UCL Psychology and Language Sciences


Advancing and integrating population and individual approaches to smoking cessation

Principal Investigator

Professor Robert West,
Professor Jamie Brown


Professor Susan Michie,
Lion Shahab

UCL team members

Dr Emma Beard,
Dr Claire Garnett,
Dr Sarah Jackson,
Loren Kock,
Greta Mohr,
Dr Olga Perski

Project start and end datesApril 2017 to March 2022
FunderCancer Research UK
Project websitewww.smokinginengland.info

Project Aims

The programme aims to advance and integrate population and individual approaches to smoking cessation and alcohol reduction by:

  1. providing insights into population-wide influences on smoking cessation and alcohol reduction
  2. advancing the scientific foundation, and further the development of, potentially wide-reach digital technologies.


Project details

Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption remain leading preventable causes of cancer. Accelerating the rate of decline in prevalence is achievable through a sustained scientific effort to build comprehensive models of smoking cessation and alcohol reduction.

Theme 1: We will substantially extend our major national surveillance programme, the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Study (STS), a series of monthly, national, household, face-to-face surveys of the adult population of England, with follow-up by telephone. It includes detailed questions on smoking and alcohol consumption, providing population-level estimates of factors influencing quit attempts and quit success. The new programme will continue 60 further waves (100,000 respondents). There will be enough data for adequately powered studies to understand the population-level effects on quit attempts and quit success of social marketing campaigns, different types of opportunistic GP advice, use of e-cigarettes, and the ‘real-world’ effectiveness of a wide range of aids (including smartphone apps and printed materials) and how these are affected by factors such as social disadvantage. We will use time series analyses and General Linear Models to estimate parameters in a general model of smoking cessation.

Theme 2: We will extend our digital programme by taking several apps to new phases in a development/evaluation cycle, and we will begin a programme to find novel components to be incorporated into future apps. We will use our strategic collaboration with the developer of the world’s most popular stop-smoking apps, SmokeFree, to undertake an RCT involving 5,000 smokers comparing a digital offer compared with no support (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/add.14652).

How the research will be used
Our close links with public health agencies and service providers means that the findings can be rapidly applied to policy formation and implementation as well as large scale delivery of stop-smoking support. The findings will also support our theoretical understanding of the processes by which human and digital support bring about behaviour change more broadly which, in turn, will generate more effective interventions.



1. Kastaun S, Kotz D, Brown J, Shahab L, Boeckmann M. (2019). Public attitudes towards healthcare policies promoting tobacco cessation in Germany: results from the representative German Study on Tobacco Use (the DEBRA study). BMJ Open

2. Herbec A, Brown J, Shahab L, West R, Raupach T. (2019) Pragmatic randomised trial of a smartphone app (NRT2Quit) to improve effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in a quit attempt by improving medication adherence - results of a prematurely terminated study. Trials

3. Heffner JL, Evins AE, Russ C, Lawrence D, Ayers CR, McRae T, Aubin LS, Krishen A, West R, Anthenelli RM. (2019). Safety and efficacy of first-line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies in bipolar disorders: Subgroup analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Affective Disorders

4. Livingstone-Banks J, Norris E, Hartmann-Boyce J, West R, Jarvis M, Hajek P. (2019). Relapse prevention interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

5. Boland VC, Mattick RP, Siahpush M, Barker D, Doran CM, Martire KA, Bonevski B, McRobbie H, Borland R, Farrell M, West R, Courtney RJ. (2019). Factors associated with Quitline and pharmacotherapy utilisation among low-socioeconomic status smokers. Addictive Behaviors

6. West R, Godinho CA, Bohlen LC, Carey RN, Hastings J, Lefevre CE, Michie S. (2019). Development of a formal system for representing behaviour-change theories. Nat Hum Behav

7. Kuipers M, Partos T, McNeill A, Beard E, Gilmore A, West R, Brown J. (2019). Smokers’ strategies across social grades to minimise the cost of smoking in a period with annual tax increases: Evidence from a national survey in England. BMJ Open

8. Kuipers M A G, West R, Beard E, Brown J. (2019). Impact of the 'Stoptober' smoking cessation campaign in England from 2012 to 2017: A quasi-experimental repeat cross-sectional study. Nicotine Tob Res. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntz108

9. Beard E, Jackson S, West R, Kuipers M, Brown. (2019) Trends in attempts to quit smoking in England since 2007: A time series analysis of a range of population-level influences. Nicotine and Tobacco Research,

10. Jackson S, Beard, E, Kujawski, B, Sunyer, E, Michie S, Shahab L, West R, Brown J. (2019) Comparison of Trends in Self-Reported Cigarette Consumption and Sales in England, 2011 to 2018. JAMA Network Open

11. Garnett C, Shahab L, Raupach T, West R, Brown J. Understanding the association between spontaneous quit attempts and improved smoking cessation success rates: a population survey in England with six-month follow-up. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2019 (in press).

