Medical Education


Medical Education

Some files have been scanned in and are large. Those greater than 1MB are indicated.


D. Hope, K. Adamson, I. C. McManus, L. Chis, and A. Elder (2018). Using differential item functioning to evaluate potential bias in a high stakes postgraduate knowledge based assessment. BMC Medical Education 18 (64) https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1143-0 :1-7, 2018.C. Taylor, I. C. McManus, and I. Davison (2018). Would changing the selection process for GP trainees stem the workforce crisis? A cohort study using multiple-imputation and simulation. BMC Medical Education 201818:81

J. Dowell, J. Cleland, S. Fitzpatrick, I. C. McManus, S. Nicholson, T. Oppé, K. Petty-Saphon, O. Sierocinska King, S. Thornton, and K. White (2018). The UK medical education database (UKMED) what is it? Why and how might you use it? BMC Medical Education 18 (DOI 10.1186/s12909-017-1115-9) (6):1-8.


A. Elder, I. C. McManus, A. Patrick, K. Nair, L. Vaughan, and J. Dacre (2017). The value of the physical examination  in clinical practice:  An international survey. Clinical Medicine 17(6):490-498.

McManus,I.C. and Sondheimer,H. (2017) Student selection, in A practical guide for medical teachers (5th edition), editors Dent,J.A., Harden,R.M. and Hunt,D., Elsevier: Edinburgh


Davison, I., McManus, I.C. and Taylor, C. (2016) Evaluation of GP Specialty Selection [Report commissioned by Health Education England], University of Birmingham: School of Education [3.7Mb]. See also https://www.hee.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/documents/GP%20Specialty%20Selection%20Evaluation%20FINAL_0.pdf and https://www.hee.nhs.uk/our-work/attracting-recruiting/medical-recruitment/quality-standards


I. C. McManus, Terry Ng-Knight, Lucy Riglin, Norah Frederickson, Katherine Shelton and Frances Rice (2015) Doctor, builder, soldier, lawyer, teacher, dancer, shopkeeper, vet: exploratory study of which eleven-year olds would like to become a doctor, BMC Psychology, BMC Psychology 2015, 3:38, (doi:10.1186/s40359-015-0094-z).

Devine,O., Harborne,A. and McManus,I.C. (2015) Assessment at UK medical schools varies substantially in volume, type and intensity and correlates with postgraduate attainment, BMC Medical Education.2015, 15:146

Woolf,K., Potts,H., Stott,J., McManus,I.C., Williams,A. and Scior,K. (2015) The best choice? The Psychologist, 28(9), 730-734.

J. Archer, I. C. McManus, K. Woolf, L. Monrouxe, J. Illing, A. Bullock, and T. Roberts (2015) Without proper research funding, how can medical education be evidence based? Brit.Med.J. 350 (h3445): doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h3445.

R. Wakeford, M. L. Denney, K. Ludka-Stempien, J. Dacre, and I. C. McManus (2015). Cross-comparison of MRCGP & MRCP(UK) in a database linkage study of 2,284 candidates taking both examinations: Assessment of validity and differential performance by ethnicity. BMC Medical Education 15 (1 (doi:10.1186/s12909-014-0281-2)).


I. C. McManus and R. E. Wakeford (2014) Data linkage comparison of PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: Equivalent IMG career progress requires higher PLAB pass-marks. Brit.Med.J. 348 (17th April 2014):g2621.

I. C. McManus  (2014) The marking and standard-setting of PLAB Part 2.

I. C. McManus and R. Wakeford (2014)  Assessing the equivalence of PLAB graduates to UK graduates.

I. C. McManus, L. Chis, R. Fox, D. Waller, and P. Tang (2014) Implementing statistical equating for MRCP(UK) Parts 1 and 2. BMC Medical Education 14 (204): doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-204.


I. C. McManus, C. Dewberry, S. Nicholson, and J. Dowell (2013) The UKCAT-12 study: Educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a collaborative study of twelve UK medical schools. BMC Medicine  11 :244:doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-244.

I.C. McManus (2013) UKCAT-12: Technical Report.

