We need to use a combination of UK and international models to understand how to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and how UK energy security might change in the future.

The TIAM-UCL energy systems model is a global optimisation model that investigates decarbonisation of the global E3 (energy-environment-economy) system. TIAM-UCL allows us to better understand the global costs and benefits of many different decarbonisation options. It also allows us to investigate international climate change policies, such as Kyoto, and international issues such as aviation and shipping, which are not possible with a UK model.

TIAM-UCL is a 16 region global model. It was created from the 15-region ETSAP-TIAM model by breaking out the UK from the Western Europe region, making the UK an explicit region in the TIAM-UCL with its own energy system.

The TIMES model generator (an acronym for The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System) is a technology rich bottom-up cost-optimisation model. TIMES is the successor to the MARKAL model generator.

Do you have any questions about TIAM-UCL? First see the description of the model and the TIAM-UCL FAQ. If you don't find the answers you are looking for then please contact Gabrial Anandarajah.

How we use TIAM-UCL

The global nature of TIAM-UCL allows us to:

  • Examine energy and climate policies (carbon tax, cap-and-trade) for a single region, a group of regions or globally.
  • Assess regional marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs, taking account of cap-and-trade policy and emission trading schemes.
  • Generate regional specific resource prices for fossil fuels such as gas oil and coal.
  • Understand how global endogenous technology learning could change the costs and benefits of key nascent technologies, such as fuel cells and batteries, in the future.

Integrated assessment model for environmental assessment

TIAM-UCL has a climate module that calculates the global temperature rise as a function of greenhouse gas emissions.  This means we can use the model to identify changes in the global energy system that:

  • limit atmospheric CO2 concentration;
  • limit the temperature change; or,
  • limit radiative forcing.

The ETSAP-TIAM model

ETSAP-TIAM is a global multi-regional model built on the TIMES model generator that is developed and maintained by the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of the International Energy Agency.

Model summary

Type:Bottom-up, technology-rich cost optimisation
Purpose:Decarbonisation pathways, technology assessment, global policy
Policy impact:International Aviation & Shipping Review for the Committee on Climate Change
Spatial scale:16-region global model
Temporal scale:3 seasons (summer, intermediate, winter), 2 intraday (day, night)
Main contact:Gabrial Anandarajah
Other contacts:Olivier Dessens


You can find out more about the model in the



You can view publications using TIAM-UCL.