Institute of Immunity and Transplantation


NK T-cell lymphoma


Helping patients

Find out more about PID, plus further information and patient accounts.

What is PID?

There are over 150 known genetic defects that cause PID, all of these being rare and involving different parts of the immune system. Most of these present in childhood but the most common of all PIDs occurs in adults - currently known as 'Common Variable Immunodeficiency' (CVID).

Although still rare (approx. 2000 patients in the UK) no genetic defects have yet been discovered in most CVIDs. The majority of PID patients suffer from recurrent infections, but some typers are due to defects in genes that control inflammation.

Each month we aim to cover one of the PID conditions involving adults. This will include a brief lay description of the cause and symptoms, accompanied by an account of a patient’s experience of the path to establishing the diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

This month's PID:

Previous month's PID:

Chest problems

Many members have told us that when they get chest infections they would like help in coughing up mucus (sputum). Below are some helpful videos made by NHS physiotherapists that have been viewed and approved by Royal Free medical staff:

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Specialist physiotherapist Philip Langridge at the University Hospital of South Manchester provides useful advice for patients asked to produce a sputum sample, or for those who just want to clear sputum from their chest.

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Physiotherapist Dawn Gleeson at Forth Valley NHS in Central Scotland provides advice on how to clear your chest with breathing exercises for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

Further information

For more general or specific information on PIDs visit the useful links section of our About page.