I. C. McManus, K. Woolf, J. Dacre, E. Paice, and C. Dewberry (2013) The academic backbone: Longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the Specialist Register in UK medical students and doctors. BMC Medicine 11:242:doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-242.

I. C. McManus, C. Dewberry, S. Nicholson, J. S. Dowell, K. Woolf, and H. W. W. Potts (2013) Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: Meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies. BMC Medicine 11:243:doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-243.

K. Woolf, I. C. McManus, H. W. W. Potts, and J. E. Dacre (2013) The mediators of minority ethnic underperformance in final medical school examinations: a longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology 83:135-159.

Ludka-Stempien, K., Woolf, K. McManus, I.C. (2013) Poor performance on the MRCP(UK) examination predicts license limitations in subsequent medical practice, Presentation, AMEE.

Bigsby,E. McManus,I.C., McCrorie,P., and Sedgwick,P. (2013)  Which medical students like problem-based learning? Education in Medicine Journal 5(1):e72-e76.

McManus,I.C., Elder, A.T. and Dacre,J. (2013) Investigating possible ethnicity and sex bias in clinical examiners: An analysis of data from the MRCP(UK) PACES and nPACES examinations. BMC Medical Education, 13:103.


I. C. McManus (2012) The misinterpretation of the standard error of measurement in medical education: a primer on the problems, pitfalls and peculiarities of the three different standard errors of measurement. Med.Teach. 34 (7):569-576, 2012.

McManus, I.C. & Ludka,K. (2012) Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations, BMC Medicine 2012, 10:60   (doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-60)

McManus, I.C. (2012) Widening access to medicine for 'under-represented' groups: Defining 'under-represented' is far from straightforward [Editorial], Student BMJ, June 2012, 20: e3407.

McManus, I.C. (2012) Obituary: Peter Richards, British Medical Journal, 344: 38. A longer version is available here.

Woolf,K., Potts,H.W.W., Patel,S., McManus,I.C. (2012) The hidden medical school: A longitudinal study of how social networks form, and how they relate to academic performance, Medical Teacher: 34, 577-586.


Woolf, K. and McManus, I.C. (2011) Predicting and guiding career success in medicine, pp 297-316 in Medical Education: Theory and Practice, edited by Tim Dornan, Karen Mann, Albert Scherpbier and John Spencer, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

McManus,I.C.  (2011) To BSc or not to BSc... (Editorial) Student BMJ 2011;19:d7559.

McManus, I.C., Jonvik, H.,  Richards,P. and Paice. E. (2011) Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional study of UK doctors. BMC Medicine  9:100 (www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/100).

McManus,I.C.,  Ferguson, E., Wakeford, R., Powis,D. and James,D. (2011) Predictive validity of the BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT): An evaluation and case study. Medical Teacher. 33: 53-57.  For the paper, Emery and Bell's reply and our response as one document, click here.

McManus,I.C.,  Ferguson, E., Wakeford, R., Powis,D. and James,D. (2011) Response to Comments by Emery and Bell, Medical Teacher . Medical Teacher, 33: 60-61. 

Elder,A., McManus, I.C., McAlpine, L. and Dacre,J. (2011) What skills are tested in the new PACES examination? Ann.Acad.Med.Singapore 40:119-125.

Elder,A., McAlpine, L., Bateman, N., Dacre, J., Kopelman, P. and McManus,I.C. (2011) Changing PACES: developments at the examination in 2009. Clinical Medicine 11: 231-234.

Prideaux, D., Roberts, C., Eva,K., Centeno, A., McCrorie, P., McManus, I.C., Patterson,F.,  Powis,D., Tekian,A. and Wilkinson, D. (2011)  Assessment for selection for the health care professions and specialty training: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 conference. Medical Teacher 33:215-223.


Tighe, J., McManus, I.C., Dewhurst, N.G., Chis, L. and Mucklow, J. (2010) The standard error of measurement is a more appropriate measure of quality for postgraduate medical assessments than is reliability: an analysis of MRCP(UK) examinations, BMC Medical Education, 2010, 10:40.


