Prof John Garthwaite

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Name: John Garthwaite Email: john.garthwaite@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 6694
Department: Wolfson Inst for Biomedical Research Fax: 020 7209 0470
Position: Professor of Experimental Neuroscience Address: WIBR, Cruciform Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Neuroscience Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

There are two main lines of research: (a), nitric oxide signalling in the brain, and (b), the pharmacology of voltage-gated sodium channels. (a). Nitric oxide signalling in the brain. Nitric oxide is a major transmitter in the central nervous system and, accordingly, is involved in a host of different functions, including learning and memory formation, feeding, sleeping, male and female reproductive behaviour, as well as in sensory and motor function. Some of these roles have been conserved through millions of years of evolution, in some cases dating back to animals with the most primitive nervous systems. Many clinical conditions (e.g. neurodegenerative and some psychiatric disorders) are also thought to involve aberrant nitric oxide transmission. The major part of our research is directed towards understanding how this signalling system operates in the brain at the cellular and molecular levels. There are several specific research projects, using a broad range of techniques (chiefly molecular biology, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry and biochemistry), which can be categorised as follows: 1. Measuring nitric oxide signals. A major deficiency is a lack of understanding of the nature of nitric oxide signals in the brain, for example their amplitude and duration. We are developing new biosensors that offer unparalleled sensitivity and specificity for this purpose. 2. Molecular pharmacology of nitric oxide receptors. As with any transmitter, understanding how its receptors function is vital for decoding the language of communication. The receptor proteins designed to detect nitric oxide contain an intrinsic guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain and so generate cyclic GMP on stimulation. The receptors provide an astonishing degree of amplication of even brief (sub-second), low amplitude (sub-nanomolar) nitric oxide signals.

Research Activities

Signalling in the brain

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Browne L, Lidster K, Al-Izki S, Clutterbuck L, Posada C, Chan AE, Riddall D, Garthwaite J, Baker D, Selwood DL (2014). Imidazol-1-ylethylindazole voltage gated sodium (Nav) channel ligands are neuroprotective during optic neuritis in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.. J Med Chem, , - . doi:10.1021/jm401881q
    • Bellefontaine N, Chachlaki K, Parkash J, Vanacker C, Colledge W, d'Anglemont de Tassigny X, Garthwaite J, Bouret SG, Prevot V (2014). Leptin-dependent neuronal NO signaling in the preoptic hypothalamus facilitates reproduction.. J Clin Invest, , - . doi:10.1172/JCI65928
    • Mota F, Allerston CK, Hampden-Smith K, Garthwaite J, Selwood DL (2014). Surface plasmon resonance using the catalytic domain of soluble guanylate cyclase allows the detection of enzyme activators.. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, , - . doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.01.015

    2013

    • Bartus K, Pigott B, Garthwaite J (2013). Cellular targets of nitric oxide in the hippocampus.. PLoS One, 8(2), e57292 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057292
    • Bhargava Y, Hampden-Smith K, Chachlaki K, Wood KC, Vernon J, Allerston CK, Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (2013). Improved genetically-encoded, FlincG-type fluorescent biosensors for neural cGMP imaging.. Front Mol Neurosci, 6, 26 - . doi:10.3389/fnmol.2013.00026
    • Pigott B, Bartus K, Garthwaite J (2013). On the selectivity of neuronal NOS inhibitors.. Br J Pharmacol, 168(5), 1255 - 1265. doi:10.1111/bph.12016
    • Al-Izki S, Pryce G, Hankey DJ, Lidster K, von Kutzleben SM, Browne L, Clutterbuck L, Posada C, Edith Chan AW, Amor S, Perkins V, Gerritsen WH, Ummenthum K, Peferoen-Baert R, van der Valk P, Montoya A, Joel SP, Garthwaite J, Giovannoni G, Selwood DL, Baker D (2013). Lesional-targeting of neuroprotection to the inflammatory penumbra in experimental multiple sclerosis.. Brain, , - . doi:10.1093/brain/awt324

    2012

    2011

    • Wood KC, Batchelor AM, Bartus K, Harris KL, Garthwaite G, Vernon J, Garthwaite J (2011). Picomolar nitric oxide signals from central neurons recorded using ultrasensitive detector cells.. J Biol Chem, 286(50), 43172 - 43181. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.289777

    2010

    • Garthwaite J (2010). New insight into the functioning of nitric oxide-receptive guanylyl cyclase: physiological and pharmacological implications. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 334(1-2), 221 - 232. doi:10.1007/s11010-009-0318-8
    • Wilson GW, Garthwaite J (2010). Hyperpolarization-activated ion channels as targets for nitric oxide signalling in deep cerebellar nuclei.. Eur J Neurosci, 31(11), 1935 - 1945. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07226.x
    • Garthwaite J (2010). Dynamics of cellular NO signal transduction. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2010.05.036
    • Batchelor AM, Bartus K, Reynell C, Constantinou S, Halvey EJ, Held KF, Dostmann WR, Vernon J, Garthwaite J (2010). Exquisite sensitivity to subsecond, picomolar nitric oxide transients conferred on cells by guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(51), 22060 - 22065. doi:10.1073/pnas.1013147107

