UCL News


Young people in the UK risk leaving school without vital knowledge of reproductive health

6 July 2023

Pupils in the UK are not learning about potentially life-changing issues such as endometriosis, infertility, and miscarriage, according to a new study of curricula covering science, relationships and sex education, by UCL researchers.

Image shows a student raising her hand in class

The research, published in Human Fertility, examined what schools are expected to teach 14-18-year-olds across the UK, using curriculum requirements and specifications set by exam boards.

The findings show that there are significant gaps and variations in what pupils are taught about sexual and reproductive health.

Senior author Professor Joyce Harper (UCL EGA Institute for Women’s Health) says that the current curriculum is leaving children with a “lack of understanding of concepts that are needed for their reproductive health”.

She says: “We have found significant variance and gaps in the current UK science and biology curricula for 14-18-year-olds as they relate to sexual and reproductive health. There is potential for better alignment of science, and relationships and sex education teaching.”

The research team found that most pupils are expected to learn about sexually transmitted infections, hormonal aspects of reproduction, contraception, the menstrual cycle, and assisted reproductive technology.

However, important topics such as endometriosis, fertility, preconception health, pregnancy, miscarriage and menopause are missing from the curriculum and from science exams.

The are substantial difference between the nations of the UK, with Scotland having the most comprehensive coverage in its curriculum.

The researchers believe that the findings are important because these issues are experienced by large numbers of adults. For example, menopause is an almost universal transition for women, while endometriosis affects about 10% and a quarter of known pregnancies end in miscarriage.

HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy have serious effects on people experiencing them while costing health services large amounts of money.

Professor Harper says: “Better reproductive health education is crucial if young people are to understand their reproductive systems and to make informed decisions about their sexual lives and fertility, including whether they want to have children or not.

“Government departments, teachers, parents and others should all play a role in deciding what to include in the school curriculum.

“Poor fertility education at school is a major reason for people being unable to have children when they want them.

“Improvements in education could also help address unrealistic media portrayals of fertility and the relatively low success of procedures such as IVF.”

The study looks at both relationships and sex education curricula and exam specifications for biology and science in relation to reproductive health. It included analysis of new RSE guidance for England, which was introduced in 2019, and Scottish advice and guidance on relationships, sexual health and parenthood education. There is no comparable guidance for Northern Ireland or Wales.

The results reveal significant differences in the content of the sex and reproductive health education curricula across the UK, with gaps in the comprehensiveness with which relevant topics are taught.

For instance, miscarriage and menopause are included in the curriculum in Scotland but not in England. There is little about LGBTQ+ relationships, and students are not usually asked to consider what they might do if they found themselves pregnant but did not want to have children.

There is also a “worrying lack” of acknowledgement that sexual and reproductive health is an important aspect of an individual’s overall wellbeing.

Following the findings, the research team have run a survey asking 16-18 year olds their attitudes and knowledge to sex and fertility education and are preparing to work with five schools to see how they may use a teachers’ resource which they’ve created with the International Reproductive Health Education Collaboration, which Professor Harper founded and chairs.



Media contact 

Poppy Danby 

E: p.danby [at] ucl.ac.uk