12. Garnett C, Michie S, West R, Brown J. (2019) Updating the evidence on the effectiveness of the alcohol reduction app, Drink Less: using Bayes factors to analyse trial datasets supplemented with extended recruitment. F1000Research – Method article, 8-114.

13. Jackson S, Kotz D, West R, Brown J (2019) Reply to “Smoke free, but dependent on nicotine”.

14. Jackson S, Shahab L, Kock L, West R, Brown J (2019) Expenditure on smoking and alternative nicotine delivery products: a population survey in England. Addiction, doi:10.1111/add.14709.

15. Perski O, Naughton F, Garnett C, Blandford A, Beard E, West R, Michie S (2019) Do daily fluctuations in psychological and app-related variables predict engagement with an alcohol reduction app? A series of N-of-1 studies. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. doi:10.2196/14098

16. Perski O, Blandford A, Garnett C, Crane D, West R, Michie S (2019) A self-report measure of engagement with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs): development and psychometric evaluation of the "DBCI Engagement Scale". Translational Behavioral Medicine. doi: 10.1093/tbm/ibz039

17. Beard E, Marsden J, Brown J, Tombor I, Stapleton J, Michie S, West R (2019) Understanding and using time series analyses in addiction research. Addiction. doi:10.1111/add.14643

18. Angus C, Brown J, Beard E, Gillespie D, Buykx P, Kaner E, Michie S, Meier P (2019) Brief interventions as a tool for addressing health inequalities: Socioeconomic variations in delivery of brief interventions for smoking and drinking in primary care in England. BMJ Open, 9, e023448. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023448

19. Jackson S, Kotz D, West R, Brown J (2019) Moderators of real-world effectiveness of smoking cessation aids: A population study. Addiction. doi: 10.1111/add.14656.

20. Jackson S, Shahab L, Garnett C, Brown J (2019) Trends in and correlates of use of roll-your-own cigarettes: A population study in England 2008-2017. 1–8. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntz082

21. Jackson S, Brown J, Aveyard P, Dobbie F, Uny I, West R, Bauld L (2019) Vaping for weight control: a cross-sectional population study in England. Addictive Behaviors,.95, 211-9. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.04.007

22. Beard E, Lorencatto F, Gardner B, West R, Michie S, Owen L, Shahab L (2019) The classification of cost-effective behaviour change interventions and the identification of behaviour change techniques: A comparison of six behavioural domains (smoking, diet, physical activity, alcohol, sexual health and multiple health behaviours). PLoS ONE.

23. Beard E, West R, Jarvis M, Michie S, Brown J (2019) The ‘S’-shaped curve: Modelling trends in smoking prevalence, uptake and cessation in Great Britain from 1973 to 2016. Thorax.

24. Evins A, Benowitz N, West R, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, Krishen A, St Aubin L, Culhane Mavaric M, Anthenelli R (2019) Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with psychotic, anxiety, and mood disorders in the EAGLES Trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1-9. doi:10.1097/JCP.0000000000001015.

25. West R (2019) The United States is not the World: Response to Zeller et al's Call for Discussion on Nicotine Regulation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 21, 344. doi:10.1093/ntr/nty196.

26. Smith C, McNeill A, Kock L, Shahab L (2019) Exploring mental health professionals’ practice in relation to smoke-free policy within a mental health trust: a qualitative study using the COM-B model of behaviour. BMC Psychiatry, 19, 1-12. doi:10.1186/s12888-019-2029-3.

27. Anthenelli R, Gaffney M, Benowitz N, West R, McRae T, Russ C, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Krishen A, Evins E (2019) Predictors of neuropsychiatric adverse events with smoking cessation medications in the randomized controlled EAGLES trial, 1-9. Journal of General Internal Medicine. doi:10.1007/s11606-019-04858-2.

