Dr Clare Stanford

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Personal Profile

Name: Clare Stanford Email: c.stanford@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Dr Tel: 0044 20 7679 3731
Department: Neuro, Physiology & Pharmacology Fax: 0044 20 7679 7298
Position: Reader in Experimental Psychopharmacology Address: Medical Sciences Building, UCL South Cloisters, Gower St, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

The so-called 'monoamine neurotransmitters', which include dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin, are released from neurones in both the brain and peripheral nervous system. The function of the monoamines is not clear but they are thought to have a crucial role in arousal, emotion and cognition. Certainly, drugs that augment the effects of monoamines on their target tissues are used to treat psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. The major aim of our research is to explain how the brain regulates monoamine transmission and to increase our understanding of their influence on mood and behaviour.
The main focus of our research has been to understand the role of monoamine transmitters in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. Our key findings revealed that antidepressants (even drugs known as ‘Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors’) actually modify the function of all the monoamines in vivo, regardless of their selectivity in vitro. This fundamental shift in emphasis, from serotonin as a key factor in ‘antidepression’, to the importance of interactions between all three monoamines, and their downstream consequences, is still a major topic of research in this field. 
We have also carried out a comparison of changes in monoamine transmission induced by the appetite suppressant (and the monoamine-releasing agent), d amphetamine, and the reuptake inhibitor, sibutramine. We have characterised not only differences in the amplitude of the monoamine response to these two drugs but also compared the latency of the monoamine response to these compounds. It turns out that the response to d amphetamine is fast and short-lived whereas the response to sibutramine is slow in onset but prolonged. These differences explain why d-amphetamine is addictive whereas sibutramine is not. This work made a vital contribution to an application for a product licence submitted (to the FDA and, subsequently, worldwide) by our industrial sponsor. Until recently, sibutramine was the only centrally-acting drug licensed for treatment of obesity.
Our long-standing interest in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs led to an investigation of the neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities of NK1R-/- mice, which lack functional receptors for the neuropeptide, substance P. We started studying these mice because their abnormal behaviour supposedly resembles that of wildtype mice that have been given an antidepressant drug. In the course of this work, which was carried out in collaboration with Professor Stephen Hunt (UCL), we made the exciting discovery that NK1R /- mice express the core features of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These include hyperactivity, which is prevented by d-amphetamine, inattentiveness and impulsivity as well as striking abnormalities in monoamine transmission in the brain.
This work in mice has been complemented by genetic studies of patients with ADHD (carried out in collaboration with Professor Hugh Gurling, Molecular Psychiatry). This translational research, which has linked directly our findings in mice and humans, has led to the discovery of a novel target for drug treatment of ADHD, which is a major focus of our current research.




Research Activities

Genetics and Neurobiology of Mental Illness

Role of central monomine systems in regulation of mood and behaviour

Education Description

Major contributions to the teaching of neuropharmacology (especially psychopharmacology) to second and third year BSc and BMS students.
The organiser and sole lecturer for a third-year course in Psychopharmacology (comprising more than 20 lectures in topics ranging from stress and psychotic disorders to neuroethics

Contributions to the MSc Neuroscience course, focussing on the neurobiology of mood and behaviour

Founder and Course Director of the British Association for Psychopharmacology Certificate in Preclinical Psychopharmacology

UCL Collaborators

Prof Marsha Morgan; Dr Andrew Mcquillin; Prof Steve Hunt

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Pillidge K, Porter AJ, Dudley JA, Tsai YC, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2014). The behavioural response of NK1R-/- mice to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD.. Br J Pharmacol, , - . doi:10.1111/bph.12860
    • Sharp SI, McQuillin A, Marks M, Hunt SP, Stanford SC, Lydall GJ, Morgan MY, Asherson P, Curtis D, Gurling HM (2014). Genetic association of the tachykinin receptor 1 TACR1 gene in bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and the alcohol dependence syndrome.. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, , - . doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32241
    • Ash E, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2014). Contrasting changes in extracellular dopamine and glutamate along the rostrocaudal axis of the anterior cingulate cortex of the rat following an acute d-amphetamine or dopamine challenge.. Neuropharmacology, , - . doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.04.003
    • Stanford SC (2014). Psychostimulants, antidepressants and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists ('motor disinhibitors') have overlapping, but distinct, effects on monoamine transmission: The involvement of L-type Ca(2+) channels and implications for the treatment of ADHD.. Neuropharmacology, , - . doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.03.021

    2013

    • Weir RK, Dudley JA, Yan TC, Grabowska EM, Pena-Oliver Y, Ripley TL, Stephens DN, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2013). The influence of test experience and NK1 receptor antagonists on the performance of NK1R-/- and wild type mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task.. Journal of Psychopharmacology, , - . doi:10.1177/0269881113495722
    • Stanford C (2013). Encyclopedia of Life Sciences: Adrenaline and Noradrenaline. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0000271.pub3
    • Hendrie C, Pickles A, Stanford SC, Robinson E (2013). The failure of the antidepressant drug discovery process is systemic. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 27(5), 407 - 416. doi:10.1177/0269881112466185
    • Dudley JA, Weir RK, Yan TC, Grabowska EM, Grimme AJ, Amini S, Stephens DN, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2013). Antagonism of L-type Ca-v channels with nifedipine differentially affects performance of wildtype and NK1R-/- mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, 64, 329 - 336. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.056