    2009

    • Hall CN, Garthwaite J (2009). What is the real physiological NO concentration in vivo?. Nitric Oxide, 21(2), 92 - 103.
    • Wilson G, Garthwaite J (2009). Nitric Oxide. In Squire LR (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. 1151 - 1156). : Academic Press.
    • James IR, Griffiths CH, Garthwaite J, Bellamy TC (2009). Inhibition of nitric oxide-activated guanylyl cyclase by calmodulin antagonists. British Journal of Pharmacology, 158(6), 1454 - 1464.
    • Clutterbuck LA, Posada CG, Visintin C, Riddall DR, Lancaster B, Gane PJ, Garthwaite J, Selwood DL (2009). Oxadiazolylindazole Sodium Channel Modulators are Neuroprotective toward Hippocampal Neurones. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 52(9), 2694 - 2707. doi:10.1021/jm801180p
    • Hall CN, Keynes RG, Garthwaite J (2009). Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase participates in nitric oxide consumption by rat brain. Biochemical Journal, 419, 411 - 418. doi:10.1042/BJ20082419
    • Halvey EJ, Vernon J, Roy B, Garthwaite J (2009). Mechanisms of activity-dependent plasticity in cellular nitric oxide-cGMP signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284(38), 25630 - 25641.

    2008

    • Garthwaite J (2008). Concepts of neural nitric oxide-mediated transmission. European Journal of Neuroscience, 27(11), 2783 - 2802. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06285.x
    • Roy B, Vernon J, Garthwaite J (2008). Probing the presence of the ligand-binding haem in cellular nitric oxide receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 153, 1495 - 1504.
    • Roy B, Halvey EJ, Garthwaite J (2008). An Enzyme-linked Receptor Mechanism for Nitric Oxide-activated Guanylyl Cyclase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(27), 18841 - 18851.

    2007

    • Garthwaite J (2007). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the serotonin transporter get harmonious. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(19), 7739 - 7740.
    • Bartus K, Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (2007). Blood vessels signalling to neurones through nitric oxide. Physiology News, 67, 25 - 26.

    2006

    • Riddall D, Leach MJ, Garthwaite J (2006). A novel drug binding site on voltage-gated sodium channels in rat brain. Molecular Pharmacology, 69(1), 278 - 287.
    • Garthwaite G, Bartus K, Malcolm D, Goodwin D, Kollb-Sielecka M, Dooldeniya C, Garthwaite J (2006). Signaling from blood vessels to CNS axons through nitric oxide. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(29), 7730 - 7740. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1528-06.2006
    • Roy B, Garthwaite J (2006). Nitric oxide activation of guanylyl cyclase in cells revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(32), 12185 - 12190. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602544103
    • Hall CN, Garthwaite J (2006). Inactivation of nitric oxide by rat cerebellar slices.. The Journal of Physiology, 577(2), 549 - 567.
    • Garthwaite G, Bartus K, Malcolm D, Goodwin D, Kollb-Sielecka M, Dooldeniya C, Garthwaite J (2006). Signaling from blood vessels to CNS axons through nitric oxide (vol 26, pg 7730, 2006). J NEUROSCI, 26(32), - .
    • Hopper RA, Garthwaite J (2006). Tonic and phasic nitric oxide signals in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(45), 11513 - 11521. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2259-06.2006

    2005

    • Garthwaite G, Batchelor AM, Goodwin DA, Hewson AK, Leeming K, Ahmed Z, Cuzner ML, Garthwaite J (2005). Pathological implications of iNOS expression in central white matter: an ex vivo study of optic nerves from rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21(8), 2127 - 2135.
    • Duport S, Garthwaite J (2005). Pathological consequences of iNOS expression in hippocampal slice cultures.. Neuroscience, (135), 1155 - 1166.
    • Duport S, Garthwaite J (2005). Pathological consequences of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hippocampal slice cultures.. Neuroscience, 135(4), 1155 - 1166. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.06.035
    • Garthwaite G, Batchelor AM, Goodwin DA, Hewson AK, Leeming K, Ahmed Z, Cuzner ML, Garthwaite J (2005). Pathological implications of iNOS expression in central white matter: an ex vivo study of optic nerves from rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.. Eur J Neurosci, 21(8), 2127 - 2135. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04062.x
    • Hall CN, Garthwaite J (2005). Trans-synaptic signalling by nitric oxide. In Ludwig M (Ed.), Dendritic Transmitter Release (pp. 283 - 300). : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
    • Keynes RG, Griffiths CH, Hall C, Garthwaite J (2005). Nitric oxide consumption through lipid peroxidation in brain cell suspensions and homogenates.. Biochemical Journal, (387), 685 - 694.
    • Garthwaite J (2005). Dynamics of cellular NO-cGMP signalling. Frontiers in Bioscience, (10), 1868 - 1880.

    2004

    • Keynes RG, Griffiths C, Hall C, Garthwaite J (2004). Nitric oxide inactivation by at least two mechanisms in rat brain tissue.
    • Hopper R, Lancaster B, Garthwaite J (2004). On the regulation of NMDA receptors by nitric oxide. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 1675 - 1682.
    • Keynes RG, Garthwaite J (2004). Nitric Oxide and its role in ischaemic brain injury.. Current Molecular Medicine, 4, 179 - 181.
    • Wykes V, Garthwaite J (2004). Membrane-association and the sensitivity of guanylyl cyclase-coupled receptors to nitric oxide.. British Journal of Pharmacology, 141, 1087 - 1090.
    • Hall CN, Griffiths C, Keynes RG, Garthwaite J (2004). Nitric oxide inactivation in rat brain tissue by a novel oxygen-dependent mechanism.
    • Hopper R, Lancaster B, Garthwaite J (2004). On the regulation of NMDA receptors by nitric oxide. EUR J NEUROSCI, 19(7), 1675 - 1682. doi:10.1111/j.1460.9568.2004.03306.x
    • Garthwaite J (2004). Nitric oxide in brain pathology.
    • Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (2004). Cerebellum: messenger molecules. In Adelman G, Smith BH (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. - ). : Elsevier.
    • Keynes RG, Duport S, Garthwaite J (2004). Hippocampal neurons in organotypic slice culture are highly resident to damage by endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 1163 - 1173.
    • Mo E, Amin H, Bianco IH, Garthwaite J (2004). Kinetics of a cellular nitric oxide/cGMP/phosphodiesterase-5 pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(25), 26149 - 26158.

