Centre for Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine


Lower Limb Blocks


Birnbaum K, Prescher A, Hesser S, Heller KD. The sensory innervation of the hip joint--an anatomical study. Surg Radiol Anat. 1997; 19(6): 371-5.

F. Kayser Enneking, F, Vincent Chan V, Greger J et al. Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Blockade: Essentials of Our Current Understanding. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2005 30(1): 4-35

De Tran Q, Clemente A, Finlayson RJ. A review of approaches and techniques for lower extremity nerve blocks Can J Anaesth 2007; 54(11): 922-934

Lumbar Plexus

Chayen D, Nathan H, Chayen M. The Psoas Compartment Block. Anesthesiology 1976; 43(1); 95-99

Kirchmair L, Entner T, Wissel J et al. A Study of the Paravertebral Anatomy for Ultrasound-Guided Posterior Lumbar Plexus Block. Anesth Analg 2001;93:477-81

Greengrass RA. Posterior Lumbar Plexus Block. Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management, 2003; 7(1): 3-7

Mannion S, Barrett J, Kelly D et al. A Description of the Spread of Injectate After Psoas Compartment Block Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2005;30:567-571

Capdevila X, Coimbra C, Choquet, O. Approaches to the Lumbar Plexus: Success, Risks, and Outcome. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2005; 30(2): 150-162

Touray ST, de Leeuw MA, Zuurmond WWA, Perez RSGM. Psoas compartment block for lower extremity surgery: a meta-analysis. Brit J Anaesth 2008; 101 (6): 750-60

Manassero A, Bossolasco M, Ugues S, Palmisano S, De Bonis U, Coletta G. Ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block. Interfascial injection versus a neuro-stimulation assisted technique. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2011; 37 (1): 67-71


Lopez S, Gros T, Bernard N, Plasse C, Capdevila X. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block for Femoral Bone Fractures in Pre-Hospital Care. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2003; 28(3): 203-20

Ng I, Himat Vaghadia H, Choi PT, Helmy N. Ultrasound Imaging Accurately Identifies the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve. Anesth Analg 2008; 107:1070-4

Gustafson KJ, Pinault GCJ, Neville JJ et al. 2009. Fascicular anatomy of human femoral nerve: Implications for neural prostheses using nerve cuff electrodes. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development; 46(7): 973-984

Paul JE, Arya A, Hurlburt L, Ji Cheng J, Thabane L, Tidy A, Murthy Y. Femoral Nerve Block Improves Analgesia Outcomes after Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Anesthesiology 2010; 113:1144-62

Continuous adductor-canal-blockade for adjuvant post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery: preliminary results. Acta Anaes Scand 2011; 55: 14-19.


Karmakar MK, Kwok WH, Ho AM, Tsang K, Chui PT, Gin T. Ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block: description of a new approach at the subgluteal space. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 390-5

Ben-Ari AY, Joshi R, Uskova A, Chelly JE. Ultrasound Localization of the Sacral Plexus Using a Parasacral Approach. Anesth Analg 2009: 108 (6): 1977-80


Vloka JD, Hadzˇic´ A, Lesser JB et al. A Common Epineural Sheath for the Nerves in the Popliteal Fossa and Its Possible Implications for Sciatic Nerve Block. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 387-90

Vloka JD, Hadzˇic´ A, April E, Thys DM. The Division of the Sciatic Nerve in the Popliteal Fossa: Anatomical Implications for Popliteal Nerve Blockade. Anesth Analg 2001; 92: 215-7

Sinha A, Chan VWS. Ultrasound Imaging for Popliteal Sciatic Nerve Block Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 130-134