    2012

    • Stanford SC, Tannock R (2012). Behavioral neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24612-8
    • Clark RA, Shoaib M, Hewitt KN, Stanford SC, Bate ST (2012). A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(8), 1136 - 1142. doi:10.1177/0269881111420313
    • Stanford SC (2012). Beating the recession in preclinical measures of antidepression: A response to: The failure of the antidepressant drug discovery process is systemic (Hendrie CA and Pickles AR).. J Psychopharmacol, , - . doi:10.1177/0269881112466185a
    • Stanford SC (2012). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
    • Dudley JA, Moyes AJ, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2012). Locomotor activity measured over a 24h period using telemetry is substantially higher in NK1R-/- mice only during the dark phase.
    • Stanford SC, Weir RK, Yan TC, Grabowska EM, Grimme AJ, Amini S, Stephens DN, Hunt SP, Dudley JA (2012). The effects of the L-type CAv channel blocker, nifedipine, on behaviour of wildtype and NK1 receptor 'knockout' mice differ in the 5-choice serial reaction time test.

    2011

    • Weir RK, Dudley JA, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2011). NK1R-/- mice, a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, display perseverative behaviour in the 5-choice serial reaction time task but not in the marble-burying paradigm.
    • Dudley JA, Weir RK, Yan TC, Grabowska E, Oliver YP, Ripley TL, Stephens DN, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2011). The neurokinin-1 receptor knock-out mouse as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: linking the neurokinin-1 receptor and impulsivity.
    • Yan TC, Dudley JA, Weir RK, Grabowska EM, Peña-Oliver Y, Ripley TL, Hunt SP, Stephens DN, Stanford SC (2011). Performance deficits of NK1 receptor knockout mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task: effects of d-amphetamine, stress and time of day.. PLoS One, 6(3), e17586 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017586
    • Weir RK, Dudley JA, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2011). NK1R-/- mice display perseverative behaviour in the 5-choice serial reaction time task but not in the marble burying paradigm.
    • Yan TC, Dudley JA, Weir RK, Grabowska EM, Oliver YP, Ripley TL, Hunt SP, Stephens DN, Stanford SC (2011). Repeated testing modifies cognitive performance of NK1R+/+ and NK1R-/- mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task.
    • Dudley J, Weir RK, Yan TC, Grabowska EM, Oliver YP, Ripley TL, Stephens DN, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2011). The NK1 receptor antagonist RP 67580 induces impulsivity in wildtype mice tested in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task.
    • Stanford SC (2011). PERSONAL VIEW The NHS is right to fund homoeopathy. BRIT MED J, 342, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.d2642

    2010

    • Yan TC, McQuillin A, Thapar A, Asherson P, Hunt SP, Stanford SC, Gurling H (2010). NK1 (TACR1) receptor gene 'knockout' mouse phenotype predicts genetic association with ADHD. J PSYCHOPHARMACOL, 24(1), 27 - 38. doi:10.1177/0269881108100255
    • Stanford SC, Stanford BJ, Gillman PK (2010). Risk of severe serotonin toxicity following co-administration of methylene blue and serotonin reuptake inhibitors: an update on a case report of post-operative delirium.. J Psychopharmacol, 24(10), 1433 - 1438. doi:10.1177/0269881109105450
    • Grabowska EM, Grimme AJ, Hindocha A, Yan TC, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2010). Effect of antagonism of angiotensin II (AT1 and AT2) receptors on loomotor hyperactivity of NK1 receptor knockout mice.
    • Yan TC, Dudley J, Weir R, Grabowska E, Oliver YP, Ripley TL, Hunt S, Stephens DN, Stanford S (2010). Behaviour of NK1R/+ and NK1R-/- mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.
    • Dudley J, Yan TC, Weir R, Grabowska E, Oliver YP, Ripley TL, Hunt SP, Stephens DN, Stanford SC (2010). EFFECTS OF D-AMPHETAMINE ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF NK1R+/+ AND NK1R-/- MICE IN THE 5 CHOICE SERIAL REACTION TIME TASK.
    • Stanford SC, Gurling H, Hunt SP (2010). WHAT CAN NK1R -/- MICE TELL US ABOUT ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)?.

    2009

    • Yan TC, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2009). Behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities in mice lacking functional tachykinin-1 (NK1) receptors: a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.. Neuropharmacology, 57(7-8), 627 - 635. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.08.021

    2008

    • Stanford SC (2008). ABPI/bioscience federation - 'In vivo sciences in the UK: Sustaining the supply of skills in the 21(st) century'. J PSYCHOPHARMACOL, 22(2), 117 - 118. doi:10.1177/0269881107088431
    • Hunt SP, McCutcheon J, Stanford SC (2008). The behaviour of NK1 knockout mice.
    • (2008). Microdialysis: Recent Developments.

