What limits the rate of biological adjustment and/or adaptation to a changing environment? Adaptation can be achieved by behavioural responses, phenotypic plasticity, dispersal or evolution. But each of these mechanisms has different costs and benefits for species and population persistence.
How can we evaluate the limits in different kinds of species and across habitats? What is the evidence from empirical studies and from historical events? We address these questions using studies in the field, laboratory and from theory.