28. Perski O, Herd N, West R, Brown J (2019) Perceived addiction to smoking and associations with motivation to stop, quit attempts and quitting success: A prospective study of English smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 90, 306-11. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.11.030.

29. Jackson S, McGowan J, Ubhi H, Proudfoot H, Shahab L, Brown J, West R (2019) Modelling continuous abstinence rates over time from clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation. Addiction, 114, 787-97. doi:10.1111/add.14549.

30. Smith, C.A., McNeill, A., Kock, L., Ahmed, Z., Shahab, L. (2019). Mental health professionals' perceptions, judgements and decision-making practices regarding the use of electronic cigarettes as a tobacco harm reduction intervention in mental healthcare: A qualitative focus group study. Addictive Behaviors Reports 10: 100184.

31. Jackson S, Smith C, Cheeseman H, West R, Brown J (2019) Finding smoking hotspots: A cross-sectional survey of smoking patterns by housing tenure in England. Addiction, 114, 889-95. doi:10.1111/add.14544.

32. Beard E, Brown J, West R, Kaner E, Meier P, Michie S (2019) Associations between socio-economic factors and alcohol consumption: A population survey of adults in England. PLoS One, 14, 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209442.

33. Jackson S, Shahab L, West R, Brown J (2018) Roll-your-own cigarette use and smoking cessation behaviour: a cross-sectional population study in England. BMJ Open, 8, 1-10. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025370.

34. Gainforth H, Lorencatto F, Erickson K, Baxter K, Owens K, Michie S, West R (2018) Use of dynamic systems methods to characterize dyadic interactions in smoking cessation behavioural support sessions: a feasibility study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 1-23. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12347.

35. Kock L, Shahab L, West R, Brown J (2019) E-cigarette use in England 2014-17 as a function of socio-economic profile. Addiction, 114, 2894-303. doi:10.1111/add.14446.

36. Shahab L, Bauld L, McNeill A, Tyndale R (2019) Does the nicotine metabolite ratio moderate smoking cessation treatment outcomes in real-world settings? A prospective study. Addiction, 114, 304-14. doi:10.1111/add.14450.

37. Smith S, Beard E, McGowan J, Fox E, Cook C, Pal R, Waller J, Shahab L (2018) The development of a tool to assess beliefs about mythical causes of cancer: The cancer awareness measure mythical causes scale. BMJ Open, 8, e025370. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022825.

38. Jackson S, Beard E, Michie S, Shahab L, Raupach T, West R, Brown J (2018) Are smokers who are regularly exposed to e-cigarette use by others more or less motivated to stop or to make a quit attempt? A cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. BMC Medicine, 16, 1-9. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1195-3.

39. Crane D, Ubhi H, Brown J, West R (2018) Relative effectiveness of a full versus reduced version of the 'Smoke Free' mobile application for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. F1000Research, 1-9. doi:10.12688/f1000research.16148.1.

40. Garnett C, Perski O, Tombor I, West R, Michie S, Brown J (2018) Predictors of engagement, response to follow-up and extent of alcohol reduction in users of a smartphone app (Drink Less). JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth, 6, 1-14. doi:10.2196/11175.

41. Ludwig S, Schuelper N, Brown J, Anders S, Raupach T (2018) How can we teach medical students to choose wisely? A randomised controlled cross-over study of video- versus text-based case scenarios. BMC Medicine, 16, 1-9. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1090-y.

42. Simonavicius E, McNeill A, Shahab L, Brose L (2018) Heat-not-burn tobacco products: A systematic literature review. Tobacco Control, 1-13. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054419.

43. Herbec A, Brown J, Shahab L, West R (2019) Lessons learned from unsuccessful use of using personal carbon monoxide monitors to remotely assess abstinence in a pragmatic trial of a smartphone stop smoking app – A secondary analysis. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 9, 100122. doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2018.07.003.

44. Alzahrane A, West R, Ubhi H, Brown J, Abdulqader N, Samarkandi O (2018) Evaluations of clinical tobacco cessation interventions in Arab populations: A systematic review. Addictive Behaviours, 88, 169-74. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.08.017.

45. Black N, Williams A J, Javornik N, Scott C, Johnston M, Eisma M, Michie S, Hartmann-Boyce J, West R, Viechtbauer W, de Bruin M (2018) Enhancing behavior change technique coding methods: Identifying behavioral targets and delivery styles in smoking cessation trials. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 1-9. doi:10.1093/abm/kay068.