    2003

    • Gibb BJ, Wykes V, Garthwaite J (2003). Properties of NO-activated guanylyl cyclases expressed in cells. British Journal of Pharmacology, 139, 1032 - 1040.
    • Bon CLM, Garthwaite J (2003). On the role of nitric oxide in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 1941 - 1948.
    • Griffiths C, Wykes V, Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2003). A new and simple method for delivering clamped nitric oxide concentrations in the physiological range: application to activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled nitric oxide receptors.. Molecular Pharmacology, 64, 1349 - 1356.
    • Keynes RG, Griffiths C, Garthwaite J (2003). Superoxide-dependent consumption of nitric oxide in biological media may confound in vitro experiments. Biochemical Journal, 369, 399 - 406.

    2002

    • Bellamy TC, Wood J, Garthwaite J (2002). On the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by nitric oxide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 507 - 510.
    • Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2002). Pharmacology of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, in cerebellar cells. British Journal of Pharmacology, 136, 95 - 103.
    • Garthwaite G, Goodwin DA, Neale S, Riddall D, Garthwaite J (2002). Soluble guanylyl cyclase activator YC-1 protects white matter axons from nitric oxide toxicity and metabolic stress, probably through Na+ channel inhibition. Molecular Pharmacology, 61(61), 97 - 104.
    • Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2002). The receptor-like properties of nitric oxide-activated soluble guanylyl cyclase in intact cells. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 230, 165 - 176.
    • Garthwaite J (2002). Perspective on NO in brain function. EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARM, 12, S103 - S103.
    • Bellamy TC, Griffiths C, Garthwaite J (2002). Differential sensitivity of guanylyl cyclase and mitochondrial respiration to nitric oxide measured using clamped concentrations. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 31801 - 31807. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205936200
    • Griffiths C, Yamini B, Hall C, Garthwaite J (2002). Nitric oxide inactivation in brain by a novel O-2-dependent mechanism resulting in the formation of nitrate ions (vol 362, pg 459, 2002). BIOCHEM J, 363, 839 - 839.
    • Griffiths C, Yamini B, Hall C, Garthwaite J (2002). Nitric oxide inactivation in brain by a novel O2-dependent mechanism resulting in the formation of nitrate ions.. Biochem J, 362(Pt 2), 459 - 464.
    • Bon CLM, Garthwaite J (2002). Adenosine acting on A1 receptors protects NO-triggered rebound potentiation and LTP in rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 1781 - 1789.
    • Garthwaite J, Bellamy TC, Griffiths C (2002). Constraining nitric oxide signalling within physiological limits.
    • Garthwaite J (2002). Constraining nitric oxide signals within physiological limits in brain and other tissues. FREE RADICAL BIO MED, 33, S41 - S42.
    • Griffiths C, Garthwaite G, Goodwin DA, Garthwaite J (2002). Dynamics of nitric oxide during simulated ischaemia-reperfusion in rat striatal slices measured using an intrinsic biosensor, soluble guanylyl cyclase. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 962 - 968.
    • Wykes V, Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2002). Kinetics of nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signalling in CNS cells and its possible regulation by cyclic GMP. Journal of Neurochemistry, 83, 37 - 47.
    • Griffiths C, Yamini B, Hall C, Garthwaite J (2002). Nitric oxide inactivation in brain by a novel 02 -dependent mechanism resulting in the formation of nitrate ions. Biochemical Journal, 362, 459 - 464.
    • Garthwaite G, Goodwin DA, Batchelor AM, Leeming K, Garthwaite J (2002). Nitric oxide toxicity in CNS white matter: an in vitro study using rat optic nerve. Neuroscience, 109(1), 145 - 155.

    2001

    • Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2001). Sub-second kinetics of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, in intact cerebellar cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 4287 - 4292. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006677200
    • Bellamy TC, Garthwaite J (2001). "cAMP-specific" phosphodiesterase contributes to cGMP degradation in cerebellar cells exposed to nitric oxide. Molecular Pharmacology, 59, 54 - 61.
    • Griffiths C, Garthwaite J (2001). The shaping of nitric oxide signals by a cellular sink. The Journal of Physiology, 536, 855 - 862.
    • Gibb BJ, Garthwaite J (2001). Subunits of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, expressed in rat brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 539 - 544.
    • Bon CLM, Garthwaite J (2001). Nitric oxide-induced potentiation of CA1 hippocampal synaptic transmission during baseline stimulation is strictly frequency-dependent. Neuropharmacology, 40, 501 - 507.
    • Neale SA, Garthwaite J, Batchelor AM (2001). mGlu1 receptors mediate a post-tetanic depression at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in rat cerebellum . European Journal of Neuroscience, 14(8), 1313 - 1319.
    • Neale SA, Garthwaite J, Batchelor AM (2001). Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes modulating neurotransmission at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in rat cerebellum. Neuropharmacology, 41(1), 42 - 49.
    • Bon CLM, Garthwaite J (2001). Exogenous nitric oxide causes potentiation of hippocampal synaptic transmission during low-frequency stimulation via the endogenous nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 585 - 594.

