Institute of Archaeology


Modern implications of past resource use, disposal, abandonment and decay

This research picks up on environmental research Elizabeth Graham carried out, on and off, from 1986 to 1998, although the research questions themselves arose as early as 1974 to 1977 when she carried out her PhD field research along Belize's coast.

In 1998, Elizabeth got involved at Lamanai, and it was not until the summer of 2010 that she returned to the coast in an attempt to set the stage for continued environmental research, for which funding applications will be submitted.

The past fieldwork on which this new direction will build comprise:

  • 2010 Marco Gonzalez excavations, Ambergris Caye, Belize (with Scott Simmons, UNCW)
  • 1997-1998 Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize, survey and excavation.
  • 1990-1993 Co-director, with David Pendergast, of excavations on Ambergris Caye, Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro)
  • 1998, 1999 Los Buchillones Project, Punta Alegre, Ciego de Avila, Cuba, with Gabino La Rosa Corzo (CITMA). Directors: David Pendergast (UCL), Jorge Calvera (CITMA).

Related outputs

  • 2011 W. James Stemp, Elizabeth Graham, Jessica Goulet. Coastal Maya Obsidian Trade in the Late Postclassic to Early Colonial Period: The View from San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 6:1-21.
  • 2008 Elizabeth Graham, Timothy Beach and Clifford Brown. Building a Neotropical Framework for Dark Earths. In the session 'Developing International Geoarchaeology' organized by Manuel Arroyo-Kalin. 6th World Archaeological Congress, University College Dublin, 29thJune to 4th July 2008.
  • 2006 A Neotropical Framework for Terra Preta. In Time & Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands, edited by William Baleé & Clark Erickson, pp. 57-86. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • 2006 Due South: Learning from the Urban Experience in the Humid Tropics. In Reconstructing the Past: Studies in Mesoamerican and Central American Prehistory, edited by David M. Pendergast and Anthony P. Andrews, pp. 151-158. BAR International Series 1529. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
  • 2006 Stemp, James W. and Elizabeth Graham. Ancient Maya Procurement and Use of Chipped Chert and Chalcedony Tools at Marco Gonzalez, Ambergris Caye, Belize. Lithic Technology 31(1):27-55.
  • 2006 Peros, Matthew C., Elizabeth Graham and Anthony Davis. Stratigraphic Investigations at Los Buchillones, a Coastal Taino Site in North-Central Cuba. Geoarchaeology 21(5):403-428.
  • 2003 Pendergast, David M., Jorge A. Calvera R., Juan Jardines M., Elizabeth Graham and Odalys Brito. Construcciones de Madera en el Mar, Los Buchillones, Cuba. El Caribe Arqueológico 7:24-32.
  • 2003 Kitty F. Emery and Elizabeth Graham. Marine Resource Availability and Use at Marco Gonzalez, Belize. In Transitions in Zooarchaeology: New Methods and New Results, edited by Kathlyn Stewart, pp. 68-102. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.
  • 2003 Douglas M. Weinberg, Elizabeth Graham and David M. Pendergast. Salvage Excavation of the Alamilla/Gomez Property, San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize. FAMSI (Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc.)
  • 2002 David M. Pendergast, Elizabeth Graham, Jorge Calvera and Juan Jardines. The Houses in Which They Dwelt: Excavation and Dating of Taino Wooden Structures at Los Buchillones, Cuba. Journal of Wetland Archaeology 2:61-75.
  • 2001 David M. Pendergast, Elizabeth Graham, Jorge Calvera, and Juan Jardines. Houses in the Sea: Excavation and Preservation at Los Buchillones, Cuba. In Enduring Records:The Environmental and Cultural Heritage of Wetlands, edited by Barbara A. Purdy, pp. 71-82. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
  • 2000 Elizabeth Graham, David M. Pendergast, Jorge Calvera and Juan Jardines. Excavations at Los Buchillones, Cuba. Antiquity 74:263-264.
  • 1999 Stone Cities, Green Cities. In Complex Polities in the Ancient Tropical World, edited by Elisabeth A. Bacus and Lisa J. Lucero, pp 185-194. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 9. AAA, Arlington, Virginia.
  • 1998 Metaphor and Metamorphism--Some Thoughts on Environmental Meta-History. In Advances in Historical Ecology, edited by William Balée, pp.119-137. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • 1996 Maya Cities and the Character of a Tropical Urbanism. In The Development of Urbanism from a Global Perspective, edited by Paul Sinclair. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Posted in 1996.
  • 1994 Mazzullo, S.J., C.S. Teal and Elizabeth Graham. Mineralogic and Crystallographic Evidence of Lime Processing, Santa Cruz Maya Site (Classic to Postclassic), Ambergris Caye, Belize. Journal of Archaeological Science 21(6):785-795.
  • 1992 Elizabeth Graham and David M. Pendergast. Maya Urbanism and Ecological Change. In Changing Tropical Forests, edited by Harold K. Steen and Richard P. Tucker, pp. 102-109. Forest History Society. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Forest History Society and IUFRO Forest History Group.
  • 1989 Brief Synthesis of Coastal Site Data from Colson Point, Placencia, and Marco Gonzalez, Belize. In Coastal Maya Trade, edited by Heather McKillop and Paul F. Healy, pp. 135-154. Trent University, Occasional Papers in Anthropology, No. 8. Peterborough, Ontario.
  • 1989 Elizabeth Graham and David M. Pendergast. Excavations at the Marco Gonzalez Site, Ambergris Caye, Belize. Journal of Field Archaeology 16(1):1-16.


  • Institute of Archaeology, NICH, Belize
  • UNCW field school
  • Other funding sources