    2007

    • Yan TC, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2007). Behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities in NK1R-/- mice: a novel rodent model of ADHD.
    • Yan TC, Hunt SP, Stanford C (2007). NK1R-/- mice: a novel rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
    • Fisher AS, Stewart RJ, Yan T, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2007). Disruption of noradrenergic transmission and the behavioural response to a novel environment in NK1R-/- mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 25(4), 1195 - 1204. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05369x
    • Stanford SC (2007). The Open Field Test: reinventing the wheel.. J Psychopharmacol, 21(2), 134 - 135. doi:10.1177/0269881107073199
    • Stanford SC (2007). Open fields (unlike wheels) can be any shape but still miss the target.. J Psychopharmacol, 21(2), 144 - . doi:10.1177/0269881107074492
    • Ash ES, Stanford SC, Heal DJ (2007). The glial (GLT-1) transporter has different roles in the regulation of the glutamate response to d-amphetamine in different regions of the rat anterior cingulate cortex.

    2006

    • Ash ES, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2006). Modulation of the glutamatergic response to d-amphetamine in the rat cerebral cortex by glial glutamate transporters.
    • Yan T, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2006). The effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate on behavioural responses of NK1+/+ and NK1-/- mice in the light/dark exploration box.
    • Ash ES, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2006). Modulation of the glutamatergic response to d-amphetamine by dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    2005

    • Fisher AS, Stewart RJ, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2005). Alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors in the locus coeruleus do not differ in NK1+/+ and NK1-/- mice, as revealed by autoradiographic and protein analysis.
    • Herpfer I, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2005). A comparison of neurokinin 1 receptor knock-out (NK1-/-) and wildtype mice: exploratory behaviour and extracellular noradrenaline concentration in the cerebral cortex of anaesthetised subjects. Neuropharmacology, 48(5), 706 - 719. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.12.016
    • Kellett DO, Stanford SC, Machado BH, Jordan D, Ramage AG (2005). 5-HT depletion reduces cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in awake and anaesthetised rats..
    • Stanford SC, Marsden CA (2005). Regional specialisation in the central noradrenergic response to unconditioned and conditioned environmental stimuli.. In (Ed.), Handbook of Stress and the Brain (pp. 487 - 501). : .
    • Kellett DO, Stanford SC, Machado BH, Jordan D, Ramage AG (2005). Effect of 5-HT depletion on cardiovascular vagal reflex sensitivity in awake and anaesthetised rats.. Brain Research, 1054, 61 - 72.
    • Stanford SC (2005). Adrenaline and noradrenaline: introduction. In (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (pp. 1 - 8). : Wiley. doi:10.1038/npg.els.0004087

    2004

    • Stewart RJ, Stanford SC (2004). Comparison of the effects of 5-HT depletion on the increase in noradrenaline efflux during fluoxetine infusion in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the freely moving rat.
    • Geranton SM, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2004). 5-HT has contrasting effects in the frontal cortex, but not the hypothalamus, on changes in noradrenaline efflux induced by the monoamine releasing-agent, d-amphetamine, and the reuptake inhibitor, BTS 54 354. Neuropharmacology, 46, 511 - 518. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2003.10.012
    • Fisher AS, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2004). The functional activity of alpha2-adrenoceptors differs in NK1R-/- and NK1+/+ mice.
    • Fisher AS, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2004). Investigation of the functional activity of alpha2-adrenoceptors in NK1-/- and NK1+/+ mice.
    • Stewart RJ, Fisher AS, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2004). Increased basal noradrenaline (NA) efflux in the frontal cortex, and a modified behavioural response to the a2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, in NK1 receptor knockout mice.
    • McCutcheon JE, Fisher AS, Stanford SC, Hunt SP (2004). Genetic background influences the effects of NK1 receptor knockout (NK1-/-) on behaviour of mice in a light/dark exploration box.
    • Herpfer I, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2004). Comparison of NK1-/- and NK1+/+ mice in a light/dark shuttle-box and effects of the antidepressant desipramine.
    • Herpfer I, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2004). Comparison of NK1-/- and NK1+/+ mice in a light/dark shuttle-box and effects of the antidepressant desipramine.

    2003

    • Geranton SM, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2003). Noradrenaline clearance differs in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus: a dual-probe microdialysis study in freely-moving rats. Neuroscience Letters, 350(5), 157 - 160.
    • Fisher AS, Stewart RJ, Hunt S, Stanford SC (2003). Functional differences in central noradrenergic neurones of NK1-/- and NK1+/+ mice?.
    • Strickland SS, Veena GV, Houghton PJ, Stanford SC, Kurpad AV (2003). Areca nut, energy metabolism and hunger in Asian men. Annals of Human Biology, 30(1), 26 - 52.
    • Geranton SM, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2003). Differences in the mechanisms that increase noradrenaline efflux after administration of d-amphetamine: a dual-probe microdialysis study in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus. British Journal of Pharmacology, 139(8), 1441 - 1448. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705396
    • Stanford SC (2003). Justifying behavioural pharmacology.
    • Fisher AS, Stewart RJ, Hunt S, Stanford SC (2003). Evidence for functional differences in central noradrenergic neurones of NK1-/- and NK1+/+ mice ?.
    • Herpfer I, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2003). The effect of the antidepressant desipramine on noradrenaline efflux and behaviour of NK1R-/- and NK1R+/+ mice.

