Prof Maria Fitzgerald


Personal Profile

Name: Maria Fitzgerald Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 1303
Department: Neuro, Physiology & Pharmacology Fax: 020 7383 0929
Position: Professor of Developmental Neurobiology Address: UCL, , London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

1. The neurobiological processes which underlie the development of pain pathways (i) the maturation of central excitatory and inhibitory synaptic responses in postnatal dorsal horn and brain stem (ii) the development of central processes underlying hyperalgesia and allodynia (iii) mechanisms underlying analgesic action in immature pain pathways (iv) neuroimmune interactions and central plasticity underlying nerve damage and neuropathic pain in infancy (v) the long term consequences of early life pain and injury upon adult somatosensory and pain processing 2. The developmental neurophysiology of pain in infants and children (i) cortical, brainstem and spinal pain processing in infants and children (ii) EEG and NIRS analysis of cortical pain activity in preterm infants in intensive care (iii) procedural and postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia in human infants (iv) long term consequences of infant pain and injury on sensory processing and pain behaviours in older children and adults (v) clinical investigations and trials of analgesic efficacy in infants

Research Activities

Cortical responses to tissue-damaging stimuli

Development of pain perception in human neonates

Developmental neurobiology of pain

The molecular neurobiology of Pain

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Dr Madeleine Verriotis; Prof Neil Marlow; Prof Steve Hunt; Dr Lorenzo Fabrizi

External Collaborators

Dr Judith Meek; Dr Stewart Boyd



    • Verriotis M, Fabrizi L, Lee A, Ledwidge S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2015). Cortical activity evoked by inoculation needle prick in infants up to one-year old. PAIN, 156(2), 222 - 230. doi:10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460302.56325.0c
    • Walker SM, Fitzgerald M, Hathway GJ (2015). Surgical injury in the neonatal rat alters the adult pattern of descending modulation from the rostroventral medulla.. Anesthesiology, 122(6), 1391 - 1400. doi:10.1097/aln.0000000000000658
    • McKelvey R, Fitzgerald M, Berta T, Ji R-R, Old E (2015). Neuropathic pain is constitutively suppressed in early life by anti-inflammatory neuroimmune regulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(2), 457 - 466. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2315-14.2015
    • Williams G, Fabrizi L, Meek J, Jackson D, Tracey I, Robertson N, Slater R, Fitzgerald M (2015). Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to explore tactile and nociceptive processing in the infant brain.. Acta Paediatr, 104(2), 158 - 166. doi:10.1111/apa.12848


    • Schwaller F, Fitzgerald M (2014). The consequences of pain in early life: injury-induced plasticity in developing pain pathways.. Eur J Neurosci, 39(3), 344 - 352. doi:10.1111/ejn.12414
    • La Hausse de Lalouvière L, Ioannou Y, Fitzgerald M (2014). Neural mechanisms underlying the pain of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 10(4), 205 - 211. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.4
    • Koch SC, Fitzgerald M (2014). The selectivity of rostroventral medulla descending control of spinal sensory inputs shifts postnatally from A fibre to C fibre evoked activity.. J Physiol, 592(Pt 7), 1535 - 1544. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.267518


    • Cornelissen L, Fabrizi L, Patten D, Worley A, Meek J, Boyd S, Slater R, Fitzgerald M (2013). Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.. PLoS One, 8(10), e76470 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076470
    • Fabrizi L, Williams G, Lee A, Meek J, Slater R, Olhede S, Fitzgerald M (2013). Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers.. Journal of Neurophysiology, , - .
    • Fabrizi L, Williams G, Lee A, Meek J, Slater R, Olhede S, Fitzgerald M (2013). Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers.. J Neurophysiol, 109(9), 2393 - 2403. doi:10.1152/jn.00990.2012
    • Koch SC, Fitzgerald M (2013). Activity-dependent development of tactile and nociceptive spinal cord circuits.. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1279, 97 - 102. doi:10.1111/nyas.12033


    • Low LA, Fitzgerald M (2012). Acute pain and a motivational pathway in adult rats: influence of early life pain experience.. PLoS One, 7(3), e34316 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034316
    • Beggs S, Currie G, Salter MW, Fitzgerald M, Walker SM (2012). Priming of adult pain responses by neonatal pain experience: maintenance by central neuroimmune activity.. Brain, 135((Pt 2)), 404 - 417.
    • Hathway GJ, Vega-Avelaira D, Fitzgerald M (2012). A critical period in the supraspinal control of pain: opioid-dependent changes in brainstem rostroventral medulla function in preadolescence.. Pain, 153(4), 775 - 783. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2011.11.011
    • Beggs S, Alvares D, Moss A, Currie G, Middleton J, Salter MW, Fitzgerald M (2012). A role for NT-3 in the hyperinnervation of neonatally wounded skin. PAIN, 153(10), 2133 - 2139. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.07.012
    • Koch S, Tochiki K, Hirschberg S , Fitzgerald M (2012). C-fiber activity-dependent maturation of glycinergic inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn of the postnatal rat.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 109(30), 12201 - 12206.
    • Vega-Avelaira D, McKelvey R, Hathway G, Fitzgerald M (2012). The emergence of adolescent onset pain hypersensitivity following neonatal nerve injury.. Mol Pain, 8, 30 - . doi:10.1186/1744-8069-8-30
    • Liossi C, Fitzgerald M (2012). Remember, remember .... a child's pain experience. PAIN, 153(8), 1543 - 1544. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.05.003