Woolf, K., McManus, I.C., Gill, D. and Dacre, J.E. (2009) The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial, BMC Medical Education 2009, 9:35 

McManus,I.C. (2009) Student selection, pp.371-377 in Dent, J.A. and Harden, R.M. A practical guide for medical teachers, 3rd edition, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Clauser, B. E., Harik, P., Margolis, M. J., Mcmanus, I. C., Mollon, J., Chis, L. & Williams, S. (2009). An empirical examination of the impact of group discussion and examinee performance information on judgments made in the Angoff standard-setting Procedure, Applied Measurement in Education, 22: 1-21.


Ip, H. & McManus, I. C. (2008). Increasing diversity among clinicians [Editorial]. British Medical Journal, 336, 1082-1083.

McManus, I.C. (2008). Left-right discrimination in medicine, British Medical Journal, 337, 1426-7.

McManus, I. C., Elder, A. T., De Champlain, A., Dacre, J. E., Mollon, J., & Chis, L. (2008). Graduates of different UK medical schools show substantial differences in performance on MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2 and PACES examinations. BMC Medicine, 6:5.

McManus,I.C. and Goldacre,M.J. (2008). Predicting career destinations, pp 59-78, in Carter, Y.H. and Jackson,N.R, Medical Education and Training - from theory to delivery, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McManus, I. C., Woolf, K., & Dacre, J. (2008). The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities. BMC Medical Education, 8:21.

McManus, I. C., Woolf, K., & Dacre, J. E. (2008). Even one star at A level could be "too little, too late" for medical student selection. BMC Medical Education, 8:16.

Woolf, K., Haq, I., McManus, I. C., Higham, J., & Dacre, J. (2008) Exploring the underperformance of male and minority ethnic medical students in first year clinical examinations, Advances in Health Sciences Education, vol. 13, pp. 607-616.


Dewhurst, N. G., McManus, I. C., Mollon, J., Dacre, J. E., & Vale, J. A. (2007). Performance in the MRCP(UK) Examination 2003-4: Analysis of pass rates of UK graduates in the Clinical Examination in relation to self-reported ethnicity and gender. BMC Medicine, 5:8.

McManus, I. C. (2007). Multilevel modelling of PMETB data on trainee supervision and satisfaction. (Report, PMETB).

McManus, I. C. (2007). Stress in health professionals. In S. Ayers, A. Baum, I. C. McManus, S. Newman, K. Wallston, J. Weinman, & R. West (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine (2nd ed.) (pp. 500-505). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McManus, I. C. & Powis, D. A. (2007). Testing medical school selection tests. Medical Journal of Australia, 186, 118-119.

Powis, D. A., Hamilton, J., & McManus, I. C. (2007). Widening access by changing the criteria for selecting medical students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1235-1245.

Woolf, K., Cave, J., McManus, I. C., & Dacre, J. E. (2007). 'It gives you an understanding you can't get from any book'. The relationship between medical students' and doctors' personal illness experiences and their performance: a qualitative and quantitative study. BMC Medical Education, 7:50.


McManus, I. C., Livingston, G., & Katona, C. (2006). The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement. BMC Medical Education, 6:11.

McManus, I. C., Thompson, M., & Mollon, J. (2006). Assessment of examiner leniency and stringency ('hawk-dove effect') in the MRCP(UK) clinical examination (PACES) using multi-facet Rasch modelling. BMC Medical Education, 6:42.


McManus, I. C. (2005). Sir James Paget's research on medical education. Lancet, 366, 506-513.

McManus, I. C. (2005, October 7). Why I ... think introducing SATS for university applicants in Britain is a waste of time. Times Higher Education Supplement, p. 16.

McManus, I. C. (2005). Myers and Medicine. The Psychologist, 18, 748-751.

McManus, I. C., Iqbal, S., Chandrarajan, A., Ferguson, E., & Leaviss, J. (2005). Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: A prospective, longitudinal study. BMC Medical Education, 5:38.

