Projet Volterra


Imperial Colleges AD193-455

Although some emperors reigned alone or at least recognized no colleagues, any emperor with colleagues would usually issue laws or pronouncements in the name of the whole college, not just himself alone. The list given here is an attempt to show not simply reigns of emperors, but the continuing change and evolution of the imperial colleges. Exactness, however, is not possible. Even where diurnal dates are known for accession or death, it is a guess as to how fast such knowledge would reach other colleagues to allow for headings to pronouncements to be altered. For practical purposes, however, the colleges are presumed to change instantly. In the case of the third century in particular, however, exact days or even months are often lacking. The colleges given below are usually those of ‘legitimate’ emperors, and generally ignore usurpers, although some overlapping colleges show the claims of rival emperors. In some cases, even emperors, who recognized each other, constituted the imperial college in a different order or with differing members, altering such as relations between them warmed or cooled. It is, therefore, not possible in every case to be certain what college would have headed each pronouncement (supposing date and issuer to be sufficiently firm), and every conceivable imperial college is not listed.   Generally, this is not a problem.   Those periods with the most complex or uncertain arrays of imperial colleges are generally those with few or even no laws. Thus the period between the deaths of Constantius I and Maximinus Daza (306-313), or the periods of Decius and Gallus (249-253) and Claudius II to Carinus (268-285) simply have too few laws at the most chronologically difficult times to cause many problems.


Imp. Pertinax A


Imp. Julianus A


Imp. Seuerus A


Imp. Seuerus A et Antoninus C

28/01/198-Oct./Nov. 210

Impp. Seuerus et Antoninus AA et Geta C

Oct./Nov. 210-04/02/211

Imppp. Seuerus Antoninus et Geta AAA


Impp. Antoninus et Geta AA

26/12/211-Apr. 217

Imp. Antoninus A

Apr. 217-June 218

Imp. Macrinus A

May 218-26/06/221

Imp. Antoninus A


Imp. Antoninus A et Alexander C

12/03/222-mid.Mar. 235

Imp. Alexander A

mid.Mar. 235-Jan./Apr. 236

Imp. Maximinus A

Jan./Apr. 236-early June 238

Imp. Maximinus A et Maximus C

mid.Mar. 238-late Apr. 238

Impp. Gordianus et Gordianus AA

late Apr. 238-early Aug. 238

Impp. Balbinus et Maximus AA et Gordianus C

early Aug. 238-Feb. 244

Imp. Gordianus A

Feb. 244-mid.Aug. 244

Imp. Philippus A

mid.Aug. 244-July 247

Imp. Philippus A et Philippus C

July 247-Sep. 249

Impp. Philippus et Philippus AA

Sep. 249-early Sep. 250

Imp. Decius A

early Sep. 250-May 251

Imp. Decius A et Decius et Quintus CC

May 251-June 251

Impp. Decius et Decius AA et Quintus C

June 251-July 251

Impp. Quintus et Gallus AA et Volusianus C

July/Aug. 251

Imp. Gallus A et Volusianus C

July/Aug. 251-July/Aug. 253

Impp. Gallus et Volusianus AA

late July 253-mid.Sep. 253

Imp. Aemilianus A

mid.Sep. 253-Sep. 256

Impp. Valerianus et Gallienus AA

Sep. 256-summer 258

Impp. Valerianus et Gallienus AA et Valerianus C

summer 258-June 260

Impp. Valerianus et Gallienus AA et Valerianus C

June 260-autumn 260

Imp. Gallienus A et Valerianus C

autumn 260-early Sep. 268

Imp. Gallienus A

early Sep. 268-mid.Aug. 270

Imp. Claudius A

late Aug. 270-mid.Sep. 270

Imp. Quintillus A

late Aug. 270-Sep./Dec. 275

Imp. Aurelianus A

Sep./Dec. 275-June 276

Imp. Tacitus A

June 276-Aug. 276

Imp. Florianus A

June 276-Sep./Dec. 282

Imp. Probus A

Sep./Dec. 282-spring 283

Imp. Carus A et Carinus et Numerianus CC

spring 283-July 283

Impp. Carus et Carinus AA et Numerianus C

July 283-Nov. 284

Impp. Carinus et Numerianus AA

Nov. 284-spring 285

Imp. Carinus A

20/11/284-spring 285

Imp. Diocletianus A

spring 285-01/04/286

Imp. Diocletianus A et Maximianus C


Impp. Diocletianus et Maximianus AA


Impp. Diocletianus et Maximianus AA et Constantius et Maximianus CC


Impp. Constantius et Maximianus AA et Seuerus et Maximinus CC

July 306-spring 307

Impp. Maximianus et Seuerus AA et Maximinus et Constantinus CC

spring 307-11/11/308

Impp. Maximianus A et Maximinus C

11/11/308-May 310

Impp. Maximianus et Licinius AA et Maximinus et Constantinus CC

May 310-late 310

Impppp. Maximianus Licinius Maximinus et Constantinus AAAA

late 310-early May 311

Impppp. Maximianus Maximinus Constantinus et Licinius AAAA

early May 311-Oct. 312

Imppp. Maximinus Constantinus et Licinius AAA

Oct. 312-Apr. 313

Imppp. Constantinus Maximinus et Licinius AAA

Apr. 313-01/03/317

Impp. Constantinus et Licinius AA


Impp. Constantinus et Licinius AA et Crispus Licinius et Constantinus CCC


Imp. Constantinus A et Crispus et Constantinus CC

08/11/324- May 326

Imp. Constantinus A et Crispus Constantinus et Constantius CCC

May 326-25/12/333

Imp. Constantinus A et Constantinus et Constantius CC


Imp. Constantinus A et Constantinus Constantius et Constans CCC


Imp. Constantinus A et Constantinus Constantius Constans et Dalmatius CCCC


[Imp. Constantinus A et] Constantinus Constantius et Constans [et Dalmatius C]CCC

09/09/337- Spring 340

Imppp. Constantinus Constantius et Constans AAA

Spring 340- Jan. 350

Impp. Constantius et Constans AA

Jan. 350-15/03/351

Imp. Constantius A


Imp. Constantius A et Constantius C


Imp. Constantius A


Imp. Constantius A et Iulianus C

[Feb. 360-03/11/361]

[Impp. Constantius et Iulianus AA]


Imp. Iulianus A


Imp. Iouianus A


Imp. Valentinianus A


Impp. Valentinianus et Valens AA


Imppp. Valentinianus Valens et Gratianus AAA


Impp. Valens et Gratianus AA


Imppp. Valens Gratianus et Valentinianus AAA


Impp. Gratianus et Valentinianus AA


Imppp. Gratianus Valentinianus et Theodosius AAA


Impppp. Gratianus Valentinianus Theodosius et Arcadius AAAA


Imppp. Valentinianus Theodosius et Arcadius AAA


[Impppp. Valentinianus Theodosius Arcadius et Maximus AAAA]


Impp. Theodosius et Arcadius AA


Imppp. Theodosius Arcadius et Honorius AAA


Impp. Arcadius et Honorius AA


Imppp. Arcadius Honorius et Theodosius AAA


Impp. Honorius et Theodosius AA


[Imppp. Honorius Theodosius et Constantius AAA]


Imp. Theodosius A


Imp. Theodosius A et Valentinianus C


Impp. Theodosius et Valentinianus AA


Imp. Valentinianus A


Impp. Valentinianus et Marcianus AA