    • Slater R, Boyd S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2011). Oral sucrose for procedural pain in infants Reply. LANCET, 377(9759), 27 - 28.
    • Fabrizi L, Slater R, Worley A, Meek J, Boyd S, Olhede S, Fitzgerald M (2011). A shift in sensory processing that enables the developing human brain to discriminate touch from pain.. Curr Biol, 21(18), 1552 - 1558. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.08.010


    • Slater R, Cornelissen L, Fabrizi L, Patten D, Yoxen J, Worley A, Boyd S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2010). Oral sucrose as an analgesic drug for procedural pain in newborn infants: a randomised controlled trial.. Lancet, 376(9748), 1225 - 1232. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61303-7
    • Hathway GJ, Fitzgerald MF (2010). The Development of Nociceptive Systems. The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, 5, 133 - 145. doi:10.1016/B978-012370880-9.00150-X
    • Fitzgerald M, Macdermott A (2010). The development of pain systems. The Neurobiology of Pain: (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology), , - . doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515616.003.0009
    • Slater R, Fabrizi L, Worley A, Meek J, Boyd S, Fitzgerald M (2010). Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.. Neuroimage, 52(2), 583 - 589. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.253
    • Slater R, Worley A, Fabrizi L, Roberts S, Meek J, Boyd S, Fitzgerald M (2010). Evoked potentials generated by noxious stimulation in the human infant brain.. Eur J Pain, 14(3), 321 - 326. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.05.005
    • Derbyshire SWG, Fitzgerald M (2010). The painful consequences of neonatal nociceptive input. PAIN, 150(2), 220 - 221. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.032


    • Fitzgerald M (2009). When is an analgesic not an analgesic?. PAIN, 144(1-2), 9 - 9. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.03.015
    • Hathway GJ, Vega-Avelaira D, Moss A, Ingram R, Fitzgerald M (2009). Brief, low frequency stimulation of rat peripheral C-fibres evokes prolonged microglial-induced central sensitization in adults but not in neonates.. Pain, 144(1-2), 110 - 118. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.03.022
    • Costigan M, Moss A, Latremoliere A, Johnston C, Verma-Gandhu M, Herbert TA, Barrett L, Brenner GJ, Vardeh D, Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (2009). T-cell infiltration and signaling in the adult dorsal spinal cord is a major contributor to neuropathic pain-like hypersensitivity.. J Neurosci, 29(46), 14415 - 14422. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4569-09.2009
    • Ingram RA, Fitzgerald M, Baccei ML (2009). Synaptic transmission of pain in the developing spinal cord fast synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn. Synaptic Plasticity in Pain, , 67 - 85. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0226-9_4
    • Li J, Walker SM, Fitzgerald M, Baccei ML (2009). Activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic signaling in the developing rat dorsal horn by early tissue injury. Journal of Neurophysiology, 102(4), 2208 - 2219. doi:10.1152/jn.00520.2009
    • Walker SM, Franck LS, Fitzgerald M, Myles J, Stocks J, Marlow N (2009). Long-term impact of neonatal intensive care and surgery on somatosensory perception in children born extremely preterm. PAIN, 141(1-2), 79 - 87.
    • Slater R, Cantarella A, Yoxen J, Patten D, Potts H, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2009). Latency to facial expression change following noxious stimulation in infants is dependent on postmenstrual age. Pain, 146(1-2), 177 - 182. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.07.022
    • Fitzgerald M, Walker SM (2009). Infant pain management: a developmental neurobiological approach.. Nat Clin Pract Neurol., 5(1), 35 - 50.
    • Walker SM, Tochiki KK, Fitzgerald M (2009). Hindpaw incision in early life increases the hyperalgesic response to repeat surgical injury: critical period and dependence on initial afferent activity. Pain, 147(1-3), 99 - 106. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.08.017
    • Vega-Avelaira D, Géranton SM, Fitzgerald M (2009). Differential regulation of immune responses and macrophage/neuron interactions in the dorsal root ganglion in young and adult rats following nerve injury.. Mol Pain, 5, 70 - . doi:10.1186/1744-8069-5-70
    • Hathway GJ, Koch S, Low L, Fitzgerald M (2009). The changing balance of brainstem-spinal cord modulation of pain processing over the first weeks of rat postnatal life.. J Physiol, 587(Pt 12), 2927 - 2935. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.168013


    • Slater R, Cantarella A, Franck L, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2008). How well do clinical pain assessment tools reflect pain in infants?. PLoS Medicine, 5(6), e129 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050129
    • Moss A, Ingram R, Koch S, Theodorou A, Low L, Baccei M, Hathway GJ, Costigan M, Salton SR, Fitzgerald M (2008). Origins, actions and dynamic expression patterns of the neuropeptide VGF in rat peripheral and central sensory neurones following peripheral nerve injury.. Mol Pain, 4, 62 - . doi:10.1186/1744-8069-4-62
    • Koch SC, Fitzgerald M, Hathway GJ (2008). Midazolam potentiates nociceptive behavior, sensitizes cutaneous reflexes, and is devoid of sedative action in neonatal rats. Anesthesiology, 108(1), 122 - 129.
    • Bremner LR, Fitzgerald M (2008). Postnatal tuning of cutaneous inhibitory receptive fields in the rat.. The Journal of Physiology, 586(6), 1529 - 1537. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.145672
    • Ingram RA, Fitzgerald M, Baccei ML (2008). Developmental changes in the fidelity and short-term plasticity of GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat dorsal horn. Journal of Neurophysiology, 99(6), 3144 - 3150. doi:10.1152/jn.01342.2007
    • Ririe DG, Bremner LR, Fitzgerald M (2008). Comparison of the immediate effects of surgical incision on dorsal horn neuronal receptive field size and responses during postnatal development. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 109(4), 698 - 706.


