All original work is protected by Copyright as soon as it is recorded regardless of whether it is published or not.
This includes material produced during a student's course of study at UCL and materials produced by UCL staff. For more information on this see What is copyright?
There are UCL policies on the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) of both staff and students, which explain the relationships between these two groups and UCL in terms of the ownership and reuse of their work:
You should take the time to read the policy (or policies) relevant to you, but these are some of the main points:
"As a general principle UCL recognises the student as owner of any IPR he/she produces while a registered student of UCL. This principle may be subject to variation in the case of collaborative or externally sponsored work, or other exceptional circumstances."
Collaborative working and external funding are common arrangements in some research projects across UCL. If this applies to your research work, then you will be asked to assign the IP rights in your work to UCL. This should be discussed with you at the beginning of your course or at the beginning of the relevant project. These arrangements are made within each department.
The UCL policy is that members of staff retain their copyright in research and other publications and teaching materials created by them. In this respect UCL waives its rights as an employer. However, there are some types of material in which UCL does claim IP rights. The exceptions are specified in Section 2 of the UCL Staff IPR Policy. Software programs developed during the course of employment are an example of material in which UCL does claim copyright.
Please note that UCL also retains a licence to use, for academic and commercial purposes, academic and teaching materials in all formats which are generated by members of staff arising out of employment by UCL. The details are in section 8 of UCL's Staff IPR Policy
With regard to Patents: UCL does assert its rights to ownership of Patents in inventions created by you, as a UCL employee in the course of normal duties. See section 5 of UCL's Staff IPR Policy for details.
In cases where IP resulting from your work is developed commercially there are standard revenue sharing arrangements detailed in Annex 2 of the Staff IPR Policy which will apply.
Protecting your own work and allowing reuse
As a work is protected by copyright automatically, it is not necessary to take any further action to bring it into copyright protection.
If you are willing to allow others to reuse your work, you may wish to consider using a Creative Commons Licence. There is a choice of CC licences giving permissions for different types of reuse and you may choose one which suits your needs. This is particularly useful if your work is to be made available on a web site.
By using a Creative Commons licence you do not give up your claim to copyright in your work. In particular you may continue to assert your right to be acknowledged as the author and you may publish your work as you choose.
Should you change your mind, however, you will not be able to withdraw the licence from anyone who is already reusing your work in line with the terms of the Creative Commons licence you have previously applied to your work.
Some funding organisations which require open access publication of your research work also specify the use of a specific Creative Commons Licence.
Posting your work on the internet
Sharing content we create is common practice. Many of us will upload photos or video clips to sites like Flickr or YouTube. It is worth taking a moment to consider copyright implications and also the reuse policy of the site before uploading your content.
Are you required to grant the site owners a licence to reuse your work for example and are you happy with that?
Flickr allows an individual to decide how their photographs may be viewed and reused, if at all. In addition it includes the option to add a Creative Commons licence to any of your photographs. This in turn means that anyone looking for reusable images can search for photographs with a CC licence attached.
Assigning your copyright
When you publish papers in academic journals or books there is generally a contractual agreement between the author and publisher which determines what happens to copyright in the work.
You may be asked to assign (transfer) the copyright in your work to the publisher. By assigning your copyright you lose any control on how it is reproduced in the future. Therefore it is worth considering whether there are alternatives available which allow you to retain the copyright, such as granting the publisher a licence to publish the work. You can always negotiate the details of the agreement with the publisher.
Regardless of whether you retain the copyright in your work, the publisher owns the copyright in the typographical arrangement of the published version which lasts for 25 years.
Copyright and theses
From the copyright perspective a doctoral thesis is an unpublished work prepared for the purposes of examination. The inclusion of extracts from copyright works may be covered by the fair dealing exception for purposes of instruction and examinations as long as it is "fair dealing". Third party material should always be accompanied by sufficient acknowledgement.
If however you go on to publish your thesis - either commercially or within an open access web site - then the exception for instruction and examinations no longer applies.
A different exception, such as the quotations exception may apply but otherwise permission will have to be obtained from the copyright owner. More information about theses and depositing them in UCL Discovery is available.
Clearing copyright for materials included in papers/manuscripts for publication
You should consider seeking permission for any extracts from third party material you intend to include in your work at an early stage because this can take longer than anticipated. There is a sample permission request in Annex 5 of the UCL Staff IPR Policy which can be adapted.
You should also check with your publisher about responsibilities for clearing copyright in third party materials and whether they offer any assistance.
UCL does not provide a clearance service for this type of re-use, although we may be able to offer advice on how to trace copyright holders.
When applying for copyright permission, it is important to be specific about the use you intend to make of the material, for example whether your work will be made available on the internet.
If you have any queries or need further advice please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org