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Impact of Research

Whitehall II study publications have been used as evidence in several public health guidelines and policies. Guidelines and the Whitehall studies cited within them are listed below:

Alzheimer's Association Report: Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures (2023)

Special Report discussing the patient journey in an era of new treatments.  Alzheimers Dement 2023;19(4)

  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals. Kivimaki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, et al. Alzheimers Dement. 2018 May;14(5):601-609. (PMID: 29169013)
  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension. Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A. Eur Heart J. 2018 Sep 1;39(33):3119-3125. (PMID: 29901708)
  • Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: modelling study. Ahmadi-Abhari S, Guzman-Castillo M, Bandosz P, Shipley MJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Singh-Manoux A, Kivimäki M, Steptoe A, Capewell S, O'Flaherty M, Brunner EJ. BMJ. 2017 Jul 5;358:j2856. (PMID: 28679494)
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics. AHA Statistical Update (2023)

Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2023 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2023 Feb 21;147(8):e93-e621. (PMID: 36695182

  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals. Kivimäki M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Singh-Manoux A, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, et al; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2015;386:1739–1746. (PMID: 26298822)
  • Association of ideal cardiovascular health at age 50 with incidence of dementia: 25 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, Schnitzler A, Empana JP, Ebmeier KP, Dugravot A, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A. BMJ. 2019;366:l4414. (PMID: 31391187)
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals. Kivimäki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, Shipley MJ, Alfredsson L, Fransson EI, Goldberg M, et al. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14:601–609. (PMID: 29169013)
  • Bidirectional association between depression and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Pan A, Keum N, Okereke OI, Sun Q, Kivimaki M, Rubin RR, Hu FB. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1171–1180. (PMID: 22517938)  
  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension. Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A. Eur Heart J. 2018;39:3119–3125. (PMID: 29901708)   
  • Obesity trajectories and risk of dementia: 28 years of follow-up in the Whitehall II Study. Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Shipley M, Brunner EJ, Elbaz A, Sabia S, Kivimaki M. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14:178–186. (PMID: 28943197)
  • Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality: UK Biobank cohort study of 479 054 men and women.Hakulinen C, Pulkki-Råback L, Virtanen M, Jokela M, Kivimäki M, Elovainio M. Heart. 2018;104:1536–1542. (PMID: 29588329)
WHO Regional Obesity Report (2022)

WHO European Regional Obesity Report 2022. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe

  • Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based study. Stringhini S, Carmeli C, Jokela M, Avendaño M, McCrory C, d'Errico A, Bochud M, Barros H, Costa G, Chadeau-Hyam M, Delpierre C, Gandini M, Fraga S, Goldberg M, Giles GG, Lassale C, Kenny RA, Kelly-Irving M, Paccaud F, Layte R, Muennig P, Marmot MG, Ribeiro AI, Severi G, Steptoe A, Shipley MJ, Zins M, Mackenbach JP, Vineis P, Kivimäki M. BMJ 2018;360:k1046. (PMID: 29572376)
  • Body mass index as a predictor of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study. Stenholm S, Head J, Aalto V, Kivimäki M, Kawachi I, Zins M et al. Int J Obes 2017;41:769–775. (PMID: 28138135
World Heart Federation and World Obesity Federation joint position paper on obesity and cardiovascular disease (2022)

Obesity and cardiovascular disease: mechanistic insights and management strategies. A joint position paper by the World Heart Federation and World Obesity Federation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2022. (PMID: 36007112)

  • Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe. Kivimäki M, Kuosma E, Ferrie JE, Luukkonen R, Nyberg ST, Alfredsson L, Batty GD, Brunner EJ, Fransson E, Goldberg M, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Shipley MJ, Singh-Manoux A, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm P, Westerlund H, Zins M, Hamer M, Bell JA, Tabak AG, Jokela M. Lancet Public Health. 2017 May 19;2(6):e277-e285. (PMID: 28626830
WHO position paper: Optimizing brain health across the life course (2022)

Optimizing brain health across the life course: WHO position paper. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022