    2000

    • Garthwaite J (2000). The physiological roles of NO in the central nervous system. In Mayer B (Ed.), Nitric Oxide (pp. 259 - 275). : Springer-Verlag.
    • Gibb BJ, Garthwaite J (2000). Soluble guanylyl cyclase: Location of the four known subunits within rat cerebellum. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 470 - 470.
    • Bellamy TC, Wood J, Goodwin DA, Garthwaite J (2000). Rapid desensitization of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase underlies diversity of cellular cGMP responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 2928 - 2933.
    • Bon CLM, Garthwaite J (2000). Mechanism of action of nitric oxide on hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 461 - 461.
    • del Rio E, Kremmer E, Muller F, Kongeter A, Kaupp UB, Garthwaite J (2000). Immunolocalization of the cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha-3 subunit in the developing and adult rat brain. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 454 - 454.
    • Duport S, Keynes RG, Garthwaite J (2000). Distribution of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in organotypic slice cultures of rat brain. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 471 - 471.
    • Bellamy TC, Wood J, Goodwin DA, Garthwaite J (2000). Unexpected properties of the nitric oxide receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase, in cerebellar cells. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 33 - 33.

    1999

    • Strijbos PJLM, Pratt GD, Khan S, Charles I, Garthwaite J (1999). Molecular characterisation and in situ localisation of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel in rat brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 4463 - 4467.
    • Garthwaite G, Goodwin DA, Garthwaite J (1999). Nitric oxide stimulates cGMP formation in rat optic nerve axons, providing a specific marker of axon viability. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 4367 - 4372.
    • Vetter P, Garthwaite J, Batchelor AM (1999). Regulation of synaptic transmission in the mossy fibre-granule cell pathway of rat cerebellum by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology, 38, 805 - 815.
    • Garthwaite G, Brown G, Batchelor AM, Goodwin DA, Garthwaite J (1999). Mechanisms of ischaemic damage to central white matter axons: a quantitative histological analysis using rat optic nerve. Neuroscience, 94(4), 1219 - 1230.

    1998

    • Garthwaite J (1998). Nitric oxide signal transduction in the central nervous system. J NEUROCHEM, 71, S77 - S77.
    • Griffiths C, Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1998). The glutamate nitric oxide pathway in an in vitro model of ischaemia. EUR J NEUROSCI, 10, 98 - 98.
    • Irving AJ, Boulton CL, Garthwaite J, Collingridge GL (1998). Effects of 8-bromo-cGMP on Ca2+ signalling in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 506P, 149P - 150P.

    1997

    • Eilers J, Batchelor A, Garthwaite J, Konnerth A (1997). Synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors produces dendritic calcium transients in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PFLUG ARCH EUR J PHY, 433(6), P549 - P549.
    • Batchelor AM, Knopfel T, Gasparini F, Garthwaite J (1997). Pharmacological characterization of synaptic transmission through mGluRs in rat cerebellar slices. Neuropharmacology, 36(3), 401 - 403.
    • Abraha HD, Butterworth RJ, Bath PMW, Wassif WS, Garthwaite J, Sherwood RA (1997). Serum S-100 protein, relationship to clinical outcome in acute stroke. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 34(4), 366 - 370.
    • Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (1997). Frequency detection and temporally dispersed synaptic signal association through a metabotropic glutamate receptor pathway. Nature, 385(6611), 74 - 77.
    • Abraha HD, Butterworth RJ, Bath PM, Wassif WS, Garthwaite J, Sherwood RA (1997). Serum S-100 protein, relationship to clinical outcome in acute stroke.. Ann Clin Biochem, 34 ( Pt 5), 546 - 550.

    1996

    • Garthwaite J (1996). Mechanism of action of lamotrigine.
    • Garthwaite J, Batchelor AM (1996). A biplanar slice preparation for studying cerebellar synaptic transmission.. J Neurosci Methods, 64(2), 189 - 197.
    • Boxall AR, Lancaster B, Garthwaite J (1996). Tyrosine kinase is required for long-term depression in the cerebellum.. Neuron, 16(4), 805 - 813.
    • Bushell TJ, Jane DE, Tse HW, Watkins JC, Garthwaite J, Collingridge GL (1996). Pharmacological antagonism of the actions of group II and III mGluR agonists in the lateral perforant path of rat hippocampal slices.. Br J Pharmacol, 117(7), 1457 - 1462.
    • Salter M, Duffy C, Garthwaite J, Strijbos PJ (1996). Ex vivo measurement of brain tissue nitrite and nitrate accurately reflects nitric oxide synthase activity in vivo.. J Neurochem, 66(4), 1683 - 1690.
    • Salter M, Strijbos PJ, Neale S, Duffy C, Follenfant RL, Garthwaite J (1996). The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway is required for nociceptive signalling at specific loci within the somatosensory pathway.. Neuroscience, 73(3), 649 - 655.
    • Xie XM, Garthwaite J (1996). State-dependent inhibition of Na+ currents by the neuroprotective agent 619C89 in rat hippocampal neurons and in a mammalian cell line expressing rat brain type IIA Na+ channels.. Neuroscience, 73(4), 951 - 962.
    • Batchelor AM, Vranesic I, Del Principe F, Garthwaite J, Knöpfel T (1996). The synaptic potential mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors is not associated with a substantial elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration in Purkinje cells.. Neuroreport, 7(12), 1949 - 1952.
    • Strijbos PJ, Leach MJ, Garthwaite J (1996). Vicious cycle involving Na+ channels, glutamate release, and NMDA receptors mediates delayed neurodegeneration through nitric oxide formation.. J Neurosci, 16(16), 5004 - 5013.
    • Southam E, Charles SL, Garthwaite J (1996). The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway and synaptic plasticity in the rat superior cervical ganglion.. Br J Pharmacol, 119(3), 527 - 532.
    • Boxall AR, Garthwaite J (1996). Long-term depression in rat cerebellum requires both NO synthase and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase.. Eur J Neurosci, 8(10), 2209 - 2212.
    • Butterworth RJ, Wassif WS, Sherwood RA, Gerges A, Poyser KH, Garthwaite J, Peters TJ, Bath PM (1996). Serum neuron-specific enolase, carnosinase, and their ratio in acute stroke. An enzymatic test for predicting outcome?. Stroke, 27(11), 2064 - 2068.
    • Southam E, Garthwaite J (1996). Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway in brain slices.. Methods Enzymol, 269, 129 - 133.