McManus, I. C., Lissauer, T., & Williams, S. E. (2005). Detecting cheating in written medical examinations by statistical analysis of similarity of answers: pilot study. British Medical Journal, 330, 1064-1066. [1.70 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C., Mollon, J., Duke, O. L., & Vale, J. A. (2005). Changes in standard of candidates taking the MRCP(UK) Part 1 examination, 1985 to 2002: Analysis of marker questions. BMC Medicine, 3:13.

McManus, I. C., Powis, D. A., Wakeford, R., Ferguson, E., James, D., & Richards, P. (2005). Intellectual aptitude tests and A levels for selecting UK school leaver entrants for medical school. British Medical Journal, 331, 555-559.


Bigsby, E., McManus, I. C., Sedgwick, P., & McCrorie, P. (2004). Which medical students like problem-based learning? Educación Médica, 7(3), 261.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Detecting cheating in medical examinations. Educación Médica, 7(3), 193.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Social class data are problematic to interpret [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 329, 800-801.

McManus, I. C. (2004). Social class data are problematic to interpret [Commentary]. BMJ.com.

McManus, I. C., Keeling, A., & Paice, E. (2004). Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates. BMC Medicine, 2:29.

McManus, I. C., Mollon, J., Duke, O., & Vale, A. (2004). Changes in standard of candidates taking the MRCP(UK) Part 1 examination, 1985-2002: Analysis of marker questions. Educación Médica, 7(3), 193.

Petrides, K. V. & McManus, I. C. (2004). Mapping medical careers: Questionnaire assessment of career preferences in medical school applicants and final year students. BMC Medical Education, 4, 18.


McManus, I. C. (2003). How to derive causes from correlations in educational studies [Commentary]. British Medical Journal, 326, 432.

McManus, I. C. (2003). Medical School differences: beneficial diversity or harmful deviations? Quality and Safety in Health Care, 12, 324-325.

McManus, I. C., Mooney-Somers, J., Dacre, J. E., & Vale, J. A. (2003). Reliability of the MRCP(UK) Part I Examination, 1984-2001. Medical Education, 37, 609-611.

McManus, I. C., Smithers, E., Partridge, P., Keeling, A., & Fleming, P. R. (2003). A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study. British Medical Journal, 327, 139-142.

McParland, M., Noble, L. M., Livingston, G., & McManus, I. C. (2003). The effect of a psychiatric attachment on students' attitudes to and intention to pursue psychiatry as a career. Medical Education, 37, 447-454.


Handfield-Jones, R. S., Mann, K. V., Challis, M. E., Hobma, S. O., Klass, D. J., McManus, I. C. et al. (2002). Linking assessment to learning: a new route to quality assurance in medical practice. Medical Education, 36, 949-958.

Hays, R. B., Jolly, B. C., Caldon, L. J. M., McCrorie, P., McAvoy, P. A., McManus, I. C. et al. (2002). Is insight important? Measuring capacity to change performance. Medical Education, 36, 965-971.

McManus, I. C. (2002). Medical school applications - a critical situation. British Medical Journal, 325, 786-787.

McManus, I. C. (2002). Stress and burnout in doctors. Lancet, 360, 1976.

McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C., & Gordon, D. (2002). The causal links between stress and burnout in a longitudinal study of UK doctors. Lancet, 359, 2089-2090.

McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C., & Paice, E. (2002). How consultants, hospitals, trusts and deaneries affect pre-registration house officer posts: a multilevel model. Medical Education, 36, 35-44.

McManus, I. C., Smithers, E., Partridge, P., & Fleming, P. R. (2002). Intelligence and academic attainment as predictors of medical careers: A twenty-year follow-up. Poster Presented at 10th Ottawa Conference, Ottawa, 13th-17th July.

Paice, E., Moss, F., Heard, S., Winder, B. C., & McManus, I. C. (2002). The relationship between pre-registration house officers and their consultants. Medical Education, 36, 26-34.

Paice, E., Rutter, H., Wetherell, M., Winder, B. C., & McManus, I. C. (2002). Stressful incidents, stress and coping strategies in the pre-registration house officer year. Medical Education, 36, 56-65.

Petrides, K. V. & McManus, I. C. (2002). Mapping medical student career preferences. Poster Presented at 10th Ottawa Conference, Ottawa, 13th-17th July.


