UCL Energy Institute


George Bennett

Thesis Title: How are the dynamic behaviours of building heating systems represented in the National Calculation methods for EPCs and does this representation lead to inconsistent calculation of space heating and temperatures? or “Everything you always wanted to know about SAP*  

*but were afraid to ask


Primary supervisor: Prof Robert Lowe

Secondary supervisor: Prof Tadj Oreszczyn

Sponsor (if applicable): Bosch Thermotechnology

When choosing replace or upgrade the heating system, homeowners, are faced with a difficult choice.  Similarly, manufacturers of heating appliances must plan a product portfolio years in advance to cater for customer needs and the upcoming legislation.

One tool, which influences both these stakeholders across Europe, is the Energy Performance Certificate. It gives the current environmental and financial impact of the energy system of the building and also guidance as to improvements to both building fabric and heating system. Behind the EPC lie calculation methods, which vary across Europe and have evolved from various beginnings.  In the UK this is SAP and in Germany DIN 18599.

As a major contributor to emissions, the decisions taken in the residential sector have significant impact on the achievement of emissions targets in the future.  Therefore, ensuring that the heating technologies that are both cost effective and efficient are developed and also customers are well informed enough to choose what is most suitable for them is paramount.

This research will use Bosch dynamic simulations in the MATLAB Simulink environment to analyse the assumptions of the standard calculation methods such as SAP to discover if they provide a level playing field for the heating technologies of today and the future.  Simulation work will be supported and grounded with the help of Bosch field data from μCHP appliance field trial in Germany and a large data acquisition project in the UK.


Wide range of Product development, from stirling cycle cryocoolers to hydraulic control systems for aircraft.

For the last 10 years I have been working at Bosch Thermotechnology primarily working on the lifetime and robustness of gas boilers. IF it can go wrong with a boiler or heating system, I have probably seen it! This has allowed me to live and work across Europe, through Germany, the Netherlands and to Turkey

As a Mechanical Engineer I have had a relatively wide experience in industry since finishing my undergraduate studies a ‘few’ years ago.