    1995

    • BOXALL AR, LANCASTER B, GARTHWAITE J (1995). TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS BLOCK LONG-TERM DEPRESSION (LTD) OF AMPA RECEPTOR-MEDIATED SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN RAT CEREBELLAR SLICES. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 487P, P55 - P55.
    • Boulton CL, Southam E, Garthwaite J (1995). Nitric oxide-dependent long-term potentiation is blocked by a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase.. Neuroscience, 69(3), 699 - 703.
    • Garthwaite J, Southam E, Boulton CL, Nielsen EB, Schmidt K, Mayer B (1995). Potent and selective inhibition of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one.. Mol Pharmacol, 48(2), 184 - 188.
    • Xie X, Lancaster B, Peakman T, Garthwaite J (1995). Interaction of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine with recombinant rat brain type IIA Na+ channels and with native Na+ channels in rat hippocampal neurones.. Pflugers Arch, 430(3), 437 - 446.
    • Garthwaite J, Boulton CL (1995). Nitric oxide signaling in the central nervous system.. Annu Rev Physiol, 57, 683 - 706. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.003343
    • Boxall AR, Garthwaite J (1995). Synaptic excitation mediated by AMPA receptors in rat cerebellar slices is selectively enhanced by aniracetam and cyclothiazide.. Neurochem Res, 20(5), 605 - 609.
    • XIE XM, LANCASTER B, PEAKMAN T, GARTHWAITE J (1995). SELECTIVE INTERACTION OF LAMOTRIGINE WITH SLOW INACTIVATED RAT-BRAIN NA CHANNELS. EPILEPSIA, 36, S40 - S40.
    • Bushell TJ, Jane DE, Tse HW, Watkins JC, Davies CH, Garthwaite J, Collingridge GL (1995). Antagonism of the synaptic depressant actions of L-AP4 in the lateral perforant path by MAP4.. Neuropharmacology, 34(2), 239 - 241.
    • Garthwaite J (1995). Neural nitric oxide signalling.. Trends Neurosci, 18(2), 51 - 52.
    • Salter M, Duffy C, Garthwaite J, Strijbos PJ (1995). Substantial regional and hemispheric differences in brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition following intracerebroventricular administration of N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and its methyl ester (L-NAME).. Neuropharmacology, 34(6), 639 - 649.

    1994

    • Wood J, Garthwaite J (1994). Models of the diffusional spread of nitric oxide: implications for neural nitric oxide signalling and its pharmacological properties.. Neuropharmacology, 33(11), 1235 - 1244.
    • Batchelor AM, Madge DJ, Garthwaite J (1994). Synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell pathway in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 63(4), 911 - 915.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1994). Nitric oxide does not mediate acute glutamate neurotoxicity, nor is it neuroprotective, in rat brain slices.. Neuropharmacology, 33(11), 1431 - 1438.
    • Morris R, Southam E, Gittins SR, de Vente J, Garthwaite J (1994). The NO-cGMP pathway in neonatal rat dorsal horn.. Eur J Neurosci, 6(5), 876 - 879.
    • Boulton CL, Irving AJ, Southam E, Potier B, Garthwaite J, Collingridge GL (1994). The nitric oxide--cyclic GMP pathway and synaptic depression in rat hippocampal slices.. Eur J Neurosci, 6(10), 1528 - 1535.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1994). NITRIC-OXIDE IN THE NERVOUS-SYSTEM - EDITORIAL. NEUROPHARMACOLOGY, 33(11), R5 - R5.

    1993

    • Southam E, Garthwaite J (1993). The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signalling pathway in rat brain.. Neuropharmacology, 32(11), 1267 - 1277.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1993). NITRIC-OXIDE SIGNALING IN THE NERVOUS-SYSTEM. SEMIN NEUROSCI, 5(3), 171 - 180.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1993). RETROGRADE MESSENGERS - INTRODUCTION. SEMIN NEUROSCI, 5(3), 147 - 147.
    • IRVING AJ, BOULTON CL, GARTHWAITE J, COLLINGRIDGE GL (1993). CGMP MAY MEDIATE TRANSIENT SYNAPTIC DEPRESSION IN RAT HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 467, P182 - P182.
    • Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (1993). Novel synaptic potentials in cerebellar Purkinje cells: probable mediation by metabotropic glutamate receptors.. Neuropharmacology, 32(1), 11 - 20.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1993). NITRIC-OXIDE SIGNALING IN THE NERVOUS-SYSTEM.
    • BOULTON CL, IRVING AJ, COLLINGRIDGE GL, GARTHWAITE J (1993). NITRIC-OXIDE INDUCES TRANSIENT SYNAPTIC DEPRESSION IN RAT HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 467, P181 - P181.
    • Morris R, Southam E, Gittins SR, Garthwaite J (1993). NADPH-diaphorase staining in autonomic and somatic cranial ganglia of the rat.. Neuroreport, 4(1), 62 - 64.
    • GARTHWAITE J, SOUTHAM E, MORRIS R (1993). INTER-CELLULAR SIGNALING BY NITRIC-OXIDE.