Fox, R. A., McManus, I. C., & Winder, B. C. (2001). The shortened Study Process Questionnaire: an investigation of its structure and longitudinal stability using confirmatory factor analysis. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 511-530.

McManus, I. C. (2001). Nothing human is alien to me. Medical Education, 35, 1178-1179.

McManus, I. C. (2001). Student selection. In J.A.Dent & R. M. Harden (Eds.), A practical guide for medical teachers (pp. 379-392). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. [1.32 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C., & Gordon, D. (2001). UK doctors' attitudes to the General Medical Council's Performance Procedures 1997 - 1999. Medical Education, 35 (Supplement 1), 60-69.

Peters, J. & McManus, I. C. (2001). Good medical practice: Comparing the views of doctors and the general population. Medical Education, 35 (Supplement 1), 52-59.


McManus, I. C., Gordon, D., & Winder, B. C. (2000). The Duties of a Doctor: UK doctors and Good Medical Practice. Quality in Health Care, 9, 14-22.

McManus, I. C. & Sproston, K. A. (2000). Women in hospital medicine: Glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 10-16.


McManus, I. C. (1999). Selection to medical school in Great Britain: Author's reply. British Medical Journal, 318, 939.

McManus, I. C. (1999, March). Unnatural selection. BMA News Review, p. 30.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Winder, B. C. (1999). Do UK medical school applicants prefer interviewing to non-interviewing schools? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 4, 155-165.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Winder, B. C. (1999). Intercalated degrees, learning styles, and career preferences: prospective longitudinal study of UK medical students. British Medical Journal, 319, 542-546.

McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C., & Gordon, D. (1999). Are UK doctors particularly stressed? Lancet, 354, 1358-1359.

Steel, C. M., Jackson, D., Sinclair, D. W., Magee, S. R., Levison, D. A., Parratt, D., Bland, J. M., Gore, S. M & McManus, C. (1999). Selection to medical school in Great Britain [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 318, 937a.


McManus, I. C. (1998). Early death among anaesthetists: A statistical howler [Commentary]. Anaesthesia, 53, 90-91.

McManus, I. C. (1998). Factors affecting likelihood of applicants being offered a place in medical schools in the United Kingdom in 1996 and 1997: retrospective study. British Medical Journal, 317, 1111-1116.

McManus, I. C. (1998). The selection of medical students at British universities in 1996 and 1997: A report to the Council of Heads of Medical Schools.   Also available at http://www.medschools.ac.uk/Publications/Pages/The-selection-of-Medical-...

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Winder, B. C. (1998). Clinical experience and performance in final examinations: Authors' reply [Commentary]. British Medical Journal, 316, 1984-1985.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Winder, B. C. (1998). Clinical experience of UK medical students. Lancet, 351, 802-803.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., Winder, B. C., & Sproston, K. A. (1998). Clinical experience, performance in final examinations, and learning style in medical students: prospective study. British Medical Journal, 316, 345-350.

Taffinder, N. J., McManus, I. C., Gul, Y., Russell, R. C. G., & Darzi, A. (1998). Effect of sleep deprivation on surgeons' dexterity on laparoscopy simulator. Lancet, 352, 1191.

Taffinder, N., McManus, I. C., Jansen, J., Russell, R., & Darzi, A. (1998). An objective assessment of surgeons' psychomotor skills: validation of the MISTVR laparoscopic simulator. British Journal of Surgery, 85 (Supplement 1), 75.

Taffinder, N., McManus, I. C., Russell, R., & Darzi, A. (1998). An objective assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills: The effect of a training course on performance. Surgical Endoscopy, 12, 493.

Taffinder, N., Sutton, C., Fishwick, R. J., McManus, I. C., & Darzi, A. (1998). Validation of virtual reality to teach and assess psychomotor skills in laparoscopic surgery. In J.Westwood, H. Hoffman, D. Stredney, & S. Weghorst (Eds.), Technology and Informatics 50. Proceedings of Medicine meets Virtual Reality, 6, jan 28-31, San Diego, USA (pp. 124-130). Amsterdam: IOS Press.