    • Vega-Avelaira D, Moss A, Fitzgerald M (2007). Age-related changes in the spinal cord microglial and astrocytic response profile to nerve injury. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21(5), 617 - 623.
    • Fitzgerald M (2007). Infant pain: processing, perception and prevention. ACTA PAEDIATR, 96, 241 - 241.
    • Slater R, Cantarella A, Franck L, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2007). How well do clinical pain assessment tools measure pain in infants? Correlating cortical and behavioural responses to heel lance in pre-term neonates. ACTA PAEDIATR, 96, 126 - 126.
    • Walker SM, Fitzgerald M (2007). Characterization of spinal alpha-adrenergic modulation of nociceptive transmission and hyperalgesia throughout postnatal development in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 151(8), 1334 - 1342. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707290
    • Slater R, Fitzgerald M, Meek J (2007). Can cortical responses following noxious stimulation inform us about pain processing in neonates?. Seminars in Perinatology, 31(5), 298 - 302. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2007.07.001
    • Fitzgerald M (2007). The McCance Lecture, Neonatal Society Spring Meeting 2006 - Neonatal pain processing. EARLY HUM DEV, 83(2), 137 - 137. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.09.035
    • Moss A, Beggs S, Vega-Avelaira D, Costigan M, Hathway GJ, Salter MW, Fitzgerald M (2007). Spinal microglia and neuropathic pain in young rats. Pain, 128(3), 215 - 224.
    • Schmelzle-Lubiecki BM, Campbell KA, Howard RH, Franck L, Fitzgerald M (2007). Long-term consequences of early infant injury and trauma upon somatosensory processing. European Journal of Pain, 11(7), 799 - 809. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2006.12.009
    • Walker SM, Meredith-Middleton J, Lickiss T, Moss A, Fitzgerald M (2007). Primary and secondary hyperalgesia can be differentiated by postnatal age and ERK activation in the spinal dorsal horn of the rat pup. Pain, 128(1-2), 157 - 168. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.09.015


    • Zhao J, Seereeram A, Nassar MA, Levato A, Pezet S, Hathway G, Morenilla-Palao C, Stirling C, Fitzgerald M, McMahon SB, Rios M, Wood JN (2006). Nociceptor-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates acute and inflammatory but not neuropathic pain. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 31(3), 539 - 548. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2005.11.008
    • Slater R, Boyd S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2006). Cortical pain responses in the infant brain. PAIN, 123(3), 332 - 332. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.05.009
    • Bremner L, Fitzgerald M, Baccei M (2006). Functional GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition in the neonatal dorsal horn. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95(6), 3893 - 3897.
    • Hathway G, Harrop E, Baccei M, Walker S, Moss A, Fitzgerald M (2006). A postnatal switch in GABAergic control of spinal cutaneous reflexes. European Journal of Neuroscience, 23(1), 112 - 118.
    • Hathway GJ, Fitzgerald M (2006). Time course and dose-dependence of nerve growth factor-induced secondary hyperalgesia in the mouse. The Journal of Pain, 7(1), 57 - 61.
    • Fitzgerald M, Walker S (2006). Infant pain traces. Pain, 125(3), 204 - 205. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.09.029
    • Pattinson D, Baccei M, Karadottir R, Torsney C, Moss A, McCutcheon J, Giese KP, Fitzgerald M (2006). Aberrant dendritic branching and sensory inputs in the superficial dorsal horn of mice lacking CaMKIIalpha autophosphorylation. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 33, 88 - 95. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2006.06.010
    • Slater R, Cantarella A, Gallella S, Worley A, Boyd S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2006). Cortical pain responses in human infants. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(14), 3662 - 3666. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0348-06.2006