    2002

    • Stewart RJ, Gettins D, Owen JCE, Hunt SP (2002). Differences in the effects of the non-selective a2-adrenoceptors antatgonist, yohimbine, on the behaviour of NK1(-/-) and wild-type mice in a light/dark shuttle-box.
    • Stanford SC, McQuade R (2002). Distinctive changes in central norepinephrinergic transmission are by unconditioned and conditioned naturalistic environmental stimuli.
    • Stewart RJ, Gettins D, Owen JCE, Hunt SP, Stanford SC (2002). Differences in the effects of the non-selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, on the behaviour of NK1 (-/-) and wild-type mice in a light/dark shuttle-box.
    • Geranton SM, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2002). Inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis increases d-amphetamine evoked efflux of noradrenaline: A dual-probe microdialysis study in the frontal cortex and the hypothalamus of freely-moving rats.

    2001

    • Stanford SC (2001). 5-Hydroxytryptamine. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 187 - 209). : Wiley.
    • Krzyzanowska A, Gettins D, Stanford SC (2001). Circadian variation in the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, on behaviour of rats in a light-dark shuttle-box.
    • Geranton SM, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (2001). Contrasting effects of local infusion of d-amphetamine on noradrenaline efflux in rat hypothalamus and frontal cortex: a dual probe microdialysis study.
    • Stanford SC (2001). Depression. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 425 - 452). : Wiley.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (2001). Differences in central noradrenergic and behavioural responses of Maudsley NonReactive and Maudsley Reactive inbred rats on exposure to an aversive novel environment. Journal of Neurochemistry, 76, 21 - 28. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2001.00003.x
    • Stanford SC (2001). Encyclopedia of Life Sciences Adrenaline and noradrenaline: introduction.
    • Salmon P, Stanford SC, Mikhail G, Zielinski S, Pepper JR (2001). Hemodynamic and emotional responses to stress after cardiac transplantation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 289 - 299.
    • Geranton SM, Heal D, Stanford SC (2001). In vivo, dual-probe microdialysis study of the effects of local infusion of d-amphetamine on noradrenaline efflux in rat hypothalamus and frontal cortex.
    • Stanford SC (2001). Neurotransmitter release. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 81 - 102). : Wiley.
    • Stanford SC (2001). Noradrenaline. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 163 - 185). : Wiley.
    • (2001). Receptors: structure and function.
    • Webster RA, Stanford SC (2001). Sleep and Waking. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 477 - 498). : Wiley.
    • Stanford SC (2001). Anxiety. In Webster RA (Ed.), Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function (pp. 395 - 423). : Wiley.

    2000

    • Marsden CA, Stanford SC (2000). CNS Drugs III: Psychotherapeutics. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 9, 1923 - 1929.
    • Stanford SC, Stanford BJ (2000). Reply to J.L. Palmer - Postoperative delirium indicating an adverse drug interaction involving the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine?. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 14, 186 - 192.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (2000). The noradrenergic response in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus to preferred conditioned and unconditioned environmental stimuli.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (2000). A microdialysis study of the noradrenergic response in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus to a conditioned cue for aversive, naturalistic environmental stimuli. Psychopharmacology, 148, 201 - 208.

    1999

    • Stanford SC (1999). BBC website page ('A Living Hell: Pharmacology') Information for viewers of Professor Lewis Wolpert's television series on depression, http: //www.actiondepression.net.
    • Stanford SC (1999). SSRI-induced changes in catecholaminergic transmission. In Stanford SC (Ed.), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Past, Present and Future (pp. 147 - 170). : R.G. Landes Co.
    • Wortley K, Hughes ZA, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1999). Comparison of changes in the extracellular concentration of noradrenaline in rat frontal cortex induced by sibutramine or d-amphetamine: modulation by à2-adrenoceptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 127, 1860 - 1866.
    • Heal DJ, Wortley KE, Stanford SC (1999). Different effects of alpha-adrenceptor antagonism in rat frontal cortex and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on the increase in extracellular norepinephrine (NE) induced by sibutramine.
    • Stanford SC (1999). Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Pharmacological Assays (with CD ROM). Vogel H.G. & Vogel W.H. (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York & London. , , - .
    • McQuade R, Creton D, Stanford SC (1999). Effect of novel environmental stimuli on rat behaviour and central noradrenaline function measured by in vivo microdialysis. Psychopharmacology, 145, 393 - 400.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (1999). Effect of novel environments on extracellular noradrenaline in Maudsley rats.
    • Stanford SC, McQuade R (1999). Effects of unconditioned and conditioned environmental stimuli on the concentration of extracellular norepinephhrine (NE) in rat brain.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (1999). ENCP Congress. London.
    • Wortley KE, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1999). Modulation of sibutramine-induced increases in extracellular noradrenaline concentrations in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus by àlpha2-adrenoceptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 128, 659 - 666. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702859
    • Stanford SC (1999). Noradrenergic function in animal models of anxiety.
    • Stanford SC, Salmon P, Mikhail G, Gettins D, Zielinski S, Pepper JR (1999). Plasma catecholamines, pharmacotherapy and mood of subjects with cardiovascular disorder. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 255 - 260.
    • Stanford BJ, Stanford SC (1999). Post-operative delirium indicating an adverse drug interaction involving the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine?. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 313 - 317. doi:10.1177/026988119901300322
    • (1999). Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Past, Present and Future.
    • Stanford SC, McQuade R (1999). Society for Neuroscience. Miami Beach. October.
    • Heal DJ, Wortley KE, Stanford SC (1999). Society for Neuroscience. Miami Beach. October.
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (1999). Changes in extracellular noradrenaline induced by conditioned environmental stimuli: a microdialysis study in the freely-moving rat.