    1992

    • Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (1992). GABAB Receptors in the Parallel Fibre Pathway of Rat Cerebellum.. Eur J Neurosci, 4(11), 1059 - 1064.
    • East SJ, Garthwaite J (1992). Actions of a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist in immature and adult rat cerebellum.. Eur J Pharmacol, 219(3), 395 - 400.
    • Hansel C, Batchelor A, Cuénod M, Garthwaite J, Knöpfel T, Do KQ (1992). Delayed increase of extracellular arginine, the nitric oxide precursor, following electrical white matter stimulation in rat cerebellar slices.. Neurosci Lett, 142(2), 211 - 214.
    • HANSEL C, BATCHELOR A, CUENOD M, GARTHWAITE J, KNOPFEL T, DO KQ (1992). DELAYED INCREASE OF EXTRACELLULAR ARGININE, THE NITRIC-OXIDE PRECURSOR, FOLLOWING ELECTRICAL WHITE MATTER STIMULATION IN RAT CEREBELLAR SLICES. EUR J NEUROSCI, , 124 - 124.
    • Southam E, Morris R, Garthwaite J (1992). Sources and targets of nitric oxide in rat cerebellum.. Neurosci Lett, 137(2), 241 - 244.
    • Morris R, Southam E, Braid DJ, Garthwaite J (1992). Nitric oxide may act as a messenger between dorsal root ganglion neurones and their satellite cells.. Neurosci Lett, 137(1), 29 - 32.
    • Garthwaite G, Williams GD, Garthwaite J (1992). Glutamate Toxicity: An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis.. Eur J Neurosci, 4(4), 353 - 360.
    • SOUTHAM E, GARTHWAITE J (1992). LOCATION OF NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE AND CYCLIC-GMP IN RAT CEREBELLUM.
    • Garthwaite G, Hajos F, Garthwaite J (1992). Morphological response of endoplasmic reticulum in cerebellar Purkinje cells to calcium deprivation.. Neuroscience, 48(3), 681 - 688.
    • GARTHWAITE J, GARTHWAITE G (1992). NEURODEGENERATIVE MECHANISMS INDUCED BY EXCITATORY AMINO-ACID RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN RAT-BRAIN SLICES.
    • GARTHWAITE J, SOUTHAM E, EAST SJ (1992). NITRIC-OXIDE AND CELL-CELL SIGNALING IN THE BRAIN.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1992). NITRIC-OXIDE IN THE BRAIN.
    • EAST SJ, BATCHELOR AM, GARTHWAITE J (1992). SELECTIVE BLOCKADE OF N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE-RECEPTOR FUNCTION BY THE NITRIC-OXIDE DONOR, SODIUM-NITROPRUSSIDE.
    • GARTHWAITE J, SOUTHAM E (1992). THE NITRIC-OXIDE - CYCLIC-GMP PATHWAY IN THE BRAIN.

    1991

    • East SJ, Batchelor AM, Garthwaite J (1991). Selective blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by the nitric oxide donor, nitroprusside.. Eur J Pharmacol, 209(1-2), 119 - 121.
    • Vranesic I, Batchelor A, Gähwiler BH, Garthwaite J, Staub C, Knöpfel T (1991). Trans-ACPD-induced Ca2+ signals in cerebellar Purkinje cells.. Neuroreport, 2(12), 759 - 762.
    • DANGELO E, ROSSI P, GARTHWAITE J, TANZI F, TAGLIETTI V (1991). MG++ BLOCK OF NMDA CHANNELS IN SPONTANEOUS SYNAPTIC CURRENTS.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1991). Mechanisms of AMPA Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain Slices.. Eur J Neurosci, 3(8), 729 - 736.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1991). GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS AND NITRIC-OXIDE FORMATION.
    • Southam E, Garthwaite J (1991). Climbing Fibres as a Source of Nitric Oxide in the Cerebellum.. Eur J Neurosci, 3(4), 379 - 382.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1991). AMPA Neurotoxicity in Rat Cerebellar and Hippocampal Slices: Histological Evidence for Three Mechanisms.. Eur J Neurosci, 3(8), 715 - 728.
    • Garthwaite J (1991). Glutamate, nitric oxide and cell-cell signalling in the nervous system.. Trends Neurosci, 14(2), 60 - 67.
    • East SJ, Garthwaite J (1991). NMDA receptor activation in rat hippocampus induces cyclic GMP formation through the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.. Neurosci Lett, 123(1), 17 - 19.
    • Southam E, East SJ, Garthwaite J (1991). Excitatory amino acid receptors coupled to the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in rat cerebellum during development.. J Neurochem, 56(6), 2072 - 2081.
    • Southam E, Garthwaite J (1991). Comparative effects of some nitric oxide donors on cyclic GMP levels in rat cerebellar slices.. Neurosci Lett, 130(1), 107 - 111.
    • Southam E, Garthwaite J (1991). Intercellular action of nitric oxide in adult rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroreport, 2(11), 658 - 660.