    • Walker SM, Howard RF, Fitzgerald M (2005). The effect of epidural dexmedetomidine is developmentally regulated in models of inflammatory and chemical hyperalgesia in the rat pup..
    • Howard RF, Walker SM, Mota PM, Fitzgerald M (2005). Delayed postnatal development of mechanical allodynia in nerve injury induced neuropathic pain..
    • Fitzgerald M (2005). The developmental biology of pain. In Charlton JE (Ed.), Core Curriculum for Professional Education in Pain (pp. 13 - 18). : IASP Press.
    • Fitzgerald M, MacDermott A (2005). The development of pain systems. In Hunt SP, Koltzenburg M (Ed.), The Neurobiology of Pain (pp. 207 - 238). : Oxford University Press.
    • Nandi R, Fitzgerald M (2005). Opioid analgesia in the newborn. European Journal of Pain, 9, 105 - 108.
    • Walker SM, Howard RF, Fitzgerald M (2005). Effect of developmental age on C-fibre induced hyperalgesia in the rat pup..
    • Moss A, Alvares D, Meredith-Middleton J, Robinson M, Hunt SP, Fitzgerald M (2005). Ephrin-A4 inhibits sensory neurite outgrowth and is regulated by neonatal skin wounding. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 2413 - 2421.
    • Walker SM, Howard RF, Keay KA, Fitzgerald M (2005). Developmental age influences the effect of epidural dexmedetomidine on inflammatory hyperalgesia in rat pups. Anesthesiology, 102(6), 1226 - 1234. doi:10.1097/00000542-200506000-00024
    • Fitzgerald M (2005). The development of nociceptive circuits. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 507 - 520. doi:10.1038/nrn1701
    • Howard RF, Walker SM, Mota PM, Fitzgerald M (2005). The ontogeny of neuropathic pain: postnatal onset of mechanical allodynia in rat spared nerve injury (SNI) and chronic constriction injury (CCI) models. Pain, 115(3), 382 - 389. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2005.03.016
    • Baccei M, Fitzgerald M (2005). Development of pain pathways and mechanisms. In McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M (Ed.), Textbook of Pain (pp. 143 - 158). : Churchill Livingstone.
    • Baccei M, Fitzgerald M (2005). Intrinsic firing properties of developing rat superficial dorsal horn neurons. NeuroReport, 16, 1325 - 1328.


    • Baccei ML, Fitzgerald M (2004). Development of GABAergic and glycinergic transmission in the neonatal rat dorsal horn. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(20), 4749 - 4757. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5211-03.2004
    • Pattinson D, Fitzgerald M (2004). The neurobiology of infant pain: development of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal dorsal horn. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(1), 36 - 44.
    • Fitzgerald M (2004). Painful beginnings. Pain, 110(3), 508 - 509.
    • Slater R, Gallella S, Boyd S, Meek J, Fitzgerald M (2004). Noxious stimulation causes functional activation of the somatosensory cortex in newborn infants.
    • Fitzgerald M (2004). Dissecting pain.
    • Williams DG, Dickenson AH, Fitzgerald M, Howard RF (2004). Developmental regulation of codeine analgesia in the rat. Anesthesiology, 100, 92 - 97.
    • Williams G, Fitzgerald M, Dickenson AH, Howard R (2004). Developmental regulation of codeine analgesia. Anesthesiology, 100, 92 - 97.
    • Nandi R, Beacham D, Meredith-Middleton J, Koltzenburg M, Howard RF, Fitzgerald M (2004). The functional expression of mu opioid receptors on sensory neurons is developmentally regulated; morphine analgesia is less selective in the neonate. Pain, 111(1-2), 38 - 50.


    • Fitzgerald M, Howard R (2003). The neurobiological basis of pediatric pain. In Schechter N, Berde C, Yaster M (Ed.), Pain in Children and Adolescents (pp. 19 - 42). : Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
    • Baccei ML, Bardoni R, Fitzgerald M (2003). Development of nociceptive synaptic inputs to the neonatal dorsal horn: glutamate release by capsaicin and menthol. The Journal of Physiology, 549(1), 231 - 242.
    • Walker SM, Meredith-Middleton J, Cooke-Yarborough C, Fitzgerald M (2003). Neonatal inflammation and primary afferent terminal plasticity in the rat dorsal horn. Pain, 105(1-2), 185 - 195. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00201-X
    • Fitzgerald M, Walker S (2003). The role of activity in developing pain pathways. In Dostrovsky JO, Carr DB, Koltzenburg M (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain. Progress in Pain Research and Management, Volume 24 (pp. 54 - 68). : IASP Press.
    • Torsney C, Fitzgerald M (2003). Spinal dorsal horn cell receptive field size is increased in adult rats following neonatal hindpaw skin injury. The Journal of Physiology, 550(1), 255 - 261.


    • Torsney C, Fitzgerald M (2002). Age-dependent effects of peripheral inflammation on the electrophysiological properties of neonatal rat dorsal horn neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87(3), 1311 - 1317.
    • Fitzgerald M (2002). Development of pain pathways and behaviour - plenary lecture.
    • Beggs S, Torsney C, Drew L, Fitzgerald M (2002). The postnatal reorganization of primary afferent input and dorsal horn cell receptive fields in the rat spinal cord is an activity-dependent process. European Journal of Neuroscience, 16(7), 1249 - 1258.
    • Andrews KA, Desai D, Dhillon HK, Wilcox DT, Fitzgerald M (2002). Abdominal sensitivity in the first year of life: comparison of infants with and without prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis. Pain, 100(1-2), 35 - 46.
    • Andrews K, Fitzgerald M (2002). Wound sensitivity as a measure of analgesic effects following surgery in human neonates and infants. Pain, 99(1), 185 - 192.