    1998

    • McQuade R, Tyrrell-Price J, Stanford SC (1998). The effect of microdialysis probe implantation on behaviour of rats in the light/dark box.
    • Mason K, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1998). The anxiogenic agents, yohimbine and FG 7142, disrupt the noradrenergic response to novelty.. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 60(2), 321 - 327.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1998). A partial noradrenergic lesion induced by DSP-4 increases extracellular noradrenaline concentration in rat frontal cortex: a microdialysis study. Psychopharmacology, 136, 299 - 303.
    • Stanford SC (1998). Better informed, but none the wiser. Review of . In Skolnick P (Ed.), Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (pp. 74 - 75). : Humana Press Inc..
    • McQuade R, Stanford SC (1998). Changes in extracellular noradrenaline in the rat frontral cortex in response to novel environments.
    • Wortley KE, Hughes ZA, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1998). Effect of halothane anaesthesia on extracellular noradrenaline in rat cortex.
    • Wortley KE, Hughes ZA, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1998). Effects of RX821002 on changes in extracellular noradrenaline concentration in rat frontal cortex induced by sibutramine or d-amphetamine.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1998). Evidence from microdialysis studies of rat cortex for noradrenaline uptake sites with different sensitivities to SSRIs. British Journal of Pharmacology, 124(6), 1141 - 1148. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701947
    • Stanford SC (1998). imidazol(in)es and a2-adrencoeptors. In Kaufman L, Ginsburg R (Ed.), Anaesthesia review (pp. 91 - 103). : .
    • Salmon P, Mikhail G, Stanford SC, Zielinski S, Pepper JR (1998). Psychological adjustment after cardiac transplantation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 45, 449 - 459.

    1997

    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1997). The effect of a DSP-4 lesion on extracellular noradrenaline in the rat frontal cortex.
    • Stanford SC, Mikhail G, Salmon P, Gettins D, Zielinski S, Pepper JR (1997). Psychological stress does not affect plasma catecholamines in subjects with cardiovascular disorder. Pharmacological Biochemical Behaviour, 58, 1167 - 1174. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(97)00335-3,
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1997). A microdialysis study of the effects of fluoxetine infusion on noradrenaline (NA) efflux in the frontal cortex of saline and DSP-4 treated rats.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1997). A serotonergic lesion does not affect inhibition of uptake of [3H]noradrenaline into rat cortical synaptosomes by fluoxetine, citalopram and desipramine.
    • Wortley KE, Hughes ZA, Mason K, Heal D, Stanford SC (1997). Comparison of the effects of sibutramine and d-amphetamine on the concentration of extracellular noradrenaline in rat frontal cortex: a microdialysis study.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1997). Prolonged increase in extracellular norepinephrine (NE) concentration in rat frontal cortex after a DSP-4 lesion: increased NE release rate in surviving neurones?.

    1996

    • Mason K, Heal D, Stanford SC (1996). A microdialysis study of the effect of flurazepam on noradrenaline efflux in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats after treatment with yohimbine.
    • Stanford SC (1996). Prozac: panacea or puzzle?. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 17(4), 150 - 154.
    • Stanford SC (1996). Stress: a major variable in the psychopharmacologic response.. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 54(1), 211 - 217.
    • Dalley JW, Mason K, Stanford SC (1996). Increased levels of extracellular noradrenaline in the frontal cortex of rats exposed to naturalistic environmental stimuli: modulation by acute systemic administration of diazepam or buspirone.. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 127(1), 47 - 54.
    • Stanford SC (1996). An indirect action for fluoxetine on the dopamine neurotransmitter system - Reply. TRENDS PHARMACOL SCI, 17(11), 401 - 402.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1996). Increased noradrenaline efflux induced by local infusion of fluoxetine in the rat frontal cortex.. Eur J Pharmacol, 317(1), 83 - 90.
    • Mason K, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1996). A microdialysis study of the effect of flurazepam on spontaneous and yohimbine-potentiated efflux of norepinephrine in rat frontal cortex. In McCarty R, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R (Ed.), Stress: molecular genetic and neurobiological advances (pp. 169 - 175). : Gordon and Breach Science.
    • Stanford SC (1996). Drugs used to treat anxiety and panic. In Kaufman L, Taberner P (Ed.), Pharmacology in the practice of anaesthesia (pp. 354 - 365). : .
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1996). A microdialysis study of the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine on noradrenaline efflux in the rat frontal cortex.