46. Herbec A, Tombor I, Shahab L, West R (2018) “If I’d known…” – a theory-informed systematic analysis of missed opportunities in optimising use of nicotine replacement therapy and accessing relevant support: A qualitative study. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 25, 579-91. doi:10.1007/s12529-018-9735-y.

47. Tombor I, Beard E, Brown J, Shahab L, Michie S, West R (2019) Randomised factorial experiment of components of the SmokeFree Baby smartphone application to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 9, 583-93. doi:10.1093/tbm/iby073.

48. Griffiths S, Parsons J, Fulton E, Naughton F, Tombor I, Brown K (2018) Are digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy effective? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 1-24. doi:10.1080/17437199.2018.1488602.

49. Perski O, Baretta D, Blandford A, West R, Michie S (2018) Engagement features judged by excessive drinkers as most important to include in smartphone applications for alcohol reduction: A mixed-methods study. Digital Health, 4, 1-15. doi:10.1177/2055207618785841.

50. Pokhrel S, West R (2018) EQUIPTMOD as a basis for rational investment decisions in tobacco control. Addiction, 1-4. doi:10.1111/add.14175.

51. Benowitz N, Pipe A, West R, Hays J, Tonstad S, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Anthenelli R (2018) Cardiovascular safety of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, E1-10. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0397.

52. Shahab L, McGowan J, Waller J, Smith S (2018) Prevalence of beliefs about actual and mythical causes of cancer and their association with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics: Findings from a cross-sectional survey in England. European Journal of Cancer, 103, 308-16. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.029.

53. Dunne J, Kimergård A, Brown J, Beard E, Buykx P, Michie S, Drummond C (2018) Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: A general population survey. Addiction, 113, 1430-8. doi:10.1111/add.14221.

54. O'Donnell A, Abidi L, Brown J, Karlsson N, Nilsen P, Roback K, Skagerström J, Thomas K (2018) Beliefs and attitudes about addressing alcohol consumption in health care: A population survey in England. BMC Public Health, 18, 1-9. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5275-2.

55. Stevely A, Buykx P, Brown J, Beard E, Michie S, Meier P, Holmes J (2018) Exposure to revised drinking guidelines and 'COM-B' determinants of behaviour change: Descriptive analysis of a monthly cross-sectional survey in England. BMC Public Health, 18, 1-9. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5129-y.

56. Boeckmann M, Kotz D, Shahab L, Brown J, Kastaun S (2018) German public support for tobacco control policy measures: Results from the German study on tobacco use (DEBRA), a representative national survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 1-15. doi:10.3390/ijerph15040696.

57. McGowan J, Brown J, West R, Brose L, Shahab L (2018) Offer and use of smoking-cessation support by depression/anxiety status: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 13, 207-15. doi:10.1017/jsc.2018.1.

58. Peacock A, Leung J, Larney S, Colledge S, Hickman M, Rehm J, Giovino G, West R, Hall W, Griffiths P, Ali R, Gowing L, Marsden J, Ferrari A, Grebely J, Farrell M, Degenhardt L (2018) Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report. Addiction, 113, 1905-26. doi:10.1111/add.14234.

59. Bonevski B, Twyman L, Paul C, D'Este C, West R, Siahpush M, Oldmeadow C, Palazzi K (2018) Smoking cessation intervention delivered by social service organisations for a diverse population of Australian disadvantaged smokers: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 112, 38-44. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.04.005.

60. Garnett C, Crane D, West R, Brown J, Michie S (2018) The development of Drink Less: An alcohol reduction smartphone app for individuals who drink excessively. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1-12. doi:10.1093/tbm/iby043.

61. Crane D, Garnett C, Michie S, West R, Brown J (2018) A smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: Identifying the effectiveness of intervention components in a factorial randomised control trial. Scientific Reports, 8, 1-11. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-22420-8.

62. West R, Evins A, Benowitz N, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, Staubin L, Krishen A, Maravic M, Anthenelli R (2018) Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES. Addiction, 113, 1507-16. doi:10.1111/add.14208.

63. Anraad C, Cheung K-L, Hiligsmann M, Coyle K, Coyle D, Owen L, West R, de Vries H, Evers S, Pokhrel S (2018) Assessment of cost-effective changes to the current and potential provision of smoking cessation services: an analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD. Addiction, 113, 96-105. doi:10.1111/add.14093.