    • Beland B, Fitzgerald M (2001). Mu- and delta-opioid receptors are downregulated in the largest diameter primary sensory neurons during postnatal development in rats. Pain, 90(1-2), 143 - 150.
    • Fitzgerald M (2001). Pain in the fetus and neonate. International Congress and Symposium Series - Royal Society of Medicine, (246), 27 - 33.
    • Alvares D, Torsney C, Beland B, Reynolds M, Fitzgerald M (2001). Modelling the prolonged effects of neonatal pain. Progress in Brain Research, 129, 365 - 373.
    • Beland B, Fitzgerald M (2001). Influence of peripheral inflammation on the postnatal maturation of primary sensory neuron phenotype in rats. Pain, 2(1), 36 - 45.
    • Jeffery ND, Fitzgerald M (2001). Effects of red nucleus ablation and exogenous neurotrophin-3 on corticospinal axon terminal distribution in the adult rat. Neuroscience, 104, 513 - 521.
    • Fitzgerald M, Beggs S (2001). The neurobiology of pain: developmental aspects. Neuroscientist, 7, 246 - 257.
    • Howard RF, Hatch DJ, Cole TJ, Fitzgerald M (2001). Inflammatory pain and hypersensitivity are selectively reversed by epidural bupivacaine and are developmentally regulated. Anesthesiology, 95(2), 421 - 427.
    • Fitzgerald M, de Lima J (2001). Allodynia & hyperalgesia in infants. In McGrath PJ, Finlay A (Ed.), Acute Pain in Infants and Children, Progress in Pain Research & Management (pp. 1 - 12). : IASP Press.
    • Benn S, Costigan M, Tate S, Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ (2001). Developmental expression of the TTX-Resistant voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.8 (SNS) and Nav1.9 (SNS2) in primary sensory neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 21(16), 6077 - 6085.


    • Andrews KA, Fitzgerald M (2000). Flexion reflex responses in biceps femoris and tibialis anterior in human neonates. Early Human Development, 57(2), 105 - 110.
    • Torsney C, Meredith-Middleton J, Fitzgerald M (2000). Neonatal capsaicin treatment prevents the normal postnatal withdrawal of A fibres from lamina II without affecting Fos responses to innocuous peripheral stimulation. Developmental Brain Research, 121(1), 55 - 65.
    • Jackman A, Fitzgerald M (2000). The development of peripheral hindlimb and central spinal cord innervation by subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion cells in the embryonic rat. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 418(3), 281 - 298.
    • Fitzgerald M (2000). The development of the peripheral and spinal pain system. In Anand KJS, Stevens BJ, McGrath PJ (Ed.), Pain in Neonates (pp. 9 - 21). : Elsevier.
    • Andrews KA, Fitzgerald M (2000). Mapping of the area of secondary hypersensitivity around a surgical wound in human infants using the abdominal skin reflex threshold.. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 71 - 71.
    • Torsney C, Fitzgerald M (2000). Electrophysiological properties or neonatal dorsal horn neurons following peripheral inflammation. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 125 - 125.
    • Jeffery ND, Fitzgerald M (2000). BDNF induces sprouting of undamaged terminals of the corticospinal tract after injury to the rubrospinal tract. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 288 - 288.


    • Andrews K, Fitzgerald M (1999). The abdominal skin reflex in human neonates and infants: threshold changes with age, surgery and postoperative analgesia.
    • Andrews K, Fitzgerald M (1999). Cutaneous flexion reflex in human neonates: a quantitative study of threshold and stimulus-response characteristics after single and repeated stimuli. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41(10), 696 - 703.
    • Howard R, Hatch D, Fitzgerald M (1999). Effect of low dose bupivacaine on carageenan-induced allodynia during early postnatal development in rat.
    • Marsh D, Dickenson A, Hatch D, Fitzgerald M (1999). Epidural opioid analgesia in infant rats I: mechanical and heat responses. Pain, 82(1), 23 - 32.
    • Marsh D, Dickenson A, Hatch D, Fitzgerald M (1999). Epidural opioid analgesia in infant rats II: responses to carrageenan and capsaicin. Pain, 82(1), 33 - 38.
    • Alvares D, Robinson M, Fitzgerald M (1999). GDNF and NT-3 are upregulated in the skin after full thickness wounds in neonatal rat pups.
    • Beland B, Beggs S, Fitzgerald M (1999). Influence of neonatal inflammatory pain on primary sensory neuron phenotype in rats.
    • De Lima J, Hatch D, Fitzgerald M (1999). The postnatal development of ketamine analgesia - an electrophysiological study of inflammatory pain in rat pups.
    • Beggs S, Aynsley-Green A, Wood J, Fitzgerald M (1999). Withdrawal of A beta fibres from substantia gelatinosa during normal postnatal development is an activity-dependent process.
    • Torsney C, Meredith-Middleton J, Fitzgerald M (1999). C-fos induction in the rat spinal cord by noxious and innocuous stimulation following neonatal capsaicin treatment.
    • De Lima J, Alvares D, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M (1999). Sensory hyperinnervation after neonatal skin wounding: effect of bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. BRIT J ANAESTH, 83(4), 662 - 664.
    • Fitzgerald M, Jennings E (1999). The postnatal development of spinal sensory processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96(14), 7719 - 7722.
    • Beland B, Fitzgerald M (1999). Postnatal development of mu-opioid receptor expression in rat primary sensory neurons. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(3A), U415 - U415.
    • Beland B, Fitzgerald M (1999). Peripheral inflammation produces phenotypic changes in newborn sensory neurons that differ from those in adults. ANESTHESIOLOGY, 91(3A), U415 - U415.
    • (1999). Building blocks of pain: the regulation of key molecules in spinal sensory neurones during development and following peripheral axotomy. Pain, , - .
    • Beggs S, Aynsley-Green A, Fitzgerald M (1999). A-fibre terminals are found in substantia gelatinosa following chronic spinal NMDA blockade.
    • (1999). Lack of topographical organisation of the cortocospinal tract in the cervical spinal cord of the adult rat. Brain Research, 833, 315 - 318.
    • Jeffery N, Fitzgerald M (1999). Terminal sprouting of corticospinal axons following ablation of the rubrospinal tract in rats.
    • Fitzgerald M (1999). The neurobiology of fetal and infant pain. In Wall PD, Malzack R (Ed.), The Textbook of Pain (pp. 235 - 252). : Churchill Livingstone.
    • (1999). Sensory hyperinnervation following skin wounding: the effect of bupivacaine sciatic nerve blockade. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 83, 662 - 664.


