: A modification of lambda. Neuropsychology, 8, 278-283.


Madge, N., Diamond, J., Miller, D., Ross, E., McManus, I. C., Wadsworth, J. et al. (1993). The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study: a ten year follow-up. A report on the behavioural and educational outcomes after serious, acute, neurological illness in early childhood. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology (Supplement No. 68), 35 (7). London: MacKeith Press.

McManus, I. C. (1993). Ultrasonography and handedness: Don't confuse direction with degree [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 307, 563-564.

McManus, I. C., Bryden, M. P., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1993). Handedness and autoimmune disease. Lancet, 341, 891-892.

McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1993). Handedness on Tristan da Cunha: The genetic consequences of social isolation. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 831-843.

McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1993). The neurobiology of handedness, language and cerebral dominance: A model for the molecular genetics of behaviour. In M.H.Johnson (Ed.), Brain development and cognition: A reader (pp. 679-702). Oxford: Blackwell. [1.22 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C., Shergill, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1993). Annett's theory that individuals heterozygous for the right shift gene are intellectually advantaged: Theoretical and empirical problems. British Journal of Psychology, 84, 517-537. [1.17 MB pdf]

Seddon, B. M. & McManus, I. C. (1993). The incidence of left-handedness. (Unpublished).

Shaw, D. & McManus, I. C. (1993). The handedness of Kerrs and Carrs. British Journal of Psychology, 84, 545-551.


Bryden, M. P. & McManus, I. C. (1992). Dispelling myths about left-handedness. International Journal of Psychology, 27, 400.

Bryden, M. P. & McManus, I. C. (1992). Relations between handedness and immune disorders. Poster presented at International Neuropsychological Society meeting, San Diego, California, Feb 7th 1992.

Bryden, M. P. & McManus, I. C. (1992). Relations between handedness and immune disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 89.

Cornell, E. & McManus, I. C. (1992). Differential survey response rates in right and left-handers. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 39-43.

McManus, I. C. (1992). Are paw preference differences in HI and LO mice the result of specific genes or of heterosis and fluctuating asymmetry? Behavior Genetics, 22, 435-451.

McManus, I. C. (1992). Neuropsychology and the localisation of cortical function. In M.Weller & M. Eysenck (Eds.), The scientific basis of psychiatry (2 ed., pp. 163-176). London: W B Saunders.

McManus, I. C. (1992). Reversed cerebral asymmetry and breast cancer. Lancet, 339, 1055.

McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1992). The genetics of handedness, cerebral dominance and lateralization. In I.Rapin & S. J. Segalowitz (Eds.), Handbook of Neuropsychology, Volume 6, Section 10: Child neuropsychology (Part 1) (pp. 115-144). Amsterdam: Elsevier. [2.22 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1992). Handedness of parents and sex of progeny: Failure to replicate the results of James (1986). Journal of Theoretical Biology, 159, 439-442.

McManus, I. C., Murray, B., Doyle, K., & Baron-Cohen, S. (1992). Handedness in childhood autism shows a dissociation of skill and preference. Cortex, 28, 373-381.

Why are most people right-handed? (1992). UCL Science, 6, 9.


Bryden, M. P., McManus, I. C., & Steenhuis, R. E. (1991). Handedness is not related to self-reported disease incidence. Cortex, 27, 605-611.

Marchant-Haycox, S. E., McManus, I. C., & Wilson, G. D. (1991). Left-handedness, homosexuality, HIV infection and AIDS. Cortex, 27, 49-56.

McManus, I. C. (1991). The genetics of dyslexia. In J.F.Stein (Ed.), Vision and Visual Dysfunction: Volume 13, Dyslexia (pp. 94-112). London: MacMillan Press. [1.77 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1991). The inheritance of left-handedness. In G.R.Bock & J. Marsh (Eds.), Ciba Foundation Symposium 162: Biological asymmetry and handedness (pp. 251-281). Chichester: Wiley. [1.46 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. & Bryden, M. P. (1991). Geschwind's theory of cerebral lateralization: Developing a formal causal model. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 237-253. [1.80 MB pdf]


McManus, I. C. (1990). Left-handedness and maternal age [Letter]. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1426-1427.

McManus, I. C., Naylor, J., & Booker, B. L. (1990). Left-handedness and myasthenia gravis. Neuropsychologia, 28, 947-955.