McManus, I. C. (1997). Anaesthetists are younger than other doctors [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 315, 314.

McManus, I. C. (1997). From selection to qualification: How and why medical students change. In I.Allen, P. Brown, & P. Hughes (Eds.), Choosing tomorrow's doctors (pp. 60-79). London: Policy Studies Institute.

McManus, I. C. (1997). Medical careers: Stories of a life. Medical Education, 31 (Supplement 1), 31-35.

McManus, I. C. (1997). Physician-poets. Lancet, 349, 655.

McManus, I. C. (1997). Which doctors die first? Recording the doctors' sex might have led authors to suspect their conclusions [Commentary]. British Medical Journal, 314, 1132.

McManus, I. C., Kidd, J. M., & Aldous, I. R. (1997). Self-perception of communicative ability: Evaluation of a questionnaire completed by medical students and general practitioners. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 301-315.

McManus, I. C. & Vincent, C. A. (1997). Can future poor performance be identified during selection? In P.Lens & G. van der Waal (Eds.), Problem Doctors: A conspiracy of silence (pp. 213-236). Amsterdam: IOS Press. [1.11 MB pdf]

Richards, P., McManus, I. C., & Allen, I. (1997). British doctors are not disappearing [Editorial]. British Medical Journal, 314, 1567-1568.


Godfrey, R. C. & McManus, I. C. (1996). Can undergraduate assessment be both realistic and reliable? Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, 25, 205-208.

Kitson, A., McManus, I. C., & Pringle, M. (1996). A research base for professional staffing of health services. In M.Peckham & R. Smith (Eds.), Scientific basis of health services (pp. 99-114). London: BMJ Books.

McManus, I. C. (1996). Birth dates and admission to medical school. Lancet, 347, 1120.

McManus, I. C. (1996). Drop out rate in medical schools seems reasonable. British Medical Journal, 313, 173.

McManus, I. C. (1996). Engineering quality in health care [Editorial]. Quality in Health Care, 5, 127.

McManus, I. C., Lefford, F., Furnham, A. F., Shahidi, S., & Pincus, T. (1996). Career preference and personality differences in medical school applicants. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 1, 235-248.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., Winder, B. C., & Sproston, K. A. (1996). Final examination performance of students from ethnic minorities. Medical Education, 30, 195-200.


McManus, I. C. (1995). Examining the educated and the trained. Lancet, 345, 1151-1153.

McManus, I. C. (1995). Humanity and the medical humanities. Lancet, 346, 1143-1145.

McManus, I. C. (1995). Increased mortality in women doctors [Letter]. Lancet, 345, 796-797.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1995). Medical schools and racial discrimination: Comparison between medical schools is unjustified [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 310, 1530-1531.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1995, February 24). Skewed selection needs rethink. Times Higher Education Supplement, p. 13.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., Winder, B. C., Sproston, K. A., & Styles, V. (1995). Medical school applicants from ethnic minorities: identifying if and when they are disadvantaged. British Medical Journal, 310, 496-500.

Richards, P. & McManus, I. C. (1995). Medical schools and racial discrimination [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 310, 1606.


McManus, I. C. (1994). Department of theatrical medicine? [Editorial]. Lancet, 344, 767.

McManus, I. C. (1994). Interpreting results of observational research: Requires more, not less, statistical analysis [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 309, 1158.

McManus, I. C. (1994). Knowing the knowledge [Editorial]. Quality in Health Care, 3, 67-68.

McManus, I. C. (1994). Science in schools: decline and fall? [Editorial]. British Medical Journal, 308, 284-285.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., Winder, B. C., & Sproston, K. A. (1994, October 21). Prescription failing students [Letter]. Times Higher Education Supplement, p. 14.

McManus, I. C., Vincent, C. A., Thom, S., & Kidd, J. (1994). Come insegnare l'arte di communicare agli studenti degli anni clinici. MEDIC: Metodologia e didattica clinica, 2, 205-212.


