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On building in Ancient Egypt

Some plans and models of ancient Egyptian buildings survive, but most of these seem to record already existing features, rather than being used to help construction.

Egyptian architects often develop their ideas along the lines of older prototypes. Compare the temple types, used all over Egypt.
Measuring may have come into use with the invention of writing. A cubit system was already used for the layout of a mastaba of the First Dynasty at Naqada. Measurement lines were found at a mastaba of the Fourth Dynasty at Meydum.
Most surviving measuring cubit (about 52.5 cm) rods conform to the cubit unit (about 52.5 cm); most surviving practical wooden examples date to the New Kingdom (about 1550-1069 BC), when there were also cubit rods in special materials granted by the king to high officials, and included in their burial equipment. From the New Kingdom to the Ptolemaic Period there are also many stone votive cubits.
UC 16439 Foundation deposits were placed at important parts of more important buildings (temples).
Already the earliest stone buildings have foundations. While pyramids and earlier temples erected on solid ground often have either no or only shallow foundations, later buildings were constructed on deep trenches filled with stone and sand.
UC 10929 Tools for stone working.
The stone blocks were placed on the foundations.
UC 16439 Stones were held together by wooden cramps; stone dowels were also used.
There are several main types of wall construction in Ancient Egyptian stoneworking.



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