McManus, I. C., Sik, G., Cole, D. R., Mellon, A. F., Wong, J., & Kloss, J. (1988). The development of handedness in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 257-273.

Morgan, M. J. & McManus, I. C. (1988). The relationship between brainedness and handedness. In F.C.Rose, R. Whurr, & M. Wyke (Eds.), Aphasia (pp. 85-130). London: Whurr Publishers. [2.70 MB pdf]


McManus, I. C. (1987, July 10). Hands and feats. Times Higher Education Supplement, p. 13.

McManus, I. C. (1987). On the one hand, on the other hand: statistical fallacies in laterality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 282-283.


McManus, I. C. (1986). Book reviews [Review of the book Left side, right side: a review of laterality research by A Beaton]. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 419-421.

McManus, I. C., Kemp, R. I., & Grant, J. (1986). Differences between fingers and hands in tapping ability: dissociation between speed and regularity. Cortex, 22, 461-474.


Batheja, M. & McManus, I. C. (1985). Handedness in the mentally handicapped. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 27, 63-68.

McManus, I. C. (1985). Handedness, language dominance and aphasia: a genetic model. Cambridge University Press: Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement No.8. [3.73 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1985). On testing the right shift theory: a reply to Annett. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 31-34.

McManus, I. C. (1985). Right- and left-hand skill: failure of the right shift model. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 1-16. [1.98 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1985). Writing hand position, birth stress, and familial factors. Current Psychological Research and Reviews, 4, 195-203.

McManus, I. C., Edmondson, D., & Rodger, J. (1985). Balance in pictures. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 311-324.


Beaumont, G., Young, A., & McManus, I. C. (1984). Hemisphericity: a critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 1, 191-212. [1.13 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1984). The inheritance of asymmetries in man and flatfish. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 731-733.

McManus, I. C. (1984). The power of a procedure for detecting mixture distributions in laterality data. Cortex, 20, 421-426.


McManus, I. C. (1983). The interpretation of laterality. Cortex, 19, 187-214. [1.29 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1983). Neuropsychology and the localisation of cognitive function. In M.Weller (Ed.), The scientific basis of psychiatry (pp. 81-95). London: Bailliere Tindall.

McManus, I. C. (1983). Pathological left-handedness: Does it exist? Journal of Communication Disorders, 16, 315-344. [1.26 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. & Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. (1983). Biosocial correlates of cognitive abilities. Journal of Biosocial Science, 15, 289-306.


McManus, I. C. (1982). The distribution of skull asymmetry in man. Annals of Human Biology, 9, 167-170.

Wienrich, A. M., Wells, P. A., & McManus, I. C. (1982). Handedness, anxiety and sex differences. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 69-72.


Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N., Maclarnon, A. M., Lanigan, P. M., & McManus, I. C. (1981). Foot-length asymmetry, sex and handedness. Science, 212, 1416-1417.

McManus, I. C. (1981). Handedness and birth stress. Psychological Medicine, 11, 485-496. [1.20 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C. (1981). Wing-folding in Drosophila. Animal Behaviour, 29, 626-627.


McManus, I. C. (1980). Handedness in twins: a critical review. Neuropsychologia, 18, 347-355.

McManus, I. C. (1980). Left-handedness and epilepsy. Cortex, 16, 487-492.

McManus, I. C. (1980). Season of birth of left-handers. Archives of Neurology, 37, 63.


McManus, I. C. (1979). The determinants of laterality in man. (PhD thesis, University of Cambridge).

McManus, I. C. & Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. (1979). Hand-clasping and arm-folding: a review and a genetic model. Annals of Human Biology, 6, 527-558. [1.42 MB pdf]


Fleming, S. & McManus, I. C. (1978, July 26). The image on the cloth. World Medicine, pp. 58-60.


McManus, I. C. (1977). Predominance of left-sided breast tumours. Lancet, 310, 297-298.


McManus, I. C. (1976). Scrotal asymmetry in man and in ancient sculpture. Nature, 259, 426. [1.67 MB pdf]


Blount, P., Holmes, J., Rodger, J., Coltheart, M., & McManus, I. C. (1975). On the ability to discriminate original from mirror-image reproductions of works of art. Perception, 4, 385-389.


Humphrey, N. K. & McManus, I. C. (1973). Status and the left cheek. New Scientist, 59, 437-439.

McManus, I. C. & Humphrey, N. K. (1973). Turning the left cheek. Nature, 243, 271-272.