    1995

    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1995). Incremental changes in extracellular noradrenaline availability in the frontal cortex induced by naturalistic environmental stimuli: a microdialysis study in the freely moving rat.. J Neurochem, 65(6), 2644 - 2651.
    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1995). Contrasting effects of the imidazol(in)e alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, medetomidine, clonidine and UK 14,304 on extraneuronal levels of noradrenaline in the rat frontal cortex: evaluation using in vivo microdialysis and synaptosomal uptake studies.. Br J Pharmacol, 114(8), 1717 - 1723.
    • Davis S, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1995). Long-lasting effects of an acute stress on the neurochemistry and function of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in the mouse brain.. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 118(3), 267 - 272.
    • Manyande A, Berg S, Gettins D, Stanford SC, Mazhero S, Marks DF, Salmon P (1995). Preoperative rehearsal of active coping imagery influences subjective and hormonal responses to abdominal surgery.. Psychosom Med, 57(2), 177 - 182.
    • Hughes ZA, Stanford SC (1995). Lack of effect of a lesion of cortical noradrenergic neurones on inhibition of synaptosomal [3H]noraenaline uptake by 5-HT uptake inhibitors ex vivo.
    • Stanford SC (1995). Central noradrenergic neurones and stress.. Pharmacol Ther, 68(2), 297 - 242.
    • Smith SL, Mason K, Stanford SC, Prow MR, Heal DJ (1995). DSP-4 neurotoxicity in rat brain: effect on heat-shock protein expression and in vivo noradrenaline efflux.
    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1995). Equipotent modulation of noradrenaline reuptake in the rat cerebral cortex by desmethylimipramine (DMI) and the selective a2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine.
    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1995). Effects of diazepam and buspirone on novelty-induced noradrenaline overflow in rat cortex.
    • Mason K, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1995). An in vivo microdialysis study of the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats: effects of FG7142 or yohimbine on spontaneous and stress-induced changes in noradrenaline efflux.

    1994

    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1994). Paradoxical effects of an a2-adrenceptor agonist on cortical noradrenaline efflux: comparison in halothane-anaesthetised and freely-moving rats using dialysis.
    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1994). Graded changes in noradrenaline (NA) efflux in dialysates of the rat frontal cortex evoked by non-noxious stressors.
    • Dalley JW, Stanford SC (1994). Comparison of noradrenaline (NA) efflux in the frontal cortex of anaesthetised and freely moving rats using microdialysis.
    • Rous B, Gettins D, Stanford SC (1994). Cardiac B1- and B2-adrenoceptor upregulation after 6-OHDA-induced sympathectomy.
    • Stanford C, Davis S, Heal DJ, Stanford SC (1994). Sensitization of B-adrenoceptor downregulation in mouse cerebral cortex in response to a brief swim test.

    1993

    • Fillenz M, Stanford SC, Coles BG (1993). Changes in sympathetic nerve terminals in the heart of cold-exposed rats.. J Neurochem, 61(1), 132 - 137.
    • Hassall CJ, Stanford SC, Burnstock G, Buckley NJ (1993). Co-expression of four muscarinic receptor genes by the intrinsic neurons of the rat and guinea-pig heart.. Neuroscience, 56(4), 1041 - 1048.
    • Stanford C (1993). Alpha-adrenceptor agents in anaesthesia: new compounds override old problems. Journal of veterinary anaesthesia, 20, 63 - 65.
    • Stanford SC, Salmon P (1993). Decoding the neurochemical basis of resistance to stress: A reply [1]. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 7(1), 89 - 90.
    • Stanford SC (1993). Monoamines in response and adaptation to stress. In Stanford SC (Ed.), Stress: from synapse to syndrome (pp. 281 - 331). : .
    • (1993). Stress: From Synapse to Syndrome.