    • Rahman W, Dashwood MR, Fitzgerald M, Aynsley-Green A, Dickenson AH (1998). Postnatal development of multiple opioid receptors in the spinal cord and development of spinal morphine analgesia.. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 108(1-2), 239 - 254.
    • De Lima J, Alvares D, Reynolds M, Fitzgerald M (1998). Sensory hyperinnervation following neonatal skin wounding: The effect of bupivacaine sciatic nerve blockade. EUR J NEUROSCI, 10, 79 - 79.
    • Jeffery ND, Fitzgerald M (1998). Arrangement of corticospinal tract axons in the cervical spinal cord of the rat. EUR J NEUROSCI, 10, 362 - 362.
    • Beggs S, Aynsley-Green A, Fitzgerald M (1998). Sprouting of primary sensory afferents in the rat dorsal horn after neonatal peripheral nerve injury as revealed by DiI.. EUR J NEUROSCI, 10, 406 - 406.
    • Fitzgerald M (1998). Mapping infant pain pathways. MRC News, , - .
    • Rahman W, Dashwood MR, Fitzgerald M, Aynsley-Green A, Dickenson AH (1998). Postnatal development of multiple opioid receptors in the spinal cord and development of spinal morphine analgesia. Developmental Brain Research, 108, 239 - 254.
    • Jennings E, Fitzgerald M (1998). Postnatal changes in responses of rat dorsal horn cells to afferent stimulation. A fibre induced sensitisation. The Journal of Physiology, 509, 859 - 867.
    • Boucher T, Jennings E, Fitzgerald M (1998). The onset of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) in postnatal rat pups - a c-Fos study. Neuroscience Letters, 257, 9 - 12.
    • Marsh DF, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M (1998). Opioid systems and the newborn. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 79, 787 - 795.


    • Andrews KA, Fitzgerald M (1997). A comparison of the mechanical and electrically evoked flexion reflex as a measure of responses to innocuous and noxious skin stimulation in human neonates.
    • Reynolds ML, Alvares D, Meredith-Middleton J, Fitzgerald M (1997). Neonatally wounded skin induces NGF-independent sensory neurite outgrowth in vitro. Developmental Brain Research, 102, 275 - 283.
    • Andrews K, Fitzgerald M (1997). Barriers to optimal pain management in infants, children, and adolescents - Biological barriers to paediatric pain management. CLIN J PAIN, 13(2), 138 - 143.
    • Marsh DF, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M (1997). Opioid systems and the newborn. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 79, 787 - 795.
    • Reynolds ML, Ward A, Graham CF, Coggeshall RE, Fitzgerald M (1997). Decreased skin sensory innervation in transgenic mice over-expressing insulin-like growth factor-II. Neuroscience, 79, 789 - 797.
    • Fitzgerald M (1997). Neonatal pharmacology of pain. In Besson J, Dickenson AH (Ed.), The Pharmacology of Pain (pp. 447 - 465). : Springer Verlag.
    • Andrews KA, Fitzgerald M (1997). Biological barriers to paediatric pain management. Clinical Journal of Pain, 13, 138 - 143.


    • LloydThomas AR, Fitzgerald M (1996). For debate - Do fetuses feel pain? Reflex responses do not necessarily signify pain. BRIT MED J, 313(7060), 797 - 798.
    • Jennings E, Fitzgerald M (1996). C-fos can be induced in the neonatal rat spinal cord by both noxious and innocuous peripheral stimulation. Pain, 68(2-3), 301 - 306. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03194-6
    • Coggeshall RE, Jennings EA, Fitzgerald M (1996). Evidence that large myelinated primary afferent fibers make synaptic contacts in lamina II of neonatal rats. DEV BRAIN RES, 92(1), 81 - 90.


    • Fitzgerald M (1995). Developmental biology of inflammatory pain.. Br J Anaesth, 75(2), 177 - 185.
    • Reynolds ML, Fitzgerald M (1995). Long-term sensory hyperinnervation following neonatal skin wounds.. J Comp Neurol, 358(4), 487 - 498. doi:10.1002/cne.903580403


    • Fitzgerald M, Butcher T, Shortland P (1994). Developmental changes in the laminar termination of A fibre cutaneous sensory afferents in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.. J Comp Neurol, 348(2), 225 - 233. doi:10.1002/cne.903480205
    • Coggeshall RE, Pover CM, Fitzgerald M (1994). Dorsal root ganglion cell death and surviving cell numbers in relation to the development of sensory innervation in the rat hindlimb. Developmental Brain Research, 82(1-2), 193 - 212. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(94)90163-5
    • Andrews K, Fitzgerald M (1994). The cutaneous withdrawal reflex in human neonates: sensitization, receptive fields, and the effects of contralateral stimulation.. Pain, 56(1), 95 - 101.
    • Shortland P, Fitzgerald M (1994). Neonatal sciatic nerve section results in a rearrangement of the central terminals of saphenous and axotomized sciatic nerve afferents in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of the adult rat.. Eur J Neurosci, 6(1), 75 - 86.


