Due to the location of the pancreas and its late diagnosis, surgery to remove the tumour can be difficult and only applicable to 15 to 20% of patients. This tends to leave chemotherapy as the only viable option. This is where ultrasound and mathematical modelling will play an important role.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are difficult to treat. This is due to the extensive stromal desmoplasia and dense extracellular matrix that occupies the majority of the tumour mass. Limiting drug penetration as it prevents the movement of macromolecules through the tumour mass. Penetrating this stromal barrier is a promising strategy to improving the delivery and efficacy of cytotoxic drugs such as Gemcitabine. The aim of this project is to use both the thermal and mechanical properties of ultrasound to enhance drug delivery in particular ultrasound induced cavitation, such as, microstreaming and the radiation force. The interactions of these forces with the free drug will be simplified and simulated using a nonlinear model.