    1992

    • Stanford SC, Stanford BJ (1992). Drugs acting in the brain. In Kaufman L (Ed.), Anaesthesia Review 9 (pp. 127 - 144). : Churchill Livingstone.
    • Salmon P, Stanford SC (1992). Critique: Research strategies for decoding the neurochemical basis of resistance to stress.. J Psychopharmacol, 6(1), 1 - 7. doi:10.1177/026988119200600102
    • Stanford SC, Gettins D, Baldwin HA (1992). Non-noxious stress and the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, FG7142, have opposing effects on noradrenaline release in the rat frontal cortex.
    • Davis S, Heal DJ, Luscombe GP, Stanford SC (1992). Short- and long-latency effects of a brief swim test on central 5-HT2 receptor function and binding.
    • Davis S, Heal DJ, Salmon P, Stanford SC (1992). Vehicle-injection an adequate control for evaluating drug effects?.
    • Stanford SC, Salmon P (1992). β-Adrenoceptors and resistance to stress: old problems and new possibilities.. J Psychopharmacol, 6(1), 15 - 19. doi:10.1177/026988119200600106

    1991

    • Stanford C (1991). GTP analogues modify binding of [3H]dihydroalprenolol and isoprenaline in mouse cerebral cortex: effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142.
    • Terry P, Stanford SC, Salmon P (1991). Sympathoadrenal effects on extinction of rewarded running in the rat.. Physiol Behav, 49(6), 1043 - 1046.
    • Stanford SC (1991). Neurochemical basis of resistance to stress: the need for reappraisal of existing theories.

    1990

    • Stanford SC, Gettins D, Little HJ (1990). Adverse effects on rat cardiac function ex vivo after repeated administration of the benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, FG7142.. Br J Pharmacol, 99(3), 441 - 444.
    • Gettins D, Goldsack N, Ibegbuna V, Stanford SC (1990). Effects of GABAA receptor ligands on noradrenaline concentration and beta-adrenoceptor binding in mouse cerebral cortex.. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 102(3), 357 - 363.
    • Marsland AL, Salmon P, Terry P, Stanford SC (1990). Effects of propranolol on, and noradrenergic correlates of, the response to nonreward.. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 35(1), 41 - 46.
    • Stanford C (1990). The benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142 prevents modulation of agonist and antagonist ligand binding to cortical b-adrenoceptors.

    1989

    • Salmon P, Stanford SC (1989). Beta-adrenoceptor binding correlates with behaviour of rats in the open field.. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 98(3), 412 - 416.
    • Stanford SC, Baldwin HA, File SE (1989). Effects of a single or repeated administration of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142 on behaviour and cortical adrenoceptor binding in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 98(3), 417 - 424.
    • Stanford SC, Salmon P (1989). Neurochemical correlates of behavioural responses to frustrative nonreward in the rat: implications for the role of central noradrenergic neurones in behavioural adaptation to stress.. Exp Brain Res, 75(1), 133 - 138.

    1988

    • Stanford SC, Parker V, Morinan A (1988). Deficits in exploratory behaviour in socially isolated rats are not accompanied by changes in cerebral cortical adrenoceptor binding.. J Affect Disord, 15(2), 175 - 180.
    • Davies C, Stanford C, Steinberg H, Sykes EA, Terry P (1988). Psychopharmacological profile of backward locomotion of mice.
    • Gettins D, Goldsack N, Ibegbuna V, Stanford SC (1988). A single injection of pentylenetetrazol or picrotoxin modifies noradrenaline and beta-adrenoceptors in mouse cerebral cortex.
    • Stanford SC, Gettins D, Little HJ (1988). Evidence for deficits in cardiac function in vitro after kindling in vivo with the anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG7142.
    • Steinberg H, Davies C, Stanford C, Sykes EA, Terry P (1988). Immobility and backward walking induced by co-administration of clenbuterol, amityriptyline or imipramine with chlordiazepoxide in mice. Pharmacopsychoecologia, 1, 15 - 22.
    • Salmon P, Stanford C (1988). Peripheral noradrenaline depletion does not impair extinction of food-rewarded running in the rat. Journal of the autonomic nervous system, 23, 79 - 81.

    1987

    • Stanford SC, Taylor SC, Little HJ (1987). Chronic desipramine treatment prevents the upregulation of cortical beta-receptors caused by a single dose of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142.. Eur J Pharmacol, 139(2), 225 - 232.
    • Stanford C, Davies C, Steinberg H, Sykes EA (1987). Clenbuterol / chlordiazepoxide induced backward walking in mice is modified by mild stress.

    1986

    • Little HJ, Stanford SC, Taylor SC (1986). Beta-adrenoceptor upregulation after FG7142 is abolished by chronic treatment with the antidepressant desmethylimipramine.
    • Stanford SC, Little HJ, Nutt DJ, Taylor SC (1986). Effects of chronic treatment with benzodiazepine receptor ligands on cortical adrenoceptors. European Journal of Pharmacology, 129(1-2), 181 - 184.
    • Little HJ, Molyneux SG, Nutt DJ, Stanford SC, Taylor SC (1986). The effect of a single dose of FG-7142 on monoamine concentrations in mouse cerebral cortex.
    • Davies C, Stanford C, Steinberg H, Sykes E (1986). Unusual behavioural and binding effects after co-administration of clenbuterol and chlordiazepoxide in mice.
    • Stanford SC, Little HJ, Nutt DJ, Taylor SC (1986). A single dose of FG 7142 causes long-term increases in mouse cortical β-adrenoceptors. European Journal of Pharmacology, 134(3), 313 - 319.
    • Stanford SC, Waugh J (1986). Acute mild stress causes a2-adrenoceptor upregulation in rat cerebral cortex.
    • Boutelle MG, Stanford C, Fillenz M, Albery WJ, Bartlett PN (1986). An amperometric enzyme electrode for monitoring brain glucose in the freely moving rat. Neuroscience Letters, 72, 283 - 288.
    • Stanford C, Steinberg H, Sykes EA, Davies CE (1986). Anti-depressants and chlordiazepoxide cause backward walking.