    • Fitzgerald M, Kwiat GC, Middleton J, Pini A (1993). Ventral spinal cord inhibition of neurite outgrowth from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia.. Development, 117(4), 1377 - 1384.
    • Coggeshall RE, Pover CM, Kwait GC, Fitzgerald M (1993). Erythrocyte nuclei resemble dying neurons in embryonic dorsal root ganglia. Neuroscience Letters, 157(1), 41 - 44. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(93)90638-2
    • Fitzgerald M (1993). The development and plasticity of peripheral and central connections of primary sensory neurons.. Restor Neurol Neurosci, 5(1), 8 - 9. doi:10.3233/RNN-1993-5103


    • Chong MS, Fitzgerald M, Winter J, Hu-Tsai M, Emson PC, Wiese U, Woolf CJ (1992). GAP-43 mRNA in Rat Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons: Developmental Changes and Re-expression Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.. Eur J Neurosci, 4(10), 883 - 895.
    • Reynolds ML, Fitzgerald M (1992). Neonatal sciatic nerve section results in thiamine monophosphate but not substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide depletion from the terminal field in the dorsal horn of the rat: the role of collateral sprouting.. Neuroscience, 51(1), 191 - 202.


    • Payne J, Middleton J, Fitzgerald M (1991). The pattern and timing of cutaneous hair follicle innervation in the rat pup and human fetus.. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 61(2), 173 - 182.
    • Fitzgerald M (1991). Development of pain mechanisms.. Br Med Bull, 47(3), 667 - 675.
    • Fitzgerald M (1991). A physiological study of the prenatal development of cutaneous sensory inputs to dorsal horn cells in the rat.. J Physiol, 432, 473 - 482.
    • Tyler D, Fitzgerald M, McGrath P, McGrath PA (1991). Second International Symposium on Pediatric Pain, Montreal, April 1991. Pain, 47(1), 3 - 4.
    • Reynolds ML, Fitzgerald M, Benowitz LI (1991). GAP-43 expression in developing cutaneous and muscle nerves in the rat hindlimb.. Neuroscience, 41(1), 201 - 211.
    • Fitzgerald M, Reynolds ML, Benowitz LI (1991). GAP-43 expression in the developing rat lumbar spinal cord.. Neuroscience, 41(1), 187 - 199.
    • Shortland P, Fitzgerald M (1991). Functional Connections Formed by Saphenous Nerve Terminal Sprouts in the Dorsal Horn Following Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Section.. Eur J Neurosci, 3(5), 383 - 396.


    • Fitzgerald M (1990). c-fos and the changing face of pain.. Trends Neurosci, 13(11), 439 - 440.
    • Shortland P, Molander C, Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1990). Neonatal capsaicin treatment induces invasion of the substantia gelatinosa by the terminal arborizations of hair follicle afferents in the rat dorsal horn.. J Comp Neurol, 296(1), 23 - 31. doi:10.1002/cne.902960103
    • Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ, Shortland P (1990). Collateral sprouting of the central terminals of cutaneous primary afferent neurons in the rat spinal cord: pattern, morphology, and influence of targets.. J Comp Neurol, 300(3), 370 - 385. doi:10.1002/cne.903000308


    • Shortland P, Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1989). Morphology and somatotopic organization of the central terminals of hindlimb hair follicle afferents in the rat lumbar spinal cord.. J Comp Neurol, 289(3), 416 - 433. doi:10.1002/cne.902890307
    • Fitzgerald M, Millard C, McIntosh N (1989). Cutaneous hypersensitivity following peripheral tissue damage in newborn infants and its reversal with topical anaesthesia.. Pain, 39(1), 31 - 36.
    • Fitzgerald M, McIntosh N (1989). Pain and analgesia in the newborn. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64(4 SPEC NO.), 441 - 443. doi:10.1136/adc.64.4_Spec_No.441
    • O'Brien C, Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M, Lindsay RM, Molander C (1989). Differences in the chemical expression of rat primary afferent neurons which innervate skin, muscle or joint.. Neuroscience, 32(2), 493 - 502.


    • Fitzgerald M, Shaw A, MacIntosh N (1988). Postnatal development of the cutaneous flexor reflex: comparative study of preterm infants and newborn rat pups.. Dev Med Child Neurol, 30(4), 520 - 526.
    • Fitzgerald M (1988). The development of activity evoked by fine diameter cutaneous fibres in the spinal cord of the newborn rat.. Neurosci Lett, 86(2), 161 - 166.
    • Fitzgerald M, Shortland P (1988). The effect of neonatal peripheral nerve section on the somadendritic growth of sensory projection cells in the rat spinal cord.. Brain Research, 470(1), 129 - 136.
    • Fitzgerald M, Shortland P (1988). The effect of neonatal peripheral nerve section on the somadendritic growth of sensory projection cells in the rat spinal cord. Developmental Brain Research, 42(1), 129 - 136. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(88)90208-8


    • Fitzgerald M, King AE, Thompson SWN, Woolf CJ (1987). The postnatal development of the ventral root reflex in the rat; a comparative in vivo and in vitro study. Neuroscience Letters, 78(1), 41 - 45. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(87)90558-1
    • Fitzgerald M (1987). Pain and analgesia in neonates. Trends in Neurosciences, 10(9), 344 - 346. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(87)90064-6
    • Fitzgerald M (1987). Prenatal growth of fine-diameter primary afferents into the rat spinal cord: A transganglionic tracer study. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 261(1), 98 - 104.
    • Fitzgerald M (1987). Spontaneous and evoked activity of fetal primary efferents in vivo. Nature, 326(6113), 603 - 605.