    1990

    • SOUTHAM E, GARTHWAITE J (1990). NITRIC-OXIDE FORMATION IN RESPONSE TO KAINATE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN RAT CEREBELLUM.
    • Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G (1990). Mechanisms of excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity in rat brain slices.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 268, 505 - 518.
    • Garthwaite J, Brodbelt AR (1990). Glutamate as the Principal Mossy Fibre Transmitter in Rat Cerebellum: pharmacological evidence.. Eur J Neurosci, 2(2), 177 - 180.
    • GARTHWAITE G, GARTHWAITE J, HAJOS F (1990). SELECTIVE MORPHOLOGICAL-CHANGES IN THE ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM OF RAT CEREBELLAR PURKINJE-CELLS INDUCED BY CALCIUM DEPRIVATION INVITRO. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 424, P50 - P50.
    • GARTHWAITE J, SOUTHAM E (1990). NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHESIS ON ACTIVATION OF QUISQUALATE RECEPTORS IN ADULT-RAT CEREBELLAR SLICES. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 424, P49 - P49.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1990). NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHESIS LINKED TO ACTIVATION OF EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS IN THE BRAIN.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1990). EXCITATORY AMINO-ACID RECEPTORS AND CHANNELS. EUR J PHARMACOL, 183(1), 150 - 150.
    • D'Angelo E, Rossi P, Garthwaite J (1990). Dual-component NMDA receptor currents at a single central synapse.. Nature, 346(6283), 467 - 470. doi:10.1038/346467a0
    • East SJ, Garthwaite J (1990). Nanomolar N(G)-nitroarginine inhibits NMDA-induced cyclic GMP formation in rat cerebellum.. Eur J Pharmacol, 184(2-3), 311 - 313.
    • Meldrum B, Garthwaite J (1990). Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease.. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 11(9), 379 - 387.
    • GARTHWAITE J, GAYTON RJ, TAYLOR DCM (1990). A PELTIER-BASED SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING THE TEMPERATURE OF A GREASE-GAP SLICE CHAMBER. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 424, P4 - P4.

    1989

    • Garthwaite J, Southam E, Anderton M (1989). A kainate receptor linked to nitric oxide synthesis from arginine.. J Neurochem, 53(6), 1952 - 1954.
    • Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G, Palmer RM, Moncada S (1989). NMDA receptor activation induces nitric oxide synthesis from arginine in rat brain slices.. Eur J Pharmacol, 172(4-5), 413 - 416.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1989). Neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists in young rat hippocampal slices.. J Neurosci Methods, 29(1), 33 - 42.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1989). Quisqualate neurotoxicity: a delayed, CNQX-sensitive process triggered by a CNQX-insensitive mechanism in young rat hippocampal slices.. Neurosci Lett, 99(1-2), 113 - 118.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1989). Differential dependence on Ca2+ of N-methyl-D-aspartate and quisqualate neurotoxicity in young rat hippocampal slices.. Neurosci Lett, 97(3), 316 - 322.
    • Hajós F, Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G, Csillag A (1989). Morphology of supravital brain slices pre-incubated in a physiological solution prior to fixation.. Acta Morphol Hung, 37(3-4), 181 - 199.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1989). NMDA RECEPTORS, NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT AND NEURODEGENERATION.
    • Garthwaite J, Brodbelt AR (1989). Synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the mossy fibre pathway in adult and immature rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 29(2), 401 - 412.
    • Garthwaite J, Beaumont PS (1989). Excitatory amino acid receptors in the parallel fibre pathway in rat cerebellar slices.. Neurosci Lett, 107(1-3), 151 - 156.

    1988

    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1988). Cyclic GMP and cell death in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 26(1), 321 - 326.
    • Garthwaite J, Charles SL, Chess-Williams R (1988). Endothelium-derived relaxing factor release on activation of NMDA receptors suggests role as intercellular messenger in the brain.. Nature, 336(6197), 385 - 388. doi:10.1038/336385a0
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1988). Electron microscopic autoradiography of D-[3H]aspartate uptake sites in mouse cerebellar slices shows poor labelling of mossy fibre terminals.. Brain Res, 440(1), 162 - 166.

    1987

    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1987). Receptor-linked ionic channels mediate N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity in rat cerebellar slices.. Neurosci Lett, 83(3), 241 - 246.
    • Garthwaite G, Yamini B, Garthwaite J (1987). Selective loss of Purkinje and granule cell responsiveness to N-methyl-D-aspartate in rat cerebellum during development.. Brain Res, 433(2), 288 - 292.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1987). Quinolinate mimics neurotoxic actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate in rat cerebellar slices.. Neurosci Lett, 79(1-2), 35 - 39.
    • Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G (1987). Cellular origins of cyclic GMP responses to excitatory amino acid receptor agonists in rat cerebellum in vitro.. J Neurochem, 48(1), 29 - 39.