64. Kulchaitanaroaj P, Kaló Z, West R, Cheung K, Evers S, Vokó Z, Hiligsmann M, de Vries H, Owen L, Trapero-Bertran M, Leidl R, Pokhrel S (2018) Understanding perceived availability and importance of tobacco control interventions to inform European adoption of a UK economic model: A cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research, 18, 1-12. doi:10.1186/s12913-018-2923-2.

65. Herbec A, Perski O, Shahab L, West R (2018) Smokers' views on personal carbon monoxide monitors, associated apps, and their use: An interview and think-aloud study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 1-20. doi:10.3390/ijerph15020288.

66. Perski O, Herd N, Brown J, West R (2018) Does consistent motivation to stop smoking improve the explanation of recent quit attempts beyond current motivation? A cross-sectional study. Addictive Behaviors, 81, 12-16. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.037.

67. Tombor I, Vangeli E, West R, Shahab L (2018) Progression towards smoking cessation: qualitative analysis of successful, unsuccessful and never quitters. Journal of Substance Use, 23, 214-22. doi:10.1080/14659891.2017.1378746.

68. Shahab L, Dobbie F, Hiscock R, McNeill A, Bauld L (2018) Prevalence and impact of long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy in UK Stop-Smoking Services: Findings from the ELONS study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 20, 81-8. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntw258.

69. Shahab L, Mortimer E, Bauld L, McGowan J, McNeill A, Tyndale R (2017) Characterising the nicotine metabolite ratio and its association with treatment choice: A cross-sectional analysis of Stop Smoking Services in England. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-9. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17994-8.

70. Garnett C, Crane D, Brown J, Kaner E, Beyer F, Muirhead C, Hickman M, Beard E, Redmore J, De Vocht F, Michie S (2017) Behavior change techniques used in digital behaviour change interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: A meta-regression. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52, 530-543. doi:10.1093/abm/kax029.

71. Garnett C, Crane D, Brown J, Kaner, E, Beyer F, Muirhead C, Hickman M, Redmore J, de Vocht F, Beard E, Michie S (2017) Reported theory use by digital alcohol interventions and association with effectiveness: Meta-regression. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20, 1-13. doi:10.2196/jmir.8807 .

72. Meijer E, Van den Putte B, Gebhardt W, Van Laar C, Bakk Z, Dijkstra A, Fong G, West R, Willemsen M (2017) A longitudinal study into the reciprocal effects of identities and smoking behaviour: Findings from the ITC Netherlands Survey. Social Science and Medicine, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.12.006.

73. Vocht F, Brown J, Beard E, West R, Michie S, Campbell R, Hickman M (2017) Motivation to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent attempts at reduction and changes in consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England: A prospective population survey. Addiction, 113, 817-27. doi:10.1111/add.14132.

74. Kaner E, Beyer F, Garnett C, Crane D, Brown J, Muirhead C, Redmore J, O'Donnell A, Newham J, de Vocht F, Hickman M, Brown J, Maniatopoulos G, Michie S (2017) Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1-186. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011479.pub2.

75. Michie S, West R, Sheals K, Godinho C (2017) Evaluating the effectiveness of behaviour change techniques in health-related behaviour: A scoping review of methods used. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 1-13. doi:10.1093/tbm/ibx019.

76. Beard E, Brown J, Michie S, West R (2017) Is prevalence of e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy use among smokers associated with average cigarette consumption in England? A time-series analysis. BMJ Open, 8, 1-12. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016046.

77. Beard E, Brown J, Kaner E, West R, Michie S (2017) Predictors of and reasons for attempts to reduce alcohol intake: A population survey of adults in England. PloS One, 12, 1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173458.

78. Beard E, Brown J, West R, Angus C, Kaner E, Michie S (2017) Healthier central England or North-South divide? Analysis of national survey data on smoking and high-risk drinking. BMJ Open, 7, 1-12. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014210.

79. Beard E, West R, Michie S, Brown J (2017) Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: A time-series analysis of population trends in England. Addiction, 112, 1832-1841. doi:10.1111/add.13887.

80. Coyle K, Coyle D, Lester-George A, West R, Nemeth B, Hiligsmann M, Trapero-Bertran M, Leidl R, Pokhrel S (2017) Development and application of an economic model (EQUIPTMOD) to assess the impact of smoking cessation. Addiction, 113, 7-18. doi:10.1111/add.14001.

