Speech Research Group


JSRU transcription system

In our research, we employ a machine readable transcription system instead of the standard IPA symbols which cannot be easily understood by computers. The JSRU (Joint Speech Research Unit) alphabet is a system developed for text-to-speech synthesis.

  • The two main categories of sounds are consonants and vowels - go to the chart of the IPA sounds to find out more.
  • Translation table of JSRU and SAMPA (another machine readable alphabet).

Consonants (IPA symbols are given if different from JSRU symbols)

JSRU IPA Example Example
(word initial) (non-initial)
p (same) pen lip
b (same) bad nib
t (same) tea light
d (same) do lad
k (same) cat crack
g (same) got fog
ch (IPA)
chin watch
j (IPA) June village
f (same) food off
v (same) voice give
th (IPA) thin tenth
dh (IPA) then with
s (same) same success
z (same) zoo was
sh (IPA) show wash
zh (IPA) genre beige
h (same) happy behave
m (same) man swim
n (same) know gone
ng (IPA) N/A sing
l (same) leg girl
r (IPA) red arrow
y (IPA) year value
w (same) wet quick
x (IPA) N/A loch (Scottish)
gx (IPA) no example glottal stop

Extra JSRU symbols for Spanish Consonants

JSRU IPA Example Remarks
bh (IPA) haba
mg (IPA) confuso
gn (IPA) año
ly (IPA) llover (ll)
xh x julio (j)
jh (IPA) nieto can use y which is similar
gh (IPA) rogar
rx (IPA) perro (Spanish 'dog') Trilled 'r'
rc (IPA) pero (Spanish 'but') Tapped or flapped 'r'

Extra JSRU symbols for German Consonants

JSRU IPA Example Remarks
cx (IPA) ich
rh (IPA) ragt uvular fricative
pf Pfand affricate
tc zahl affricate

Vowels and Diphthongs

JSRU IPA Example
i (IPA) sit
o (IPA) got
oo (IPA) put
aa (IPA) hat
e (IPA) ten
u (IPA) cup
a (IPA) ago
ee/ey (IPA) see
aw (IPA) saw
uu (IPA) too
ar (IPA) arm
er (IPA) fur
ai (IPA) page
ie (IPA) eye
oi (IPA) boy
oa (IPA) home
ou (IPA) now
ia (IPA) beer
ei (IPA) bare
ur (IPA) tour

Extra JSRU symbols for German Vowels

JSRU IPA Example Remarks
oe (IPA) Hölle short vowel
ue (IPA) Tüttel short vowel
ay (IPA) tatze short vowel
oy (IPA) Topp short vowel
ea (IPA) Tee long vowel
ow (IPA) tot long vowel
uy (IPA) Tüte long vowel
or (IPA) töten long vowel
eu (IPA) Leute diphthong
ae (IPA) bitter short vowel
eo (IPA) Ende short vowel
ew (IPA) ähnlich long vowel

**Note that extra symbols will be needed for transcribing other languages