  • Association between age at onset of multimorbidity and incidence of dementia: 30 year follow-up in Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Ben Hassen C, Fayosse A, Landré B, Raggi M, Bloomberg M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A. BMJ. 2022;376:e068005. (PMID: 35110302 
  • Association of alcohol-induced loss of consciousness and overall alcohol consumption with risk for dementia. Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A, Batty GD, Sabia S, Sommerlad A, Floud S et al. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3:e2016084-e. (PMID: 32902651)
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, Dugravot A, Akbaraly T, Britton A et al. BMJ. 2018;362:k2927. (PMID: 30068508)
  • Cognitive stimulation in the workplace, plasma proteins, and risk of dementia: three analyses of population cohort studies. Kivimäki M, Walker KA, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, Mars N, Vahtera J et al. BMJ. 2021;374:n1804. (PMID: 34407988)
Alzheimer's Association Report: Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures (2021)

Special Report discussing the challenges of providing equitable health care for people with dementia. Alzheimers Dement. 2021;17(3):327-406.

  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: Role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension. Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, et al. Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(33):3119-3125. (PMID: 29901708)
  • Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: Modelling study. Ahmadi-Abhari S, Guzman-Castillo M, Bandosz P, Shipley MJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Singh-Manoux A, et al. BMJ 2017; 358:j2856. (PMID: 28679494)
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individualsKivimaki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, et al.  Alzheimers Dement. 2018; 14(5):601-609. (PMID: 29169013)
ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (2021)

Developed by the Task Force for cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice with representatives of the European Society of Cardiology and 12 medical societies With the special contribution of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC). Eur Heart J. 2021;42(34):3227-3337. 

  • Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Kivimäki M, Steptoe A. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018; 15(4):215-229.  (PMID: 29213140)
  • Work stress and risk of death in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease: a multicohort study.  Kivimäki M, Pentti J, Ferrie JE, Batty GD, Nyberg ST, Jokela M, Virtanen M, Alfredsson L, Dragano N, Fransson EI, Goldberg M, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Luukkonen R, Oksanen T, Rugulies R, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Suominen S, Theorell T, Väänänen A, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJM, Westerlund H, Zins M, Strandberg T, Steptoe A, Deanfield J; IPD-Work consortium. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018; 6(9):705-713. (PMID: 29884468)​​​
  • The natural course of healthy obesity over 20 years.  Bell JA, Hamer M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A, Batty GD, Kivimaki M. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 65(1):101-102. (PMID: 25572516).
  • Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease.  Holmes MV, Asselbergs FW, Palmer TM, Drenos F, Lanktree MB, Nelson CP, Dale CE, Padmanabhan S, Finan C, Swerdlow DI, Tragante V, van Iperen EP, Sivapalaratnam S, Shah S, Elbers CC, Shah T, Engmann J, Giambartolomei C, White J, Zabaneh D, Sofat R, McLachlan S; UCLEB consortium, Doevendans PA, Balmforth AJ, Hall AS, North KE, Almoguera B, Hoogeveen RC, Cushman M, Fornage M, Patel SR, Redline S, Siscovick DS, Tsai MY, Karczewski KJ, Hofker MH, Verschuren WM, Bots ML, van der Schouw YT, Melander O, Dominiczak AF, Morris R, Ben-Shlomo Y, Price J, Kumari M, Baumert J, Peters A, Thorand B, Koenig W, Gaunt TR, Humphries SE, Clarke R, Watkins H, Farrall M, Wilson JG, Rich SS, de Bakker PI, Lange LA, Davey Smith G, Reiner AP, Talmud PJ, Kivimäki M, Lawlor DA, Dudbridge F, Samani NJ, Keating BJ, Hingorani AD, Casas JP.  Eur Heart J. 2015; 36(9):539-50. (PMID: 24474739)
  • Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.  Holmes MV, Dale CE, Zuccolo L, Silverwood RJ, Guo Y, Ye Z, Prieto-Merino D, Dehghan A, Trompet S, Wong A, Cavadino A, Drogan D, Padmanabhan S, Li S, Yesupriya A, Leusink M, Sundstrom J, Hubacek JA, Pikhart H, Swerdlow DI, Panayiotou AG, Borinskaya SA, Finan C, Shah S, Kuchenbaecker KB, Shah T, Engmann J, Folkersen L, Eriksson P, Ricceri F, Melander O, Sacerdote C, Gamble DM, Rayaprolu S, Ross OA, McLachlan S, Vikhireva O, Sluijs I, Scott RA, Adamkova V, Flicker L, Bockxmeer FM, Power C, Marques-Vidal P, Meade T, Marmot MG, Ferro JM, Paulos-Pinheiro S, Humphries SE, Talmud PJ, Mateo Leach I, Verweij N, Linneberg A, Skaaby T, Doevendans PA, Cramer MJ, van der Harst P, Klungel OH, Dowling NF, Dominiczak AF, Kumari M, Nicolaides AN, Weikert C, Boeing H, Ebrahim S, Gaunt TR, Price JF, Lannfelt L, Peasey A, Kubinova R, Pajak A, Malyutina S, Voevoda MI, Tamosiunas A, Maitland-van der Zee AH, Norman PE, Hankey GJ, Bergmann MM, Hofman A, Franco OH, Cooper J, Palmen J, Spiering W, de Jong PA, Kuh D, Hardy R, Uitterlinden AG, Ikram MA, Ford I, Hyppönen E, Almeida OP, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, Hamsten A, Husemoen LL, Tjønneland A, Tolstrup JS, Rimm E, Beulens JW, Verschuren WM, Onland-Moret NC, Hofker MH, Wannamethee SG, Whincup PH, Morris R, Vicente AM, Watkins H, Farrall M, Jukema JW, Meschia J, Cupples LA, Sharp SJ, Fornage M, Kooperberg C, LaCroix AZ, Dai JY, Lanktree MB, Siscovick DS, Jorgenson E, Spring B, Coresh J, Li YR, Buxbaum SG, Schreiner PJ, Ellison RC, Tsai MY, Patel SR, Redline S, Johnson AD, Hoogeveen RC, Hakonarson H, Rotter JI, Boerwinkle E, de Bakker PI, Kivimaki M, Asselbergs FW, Sattar N, Lawlor DA, Whittaker J, Davey Smith G, Mukamal K, Psaty BM, Wilson JG, Lange LA, Hamidovic A, Hingorani AD, Nordestgaard BG, Bobak M, Leon DA, Langenberg C, Palmer TM, Reiner AP, Keating BJ, Dudbridge F, Casas JP; InterAct Consortium.  BMJ. 2014; 349:g4164. (PMID: 25011450).
  • Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies.  Pennells L, Kaptoge S, Wood A, Sweeting M, Zhao X, White I, Burgess S, Willeit P, Bolton T, Moons KGM, van der Schouw YT, Selmer R, Khaw KT, Gudnason V, Assmann G, Amouyel P, Salomaa V, Kivimaki M, Nordestgaard BG, Blaha MJ, Kuller LH, Brenner H, Gillum RF, Meisinger C, Ford I, Knuiman MW, Rosengren A, Lawlor DA, Völzke H, Cooper C, Marín Ibañez A, Casiglia E, Kauhanen J, Cooper JA, Rodriguez B, Sundström J, Barrett-Connor E, Dankner R, Nietert PJ, Davidson KW, Wallace RB, Blazer DG, Björkelund C, Donfrancesco C, Krumholz HM, Nissinen A, Davis BR, Coady S, Whincup PH, Jørgensen T, Ducimetiere P, Trevisan M, Engström G, Crespo CJ, Meade TW, Visser M, Kromhout D, Kiechl S, Daimon M, Price JF, Gómez de la Cámara A, Wouter Jukema J, Lamarche B, Onat A, Simons LA, Kavousi M, Ben-Shlomo Y, Gallacher J, Dekker JM, Arima H, Shara N, Tipping RW, Roussel R, Brunner EJ, Koenig W, Sakurai M, Pavlovic J, Gansevoort RT, Nagel D, Goldbourt U, Barr ELM, Palmieri L, Njølstad I, Sato S, Monique Verschuren WM, Varghese CV, Graham I, Onuma O, Greenland P, Woodward M, Ezzati M, Psaty BM, Sattar N, Jackson R, Ridker PM, Cook NR, D'Agostino RB, Thompson SG, Danesh J, Di Angelantonio E; Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Eur Heart J. 2019; 40(7):621-631. (PMID: 30476079
  • Life course trajectories of systolic blood pressure using longitudinal data from eight UK cohorts. Wills AK, Lawlor DA, Matthews FE, Sayer AA, Bakra E, Ben-Shlomo Y, Benzeval M, Brunner E, Cooper R, Kivimaki M, Kuh D, Muniz-Terrera G, Hardy R. PLoS Med. 2011; 8(6):e1000440. (PMID: 21695075
American Heart Association Scientific Statement (2021)

Psychological Health, Well-Being, and the Mind-Heart-Body Connection: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Mar 9;143(10):e763-e783.

  • Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Steptoe A, Kivimäki M. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013; 34:337–354. (PMID: 23297662)
Alzheimer's Association Report: Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures (2020)

Special Report discussing the future challenges of meeting care demands for the growing number of people living with Alzheimer's dementia in the United States with a particular emphasis on primary care.  Alzheimer’s Dement. 2020;16:391–460.

  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: Role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension. Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, et al. Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(33):3119-3125. (PMID: 29901708)
  • Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: Modelling study. Ahmadi-Abhari S, Guzman-Castillo M, Bandosz P, Shipley MJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Singh-Manoux A, et al. BMJ 2017; 358:j2856. (PMID: 28679494)
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individualsKivimaki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, et al.  Alzheimers Dement. 2018; 14(5):601-609. (PMID: 29169013)
Lancet Commission on Diabetes (2020)

The Lancet Commission on diabetes: using data to transform diabetes care and patient lives. Lancet. 2020 Nov 

  • Socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors as determinants of premature mortality: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of 1·7 million men and women. Stringhini S, Carmeli C, Jokela M, Avendaño M, Muennig P, Guida F, Ricceri F, d'Errico A, Barros H, Bochud M, Chadeau-Hyam M, Clavel-Chapelon F, Costa G, Delpierre C, Fraga S, Goldberg M, Giles GG, Krogh V, Kelly-Irving M, Layte R, Lasserre AM, Marmot MG, Preisig M, Shipley MJ, Vollenweider P, Zins M, Kawachi I, Steptoe A, Mackenbach JP, Vineis P, Kivimäki M. Lancet 2017; 389: 1229-1237. (PMID: 28159391)Content placeholder
Lancet Commission on Dementia (2020) 

Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet 2020; 396: 413–46

  • ​​Physical activity, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia: 28 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. Sabia S, Dugravot A, Dartigues JF, Abell J, Elbaz A, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2709. (PMID: 28642251
  • Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Before Diagnosis of Dementia: A 28-Year Follow-up Study. Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Fournier A, Abell J, Ebmeier K, Kivimäki M, Sabia S. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 1;74(7):712-718. (PMID: 28514478
  • Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study. Topiwala A, Allan CL, Valkanova V, Zsoldos E, Filippini N, Sexton C, Mahmood A, Fooks P, Singh-Manoux A, Mackay CE, Kivimäki M, Ebmeier KP.  BMJ. 2017 Jun 6;357:j2353. (PMID: 28588063
  • Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: modelling study. Ahmadi-Abhari S, Guzman-Castillo M, Bandosz P, Shipley MJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Singh-Manoux A, Kivimäki M, Steptoe A, Capewell S, O'Flaherty M, Brunner EJ. BMJ. 2017 Jul 5;358:j2856. (PMID: 28679494
  • Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: 23 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study.  Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, Dugravot A, Akbaraly T, Britton A, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A. BMJ. 2018 Aug 1;362:k2927.  (PMID: 30068508
  • Obesity trajectories and risk of dementia: 28 years of follow-up in the Whitehall II Study.  Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Shipley M, Brunner EJ, Elbaz A, Sabia S, Kivimaki M. Alzheimers Dement. 2018 Feb;14(2):178-186. (PMID: 28943197
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals. Kivimäki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, Shipley MJ, Alfredsson L, Fransson EI, Goldberg M, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Kuosma E, Nordin M, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vuoksimaa E, Westerholm P, Westerlund H, Zins M, Kivipelto M, Vahtera J, Kaprio J, Singh-Manoux A, Jokela M. Alzheimers Dement. 2018 May;14(5):601-609. (PMID: 29169013
  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension. Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A. Eur Heart J. 2018 Sep 1;39(33):3119-3125.  (PMID: 29901708
World Health Organisation (WHO)/ International Labor Organization (ILO) Review on Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury: Ischaemic Heart Disease (2020)

The effect of exposure to long working hours on ischaemic heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury. Environment International 142 (2020) 105739