    1986

    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1986). Amino acid neurotoxicity: intracellular sites of calcium accumulation associated with the onset of irreversible damage to rat cerebellar neurones in vitro.. Neurosci Lett, 71(1), 53 - 58.
    • Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G, Hajós F (1986). Amino acid neurotoxicity: relationship to neuronal depolarization in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 18(2), 449 - 460.
    • BUNN SJ, GARTHWAITE J, WILKIN GP (1986). GUANYLATE-CYCLASE ACTIVITIES IN ENRICHED PREPARATIONS OF NEURONS, ASTROGLIA AND A SYNAPTIC COMPLEX ISOLATED FROM RAT CEREBELLUM. NEUROCHEM INT, 8(2), 179 - 185.
    • Garthwaite G, Hajós F, Garthwaite J (1986). Ionic requirements for neurotoxic effects of excitatory amino acid analogues in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 18(2), 437 - 447.
    • Hajós F, Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1986). Reversible and irreversible neuronal damage caused by excitatory amino acid analogues in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 18(2), 417 - 436.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1986). Neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists in rat cerebellar slices: dependence on calcium concentration.. Neurosci Lett, 66(2), 193 - 198.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1986). In vitro neurotoxicity of excitatory acid analogues during cerebellar development.. Neuroscience, 17(3), 755 - 767.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1986). PARALLEL-FIBER-MEDIATED AND MOSSY-FIBER-MEDIATED SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN RAT CEREBELLAR SLICES MONITORED USING A GREASE-GAP METHOD. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 371, P16 - P16.

    1985

    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1985). Sites of D-[3H]aspartate accumulation in mouse cerebellar slices.. Brain Res, 343(1), 129 - 136.
    • Garthwaite J (1985). Cellular uptake disguises action of L-glutamate on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. With an appendix: diffusion of transported amino acids into brain slices.. Br J Pharmacol, 85(1), 297 - 307.

    1984

    • Garthwaite J, Gilligan GJ (1984). Kainate-glutamate interactions in rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 11(1), 125 - 138.
    • Garthwaite G, Garthwaite J (1984). Differential sensitivity of rat cerebellar cells in vitro to the neurotoxic effects of excitatory amino acid analogues.. Neurosci Lett, 48(3), 361 - 367.
    • GARTHWAITE J, GARTHWAITE G (1984). THE MECHANISM OF KAINIC ACID NEUROTOXICITY - REPLY. NATURE, 308(5959), 561 - 562.

    1983

    • Garthwaite J, Garthwaite G (1983). The mechanism of kainic acid neurotoxicity.. Nature, 305(5930), 138 - 140.

    1982

    • Garthwaite J (1982). Excitatory amino acid receptors and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in incubated slices of immature and adult rat cerebellum.. Neuroscience, 7(10), 2491 - 2497.
    • Garthwaite J, Wilkin GP (1982). Kainic acid receptors and neurotoxicity in adult and immature rat cerebellar slices.. Neuroscience, 7(10), 2499 - 2514.
    • Wilkin GP, Garthwaite J, Balázs R (1982). Putative acidic amino acid transmitters in the cerebellum. II. Electron microscopic localization of transport sites.. Brain Res, 244(1), 69 - 80.

    1981

    • Crepel F, Dhanjal SS, Garthwaite J (1981). Morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of rat cerebellar slices maintained in vitro.. J Physiol, 316, 127 - 138.
    • Garthwaite J, Balazs R (1981). Excitatory amino acid-induced changes in cyclic GMP levels in slices and cell suspensions from the cerebellum.. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol, 27, 317 - 326.

    1980

    • Brown DA, Fatherazi S, Garthwaite J, White RD (1980). Muscarinic receptors in rat sympathetic ganglia.. Br J Pharmacol, 70(4), 577 - 592.
    • Garthwaite J, Regan CM (1980). Toxic effects of alpha-aminoadipate on cultured cerebellar cells.. Brain Res, 194(2), 603 - 607.
    • Garthwaite J, Woodhams PL, Collins MJ, Balázs R (1980). A morphological study of incubated slices of rat cerebellum in relation to postnatal age.. Dev Neurosci, 3(2), 90 - 99.

    1979

    • Brown DA, Garthwaite J (1979). Intracellular pH and the distribution of weak acids and bases in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia.. J Physiol, 297(0), 597 - 620.
    • GARTHWAITE J, WOODHAMS PL, COLLINS MJ, BALAZS R (1979). PREPARATION OF BRAIN-SLICES - MORPHOLOGY AND CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDES. BRAIN RES, 173(2), 373 - 377.
    • Garthwaite J (1979). Discrepancies in the extracellular space of sympathetic ganglia measured using different isotopes of mannitol and sucrose.. J Neurosci Methods, 1(2), 185 - 193.
    • Garthwaite J, Woodhams PL, Collins MJ, Balazs R (1979). On the preparation of brain slices: morphology and cyclic nucleotides.. Brain Res, 173(2), 373 - 377.

    1978

    • Garthwaite J, Balázs R (1978). Supersensitivity to the cyclic GMP response to glutamate during cerebellar maturation.. Nature, 275(5678), 328 - 329.

    1977

    • Garthwaite J (1977). On the compartmental nature of intracellular pH [proceedings].. J Physiol, 269(1), 81P - 82P.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1977). COMPARTMENTAL NATURE OF INTRACELLULAR PH. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 269(1), P81 - P82.

    1976

    • Garthwaite J, Brown DA (1976). Proceedings: The uptake of weak acids and bases into isolated rat superior cervical ganglia in relation to intracellular pH.. Br J Pharmacol, 56(3), 353P - .
    • Brown DA, Garthwaite J (1976). Action of surugatoxin on nicotinic receptors in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat.. Br J Pharmacol, 58(1), 157 - 159.
    • GARTHWAITE J (1976). UPTAKE OF WEAK ACIDS AND BASES INTO ISOLATED RAT SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLIA IN RELATION TO INTRACELLULAR PH. BRIT J PHARMACOL, 56(3), P353 - P353.