McManus, I. C., Lefford, F., Furnham, A. F., & Shahidi, S. (1993). Career preference and personality in medical school applicants. Medical Education, 27, 104.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., Winder, B. C., Sproston, K. A., & Vincent, C. A. (1993). The changing clinical experience of British medical students. Lancet, 341, 941-944.

McManus, I. C., Sproston, K. A., Winder, B. C., & Richards, P. (1993). The experience of medical education: changing perceptions of final-year students. Medical Education 27, 103.

McManus, I. C. & Vincent, C. A. (1993). Selecting and educating safer doctors. In C.A.Vincent, M. Ennis, & R. J. Audley (Eds.), Medical accidents (pp. 80-105). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [1.28 MB pdf]

McManus, I. C., Vincent, C. A., Thom, S., & Kidd, J. (1993). Teaching communication skills to clinical students. British Medical Journal, 306, 1322-1327.

McManus, I. C., Winder, B. C., Sproston, K. A., Styles, V. A., & Richards, P. (1993). Why do medical school applicants apply to particular schools? Medical Education, 27, 116-123.

On practise, practice, and praxis [Editorial]. (1993). Lancet, 342, 1002-1003.

Sproston, K. A., Winder, B. C., & McManus, I. C. (1993). Sex differences in career aspirations and knowledge of medical school applicants. Medical Education 27, 107-108.

Wakeford, R., Foulkes, J., McManus, I. C., & Southgate, L. (1993). MRCGP pass rate by medical school and region of postgraduate training. British Medical Journal, 307, 542-543.

Wakeford, R., Foulkes, J., McManus, I. C., & Southgate, L. (1993). Pass rate in MRCGP examination [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 307, 1355-1356.

Winder, B. C., Sproston, K. A., McManus, I. C., & Richards, P. (1993). Aptitudes and career preferences in medical school applicants. Medical Education 27, 106.


McManus, I. C. (1992). Does performance improve when candidates resit a post-graduate examination? Medical Education, 26, 157-162.

McManus, I. C. & Lockwood, D. N. J. (1992). Medical education, training and research. In E.R.Beck, D. L. H. Patterson, S. Newman, & S. Lonsdale (Eds.), In good health? The status of the NHS (pp. 123-148). London: Chapman and Hall. [2.32 MB pdf]

Moss, F. & McManus, I. C. (1992). The anxieties of new clinical students. Medical Education, 26, 17-20.

Powis, D. A., McManus, I. C., & Cleave-Hogg, D. (1992). Selection of medical students: Philosophic, political, social and educational bases. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 4, 25-34.


McManus, I. C. (1991). How will medical education change? Lancet, 337, 1519-1521.

McManus, I. C. (1991, March 29). Letter to the editor. Times Education Supplement.

McManus, I. C. (1991). Membership examinations and Royal College finances. Lancet, 337, 414-415.


Examining the Royal Colleges' examiners [Editorial]. (1990). Lancet, 335, 443-445.

McManus, I. C. (1990). Unsigned editorials [Letter]. Lancet, 335, 916.

McManus, I. C., Maitlis, S. L., & Richards, P. (1990). Identifying medical school applicants from ethnic minorities. Studies in Higher Education, 15, 57-73.

McManus, I. C., Tunnicliffe, N., & Fleming, P. R. (1990). The independent effects of intelligence and educational achievements in predicting final examination success [Abstract]. Medical Education, 24, 181-184.

Pass and fail rates at Royal College examinations. (1990). Lancet, 335, 1585.


Economics for medical students [Editorial]. (1989). Lancet, 2, 200.

McManus, I. C., Maitlis, S. L., & Richards, P. (1989). Shortlisting of applicants from UCCA forms: the structure of pre-selection judgements. Medical Education, 23, 136-146.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1989). Reliability of short-listing in medical student selection. Medical Education, 23, 147-151.

McManus, I. C., Richards, P., & Maitlis, S. L. (1989). Prospective study of the disadvantage of people from ethnic minority groups applying to medical schools in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal, 298, 723-726.

McManus, I. C. & Wakeford, R. (1989). A core medical curriculum [Editorial]. British Medical Journal, 298, 1051.