  • Long Working Hours and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.Virtanen M, Kivimäki M. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2018 Oct 1;20(11):123. (PMID: 30276493)
  • Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Kivimäki M, Steptoe A. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018 Apr;15(4):215-229 (PMID: 29213140)
  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals. Kivimäki M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Singh-Manoux A, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Geuskens GA, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Lunau T, Madsen IE, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Shipley MJ, Siegrist J, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, O'Reilly D, Kumari M, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2015 Oct 31;386(10005):1739-46. (PMID: 26298822)
  • Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data.  Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Ferrie JE, Geuskens GA, Goldberg M, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Joensuu M, Jokela M, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Kumari M, Madsen IE, Marmot MG, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Suominen SB, Väänänen A, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Zins M, Steptoe A, Theorell T; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1491-7 (PMID: 22981903)
  • Long working hours and sleep disturbances: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Gimeno D, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Kivimäki M. Sleep. 2009 Jun;32(6):737-45. (PMID: 19544749)
  • Overtime work and incident coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Singh-Manoux A, Shipley MJ, Vahtera J, Marmot MG, Kivimäki M. Eur Heart J. 2010 Jul;31(14):1737-44. (PMID: 20460389)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Virtanen M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Madsen IE, Lallukka T, Ahola K, Alfredsson L, Batty GD, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Ferrie JE, Fransson EI, Hamer M, Heikkilä K, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Ladwig KH, Lunau T, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Schupp J, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Wagner GG, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Kivimäki M. BMJ. 2015 Jan 13;350:g7772.  (PMID: 25587065) Content placeholder
World Health Organisation (WHO)/ International Labor Organization (ILO) Review on Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury: Stroke (2020)

The effect of exposure to long working hours on stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury. Environment International 142 (2020) 105746.

  • Long Working Hours and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.  Virtanen M, Kivimäki M. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2018 Oct 1;20(11):123.  (PMID: 30276493)
  • Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease.  Kivimäki M, Steptoe A.  Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018 Apr;15(4):215-229.  (PMID: 29213140)
  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals. Kivimäki M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Singh-Manoux A, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Geuskens GA, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Lunau T, Madsen IE, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Shipley MJ, Siegrist J, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, O'Reilly D, Kumari M, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2015 Oct 31;386(10005):1739-46. (PMID: 26298822)
  • IPD-Work consortium: pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data strengthen evidence base for a link between psychosocial factors and health. Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A, Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Batty GD, Rugulies R. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2015 May 1;41(3):312-21.  (PMID: 25654401)
  • Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals.  Kivimäki M, Virtanen M, Kawachi I, Nyberg ST, Alfredsson L, Batty GD, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Brunner EJ, Burr H, Dragano N, Ferrie JE, Fransson EI, Hamer M, Heikkilä K, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Madsen IEH, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Siegrist J, Steptoe A, Suominen S, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJM, Westerlund H, Singh-Manoux A, Jokela M. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Jan;3(1):27-34.  (PMID: 25262544)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Virtanen M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Madsen IE, Lallukka T, Ahola K, Alfredsson L, Batty GD, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Ferrie JE, Fransson EI, Hamer M, Heikkilä K, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Ladwig KH, Lunau T, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Schupp J, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Wagner GG, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Kivimäki M. BMJ. 2015 Jan 13;350:g7772. (PMID: 25587065
  • Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Steptoe A, Kivimäki M. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013;34:337-54. (PMID: 23297662)
  • Long working hours and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Virtanen M, Heikkilä K, Jokela M, Ferrie JE, Batty GD, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct 1;176(7):586-96.  (PMID: 22952309)
  • Stress and cardiovascular disease.  Steptoe A, Kivimäki M. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012 Apr 3;9(6):360-70.  (PMID: 22473079)
  • Long working hours and sleep disturbances: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Gimeno D, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Kivimäki M. Sleep. 2009 Jun;32(6):737-45.  (PMID: 19544749
Alzheimer's Association Report: Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures (2019)

Special Report examining the use of brief cognitive assessments by primary care physicians as a tool for improving early detection of dementia. Alzheimer's & Dementia 15 (2019) 321-387

  • Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: Modelling study.  Ahmadi-Abhari S, Guzman-Castillo M, Bandosz P, Shipley MJ, Muniz-Terrera G, Singh-Manoux A, et al.  BMJ. 2017 Jul 5;358:j2856. (PMID: 28679494)
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals. Kivimaki M, Luukkonen R, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Pentti J, Nyberg ST, et al. Alzheimers Dement. 2018 May;14(5):601-609. (PMID: 29169013)
  • Association between systolic blood pressure and dementia in the Whitehall II cohort study: role of age, duration, and threshold used to define hypertension.  Abell JG, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A, Tabak AG, Fayosse A, Shipley M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A. Eur Heart J. 2018 Sep 1;39(33):3119-3125. (PMID: 29901708)
Guidelines on Diabetes, Pre-Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (2019)

2019 ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. The Task Force for diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323

  • Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in Individuals With Prediabetes Defined by Different Criteria: The Whitehall II Study. Vistisen D, Witte DR, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M, Tabák A, Jørgensen ME, Færch K. Diabetes Care. 2018 Apr;41(4):899-906.  (PMID: 29453200)
European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (2016) 

The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts). Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR) Eur Heart J 2016;37:2315-2381

  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals.  Kivimäki M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Singh-Manoux A, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Geuskens GA, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Lunau T, Madsen IE, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Shipley MJ, Siegrist J, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, O'Reilly D, Kumari M, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2015 Oct 31;386(10005):1739-46.  (PMID: 26298822)
  • The natural course of healthy obesity over 20 years. Bell JA, Hamer M, Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A, Batty GD, Kivimaki M. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jan 6;65(1):101-102. (PMID: 25572516)
  • Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Ferrie JE, Geuskens GA, Goldberg M, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Joensuu M, Jokela M, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Kumari M, Madsen IE, Marmot MG, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Suominen SB, Väänänen A, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Zins M, Steptoe A, Theorell T; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1491-7. (PMID: 22981903
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World Health Organisation (WHO) Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments; Global Assesment (2016)

Preventing disease through healthy environments: a global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks. World Health Orgnisation

  • Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals. Kivimäki M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Singh-Manoux A, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Geuskens GA, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Jöckel KH, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Lunau T, Madsen IE, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen JH, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Shipley MJ, Siegrist J, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, O'Reilly D, Kumari M, Batty GD, Ferrie JE, Virtanen M; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2015 Oct 31;386(10005):1739-46. (PMID: 26298822) 
  • Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Ferrie JE, Geuskens GA, Goldberg M, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Joensuu M, Jokela M, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Kumari M, Madsen IE, Marmot MG, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Suominen SB, Väänänen A, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Zins M, Steptoe A, Theorell T; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1491-7. (PMID: 22981903)
NICE guidelines on Dementia, Disability and Frailty (2015)

Dementia, disability and frailty in later life – mid-life approaches to delay or prevent onset. NICE guideline [NG16] 

  • Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging. Sabia S, Singh-Manoux A, Hagger-Johnson G, Cambois E, Brunner EJ, Kivimaki M. CMAJ. 2012 Dec 11;184(18):1985-92.  (PMID: 23091184)
  • Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?  Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Glymour M, Sabia S, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A. Ann Neurol. 2011 Aug;70(2):296-304. (PMID: 21563209) Content placeholder
American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Guidelines for Prevention of Stroke (2014)

Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack. A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45:2160–2236

  • Prediabetes: a high-risk state for diabetes development. Tabák AG, Herder C, Rathmann W, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M. Lancet. 2012 Jun 16;379(9833):2279-90.  (PMID: 22683128) Content placeholder
World Health Organisation (WHO) Review of Social Determinants of Health (2013)

Review of Social Determinants and the Health Divide in the WHO European Region

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  • Psychosocial work environment and mental health--a meta-analytic review.  Stansfeld S, Candy B. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006 Dec;32(6):443-62. (PMID: 17173201)
  • Temporary employment and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality.  Kivimäki M, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Pentti J, Ferrie JE. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Oct 1;158(7):663-8. (PMID: 14507602)
  • Psychosocial work characteristics and social support as predictors of SF-36 health functioning: the Whitehall II study. Stansfeld SA, Bosma H, Hemingway H, Marmot MG. Psychosom Med. 1998 May-Jun;60(3):247-55. (PMID: 9625210)Content placeholder
American Heart Association (AHA) Prevention Policy Practice Guideline (2013)

Better population health through behavior change in adults: a call to action. Spring B, Ockene JK, Gidding SS, Mozaffarian D, Moore S, Rosal MC, Brown MD, Vafiadis DK, Cohen DL, Burke LE, Lloyd-Jones D; American Heart Association Behavior Change Committee of the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, Council for High Blood Pressure Research, and Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing. Better population health through behavior change in adults: a call to action. Circulation. 2013 Nov 5;128(19):2169-76. 

  • Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk (review). Rees K, Dyakova M, Ward K, Thorogood M, Brunner E. The Cochrane Library. March 28, 2013;3:CD002128Content placeholder
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: European Union Occupational Safety and Health recommendations (2013)

Priorities for occupational safety and health research in Europe: 2013-2020. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2013.

  • Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Alfredsson L, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Ferrie JE, Geuskens GA, Goldberg M, Hamer M, Hooftman WE, Houtman IL, Joensuu M, Jokela M, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Koskinen A, Kouvonen A, Kumari M, Madsen IE, Marmot MG, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Suominen SB, Väänänen A, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Westerholm PJ, Westerlund H, Zins M, Steptoe A, Theorell T; IPD-Work Consortium. Lancet. 2012 Oct 27;380(9852):1491-7 (PMID: 22981903)
European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (2012)

European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, Albus C, Benlian P, Boysen G, Cifkova R, Deaton C, Ebrahim S, Fisher M, Germano G, Hobbs R, Hoes A, Karadeniz S, Mezzani A, Prescott E, Ryden L, Scherer M, Syvänne M, Scholte op Reimer WJ, Vrints C, Wood D, Zamorano JL, Zannad F; European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR); ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG). Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33(13):1635-701

  • Association of socioeconomic position with health behaviors and mortality. Stringhini S, Sabia S, Shipley M, Brunner E, Nabi H, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A. JAMA. 2010 Mar 24;303(12):1159-66. (PMID: 20332401
  • Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms?  Chandola T, Britton A, Brunner E, Hemingway H, Malik M, Kumari M, Badrick E, Kivimaki M, Marmot M. Eur Heart J. 2008 Mar;29(5):640-8.  (PMID: 18216031) Content placeholder
The Marmot Review. Fair Society, Healthy Lives (2010)

An independent review to propose the most effective evidence-based strategies for reducing health inequalities in England from 2010.  Fair Society, Healthy Lives. The Marmot Review

  • Cognition and incident coronary heart disease in late midlife: The Whitehall II study. Singh-Manoux A, Sabia S, Kivimaki M, Shipley MJ, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG. Intelligence. 2009 Nov 1;37(6):529-534 (PMID: 20161539)
  • Employee worktime control moderates the effects of job strain and effort-reward imbalance on sickness absence: the 10-town study. Ala-Mursula L, Vahtera J, Linna A, Pentti J, Kivimäki M. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Oct;59(10):851-7 (PMID: 16166358)
  • Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study. Brunner EJ, Marmot MG, Nanchahal K, Shipley MJ, Stansfeld SA, Juneja M, Alberti KG. Social inequality in coronary risk: central obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Evidence from the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia. 1997 Nov;40(11):1341-9. (PMID: 9389428)
  • Social inequalities in self reported health in early old age: follow-up of prospective cohort study. Chandola T, Ferrie J, Sacker A, Marmot M. BMJ. 2007 May 12;334(7601):990.  (PMID: 17468119)
  • Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: prospective study. Chandola T, Brunner E, Marmot M. BMJ. 2006 Mar 4;332(7540):521-5. (PMID: 16428252)Content placeholder
World Health Organisation (WHO) Commission of Social Determinants in Health (2008)

World Health Organization (WHO) Policy documents for reducing social inequalities in heath - Commission of Social Determinants in Health 2008.  

  • Work stress in the etiology of coronary heart disease--a meta-analysis. Kivimäki M, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Kouvonen A, Väänänen A, Vahtera J. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006 Dec;32(6):431-42. (PMID: 17173200)
  • Psychosocial work environment and mental health--a meta-analytic review. Stansfeld S, Candy B. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006 Dec;32(6):443-62. (PMID: 17173201)
  • Temporary employment and risk of overall and cause-specific mortality. Kivimäki M, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Pentti J, Ferrie JE. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Oct 1;158(7):663-8. (PMID: 14507602)
  • Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health related behaviours in British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Stansfeld SA, Marmot MG. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002 Jun;56(6):450-4. (PMID: 12011203)