    1985

    • Little HJ, Nutt DJ, Stanford SC, Taylor SC (1985). Adrenoceptor numbers increase after kindling with the benzodiazepine receptor ligand FG 7142.
    • Little HJ, Stanford SC, Taylor SC (1985). A single dose of the benzodiazepine receptor ligand FG 7142 causes prolonged b-adrenoceptor up-regulation in mouse brain.
    • Stanford SC, Jefferys JGR (1985). Down-regulation of α2- and β-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat cortex caused by amygdalar kindling. Experimental Neurology, 90(1), 108 - 117.
    • Anderson SMP, Fillenz M, Stanford C (1985). The effect of chronic mild stress on monoamine synthesis rate in rat cortical synaptosomes.
    • Salmon P, Stanford C, Gray JA (1985). The effect of peripheral noradrenaline depletion on responding on a schedule of differential reinforcement of low rates of response (DRL). Psychopharmacology, 87, 77 - 80.

    1984

    • Stanford C, Fillenz M, Ryan E (1984). The effect of repeated mild stress on cerebral cortical adrenoceptors and noradrenaline synthesis in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 45, 163 - 167.
    • Jefferys JGR, Stanford SC (1984). The effects of amygdalar kindling on alpha2 and beta-adrenoceptor binding in rat cortex.

    1983

    • Stanford C, Nutt DJ, Cowen PJ (1983). Comparison of the effects of chronic desmethylimipramine administration on a2- and b-adrenoceptors in different regions of rat brain. Neuroscience, 8, 161 - 164.
    • Drake-Holland AJ, Stanford SC, Templeton W (1983). Evidence for a role of dopamine in cardiac function.
    • Fillenz M, Ryan E, Stanford SC (1983). Slow adaptive changes in central noradrenergic neurones in the rat in response to repeated handling and saline injections.
    • Cowen PJ, Fraser S, Grahame-Smith DG, Green AR, Stanford C (1983). The effect of chronic antidepressant administration on b-adrenoceptor function of the rat pineal. British Journal of Pharmacology, 78, 089 - 096.

    1982

    • Drake AJ, Stanford C (1982). Effects of cardiac denervation on catecholamine levels in dog heart.
    • Stanford C, Nutt DJ (1982). Comparison of the effects of repeated electroconvulsive shock on a2- and b-adrenoceptors in different regions of rat brain. Neuroscience, 7, 1753 - 1757.
    • Drake AJ, Templeton WW, Stanford SC (1982). Evidence for a role of dopamine in cardiac function. Neurochemistry International, 4, 435 - 439.

    1981

    • Nutt D, Stanford C (1981). Decreased a2-adrenceptor numbers in rat brain following repeated electro-convulsive shock.
    • Nutt D, Stanford C (1981). Effects of repeated electro-convulsive shock on b-adrenoceptors in rat brain.
    • Stanford C (1981). Effects of tranylcypromine on central alpha and beta adrenoceptors of the rat.
    • Fillenz M, Stanford SC (1981). Vesicular noradrenaline stores in peripheral nerves of the rat and their modification by tranylcypromine. British Journal of Pharmacology, 73, 401 - 404.

    1979

    • Helle KB, Fillenz M, Stanford C, Pihl K, Srebro B (1979). A simplified method for raising antibodies to rat dopamine-b-hydroxylase. Journal of Neurochemistry, 32, 1351 - 1355.
    • Benedict CR, Fillenz M, Stanford C (1979). Noradrenaline release in rats during prolonged cold-stress and repeated swim-stress. British Journal of Pharmacology, 66, 521- - 524.

    1978

    • Fillenz M, Stanford SC (1978). Biochemical changes in sympathetic nerve terminal of cold-stressed rats.
    • Stanford C (1978). The presence of monoamines in the nervous system of Peripatopsis (Onychophora). Experientia, 34, 1577 - .
    • Benedict CR, Fillenz M, Stanford C (1978). Changes in plasma noradrenaline concentration as a measure of release rate. British Journal of Pharmacology, 64, 305 - 309.

    1977

    • Benedict CR, Fillenz M, Stanford C, Valero I (1977). Plasma noradrenaline levels as a measure of noradrenaline release.
    • Benedict CR, Fillenz M, Stanford SC (1977). Plasma noradrenaline levels during exposure to cold.

    1976

    • Stanford C (1976). Semi-quantitative estimation of changes in noradrenaline content and intraneuronal distribution in the rat vas deference by fluorescence histochemistry. Histochemistry, 50, 129 - 145.

    1974

    • Stanford C (1974). The relation of organ noradrenaline concentration and the fluorescence histochemical reaction.

    • Stanford C (). Animal model for ADHD.