UCL Medical School


Example Conditions

"He who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go to sea at all." William Osler 

Every patient has something to teach medical students and we strive to involve patients as educators in every aspect of the curriculum. 

However, for the purposes of Undergraduate MBBS Examinations there are specific signs and symptoms that we look for to test our students' clinical skills.

Specific signs and symptoms

This list is not exhaustive or restrictive, but gives an indication of some of the possible conditions that may be appropriate for stations in examination skills. 

There is nothing in this information that is not widely known by candidates. 


  • Any audible murmur
  • Heart valve replacement
  • Heart failure (right/left/congestive) 


  • COPD
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Previous tuberculosis
  • Pleural effusion
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Thoracic surgery


  • Any palpable organomegaly: Liver; Kidneys (including transplant); Spleen
  • Chronic liver disease of any cause
  • Ascites 
  • Stoma


  • Stroke
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Cranial nerve lesions
  • Isolated peripheral nerve or nerve root lesions