    • Fitzgerald M (1986). Monoamines and descending control of nociception. Trends in Neurosciences, 9(C), 51 - 52. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(86)90019-6
    • Fitzgerald M, Koltzenburg M (1986). The functional development of descending inhibitory pathways in the dorsolateral funiculus of the newborn rat spinal cord.. Brain Res, 389(1-2), 261 - 270.
    • Fitzgerald M (1986). Nervous beginnings. Nature, 319(6056), 801 - 802. doi:10.1038/319801a0
    • Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1986). Somatotopic organization of cutaneous afferent terminals and dorsal horn neuronal receptive fields in the superficial and deep laminae of the rat lumbar spinal cord. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 251(4), 517 - 531.


    • Fitzgerald M (1985). The post-natal development of cutaneous afferent fibre input and receptive field organization in the rat dorsal horn. Journal of Physiology, VOL. 364, 1 - 18.
    • Fitzgerald M, Vrbová G (1985). Plasticity of acid phosphatase (FRAP) afferent terminal fields and of dorsal horn cell growth in the neonatal rat.. J Comp Neurol, 240(4), 414 - 422. doi:10.1002/cne.902400409
    • Fitzgerald M (1985). The sprouting of saphenous nerve terminals in the spinal cord following early postnatal sciatic nerve section in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 240(4), 407 - 413.
    • FITZGERALD M (1985). Nerve growth factor counteracts the neurophysiological and neurochemical effects of chronic sciatic nerve section.. Brain Res., 332, 131 - 141. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(85)90396-8


    • FITZGERALD M (1984). The postnatal physiological and neurochemical development of peripheral sensory C fibers. Neuroscience, 13, 933 - 944. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(84)90107-6
    • Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ, Gibson SJ, Mallaburn PS (1984). Alterations in the structure, function, and chemistry of C fibers following local application of vinblastine to the sciatic nerve of the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 4(2), 430 - 441.


    • Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1983). The properties of neurones recorded in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 221(3), 313 - 328.
    • Fitzgerald M, Swett J (1983). The termination pattern of sciatic nerve afferents in the substantia gelatinosa of neonatal rats. Neuroscience Letters, 43(2-3), 149 - 154. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(83)90179-9
    • Fitzgerald M (1983). Influences of contralateral nerve and skin stimulation on neurones in the substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal cord. Neuroscience Letters, 36(2), 139 - 143. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(83)90255-0
    • FITZGERALD M (1983). Capsaicin and sensory neurons-a review. Pain, 15, 109 - 130. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(83)90012-X


    • FITZGERALD M (1982). The contralateral input to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the decerebrate spinal rat. Brain Res, 236, 275 - 287. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(82)90714-4
    • FITZGERALD M (1982). Alterations in the ipsi- and contralateral afferent inputs of dorsal horn cells produced by capsaicin treatment of one sciatic nerve in the rat.. Brain Res., 248, 97 - 107. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(82)91151-9
    • Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1982). Do opioid peptides mediate a presynaptic control of C-fibre transmission in the rat spinal cord?. Neuroscience Letters, 29(1), 67 - 72. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(82)90366-4
    • Wall PD, Mills R, Fitzgerald M, Gibson SJ (1982). Chronic blockade of sciatic nerve transmission by tetrodotoxin does not produce central changes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 30(3), 315 - 320. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(82)90419-0
    • Wall PD, Fitzgerald M, Woolf CJ (1982). Effects of capsaicin on receptive fields and on inhibitions in rat spinal cord. Experimental Neurology, 78(2), 425 - 436. doi:10.1016/0014-4886(82)90060-7
    • Fitzgerald M (1982). Strong-minded neuroscience. Nature, 295(5849), 474 - 474. doi:10.1038/295474a0


    • Woolf CJ, Fitzgerald M (1981). Lamina-specific alteration of C-fibre evoked activity by morphine in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neuroscience Letters, 25(1), 37 - 41. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(81)90097-5
    • Fitzgerald M, Gibson SJ, Wall PD (1981). The response of rat spinal cord cells to unmyelinated afferents after peripheral nerve section and after changes in substance p levels. Neuroscience, 6(11), - . doi:10.1016/0306-4522(81)90008-7
    • Fitzgerald M (1981). A Study of the cutaneous afferent input to substantia gelatinosa. Neuroscience, 6(11), 2229 - 2237. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(81)90011-7
    • Wall PD, Fitzgerald M (1981). Effects of capsaicin applied locally to adult peripheral nerve. I. Physiology of peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Pain, 11(3), 363 - 377. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(81)90636-9


    • FITZGERALD M (1980). The stereospecific effect of nalox-one on rat dorsal horn neurons: inhibition in superficial laminae and excitation in deeper laminae.. Pain, 9, 293 - 306. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(80)90044-5


    • Dubuisson D, Fitzgerald M, Wall PD (1979). Ameboid receptive fields of cells in laminae 1, 2 and 3. Brain Research, 177(2), 376 - 378. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(79)90789-3