Stefan, M. D. & McManus, I. C. (1989). The concept of disease: its evolution in medical students. Social Science and Medicine, 29, 791-792.

Tooth, D., Tonge, K., & McManus, I. C. (1989). Anxiety and study methods in pre-clinical students: causal relation to examination performance. Medical Education, 23, 416-421.


Critical questions; critical incidents; critical answers [Editorial]. (1988). Lancet, 2, 1373-1374.

McManus, I. C. (1988). The MD and MS degrees in Britain. British Medical Journal, 297, 115-117.

McManus, I. C. (1988). Patronage, promotion and policy [Review of the book Doctors and their careers by Isobel Allen]. Lancet, 331, 1327-1328.

Richards, P., McManus, I. C., & Maitlis, S. (1988). Reliability of interviewing in medical student selection. British Medical Journal, 296, 1520-1521.


Crimlisk, H. & McManus, I. C. (1987). The effect of personal illness experience on career preference in medical students. Medical Education, 21, 464-467.

Diagnosis: logic and psychologic [Editorial]. (1987). Lancet, 1, 840-841.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1987). Choice and ordering of medical school applications: cause for concern. Lancet, 330, 33-35.

Richards, P. & McManus, I. C. (1987). Prejudice against doctors and students from ethnic minorities [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 294, 575.

Woolf, J. & McManus, I. C. (1987). Medical stereotypes and medical realities. British Medical Journal, 294, 1660.


Arndt, C. B., Guly, U. M. V., & McManus, I. C. (1986). Pre-clinical anxiety: the stress associated with a viva voce examination. Medical Education, 20, 274-280.

Lockwood, D. N. J., Goldman, L. H., & McManus, I. C. (1986). Clinical experience of clerks and dressers: a three-year study of Birmingham medical students. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 79, 38-42.

Lockwood, D. N. J., Goldman, L. H., & McManus, I. C. (1986). Surgical dressers: the theatre experience of junior clinical students. Medical Education, 20, 216-221.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1986). Admission for medicine in the United Kingdom: a structural model of background factors. Medical Education, 20, 181-186.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1986). Prospective survey of performance of medical students during preclinical years. British Medical Journal, 293, 124-127.


Lockwood, D. N. J., Goldman, L. H., & McManus, I. C. (1985). Student audit of clinical teaching: a three-year study. British Medical Journal, 291, 719-721.

McManus, I. C. (1985). Medical Students: Origins, selection, attitudes and culture. (MD thesis, University of London).

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1985). Admission to medical school [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 290, 319-320.

Richards,P. & McManus, I.C (1985) Selection of medical students: Is it fair? , St Mary's Gazette, 9 (1), 17.


McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1984). An audit of admission to medical school: 1. Acceptances and rejects. British Medical Journal, 289, 1201-1204.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1984). An audit of admission to medical school: 2. Shortlisting and interviews. British Medical Journal, 289, 1288-1290.

McManus, I. C. & Richards, P. (1984). An audit of admission to medical school: 3. Applicants' perceptions and proposals for change. British Medical Journal, 289, 1365-1367.


McManus, I. C. (1982). A-level grades and medical student selection. British Medical Journal, 284, 1654-1656.

McManus, I. C. (1982). The social class of medical students. Medical Education, 16, 72-75.


McManus, I. C. & Lockwood, D. N. J. (1979). Medical school admission policies [Letter]. Lancet, 313, 106-107.


Lockwood, D. N. J., Croft, R. D., Graffy, J., Cruickshank, J. K., McManus, I. C., Fink, C. et al. (1978). Decline of the first MB [Letter]. Lancet, 311, 983.

McManus, I. C., Isbister, J. N., & Lockwood, D. N. J. (1978). Smoking behaviour in medical students [Letter]. British Medical Journal, 1, 175.


McManus, I. C., Lockwood, D. N. J., & Cruickshank, J. K. (1977). The pre-registration year: chaos by consensus. Lancet, 309, 413-417.


Cruickshank, J. K. & McManus, I. C. (1976). Getting into medicine. New Society, 35, 112-113.

McManus, I. C. (1976). Archive for research data [Letter]. Lancet, 307, 1188.