81. Crane D, Garnett C, Brown J, West R, Michie S (2017). Factors influencing usability of a smartphone app to reduce excessive alcohol consumption: Think-aloud and interview studies. Front Public Health, 5, 1-19. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2017.00039.

82. Gainforth H, Aujla S, Beard E, Croghan E, West R (2017) Associations between practitioner personality and client quit rates in smoking cessation behavioral support interventions. Journal of Smoking Cessation, 1-7. doi:10.1017/jsc.2017.10.

83. Garnett C, Crane D, West R, Michie S, Brown J, Winstock A (2017) User characteristics of a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 7, 845-53. doi:10.1007/s13142-017-0477-1.

84. Hummel K, Brown J, Willemsen M, West R, Kotz D (2017) External validation of the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS): Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands survey. European Journal of Public Health, 27, 129-34. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckw105.

85. Hummel K, Candel M, Nagelhout G, Brown J, van den Putte B, Kotz D, Willemsen M, Fong G, West R, de Vries H (2017) Construct and predictive validity of three measures of intention to quit smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1-8. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntx092.

86. Kotz D, Viechtbauer W, Simpson C, van Schayck O, West R, Sheikh A (2017) Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline and bupropion in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax, 72, 905-11. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210067.

87. Kuipers M, Beard E, Hitchman S, Brown J, Stronks K, Kunst A, McNeill A, West R (2017) Impact on smoking of England’s 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study. Tobacco Control, 26, 141-8. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052724.

88. Kuipers M, Beard E, West R, Brown J (2017) Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: A time series analysis. Tobacco Control, 1-8. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053662.

89. Moller A, Merchant G, Conroy D, West R, Hekler E, Kugler K, Michie S (2017) Applying and advancing behavior change theories and techniques in the context of a digital health revolution: Proposals for more effectively realizing untapped potential. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40, 85-98. doi:10.1007/s10865-016-9818-7.

90. Perski O, Blandford A, Ubhi H K, West R, Michie S (2017) Smokers' and drinkers' choice of smartphone applications and expectations of engagement: A think aloud and interview study. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 17, 1-14. doi:10.1186/s12911-017-0422-8.

91. Sarkar B, Shahab L, Arora M, Ahluwalia J, Reddy S, West R (2017) The social gradient in tobacco use does not generalise to low-income urban communities in India: findings from a census survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19, 1516-20. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw214.

92. Shahab L, Brown J, Hagger-Johnson G, Michie S, Semlyen J, West R, Meads C (2017) Sexual orientation identity and tobacco and hazardous alcohol use: Findings from a cross-sectional English population survey. BMJ Open, 7, 1-12. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015058.

93. Shahab L, Goniewicz M, Blount B, Brown J, McNeill A, Alwis U, Feng J, Wang L, West R (2017) Nicotine, carcinogen, and toxin exposure in long-term e-cigarette and nicotine replacement therapy users: A cross-sectional study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 166, 390-400. doi:10.7326/m16-1107.

94. Twyman L, Bonevski B, Paul C, Bryant J, West R, Siahpush M, D'este C, Oldmeadow C, Palazzi K (2017) What factors are associated with abstinence amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers? A cross-sectional survey of use of cessation aids and quitting approach. Drug & Alcohol Review, 37, 170-9. doi:10.1111/dar.12561.

95. Ubhi H, Kotz D, Michie S, van Schayck O, West R (2017) A comparison of the characteristics of iOS and Android users of a smoking cessation app. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 7, 166-71. doi:10.1007/s13142-016-0455-z.

96. Sarkar B, West R, Arora M, Ahluwalia J, Reddy K, Shahab L (2017) Effectiveness of a brief community outreach tobacco cessation intervention in India: A cluster-randomised controlled trial (the BABEX Trial). Thorax, 72, 167-73. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209435.

97. Walker N, Gainforth H, Kiparoglou V, Robinson H, van Woerden H, West R (2017) Factors moderating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in clients using smoking cessation services. Addiction, 113, 313-24. doi:10.1111/add.14004.

98. Walton H, Spector A, Tombor I, Michie S (2017) Measures of fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions: A systematic review of measure quality. British Journal of Health Psychology, 22, 872-903. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12260.

99. Wee L, Ithnin A, West R, Mohammad N, Chan C, Nudin S (2017) Rationalizations and identity conflict following smoking relapse: A thematic analysis. Journal of Substance Use, 22, 47-52. doi:10.3109/14659891.2016.1143045.

100. Wehbe L, Ubhi H, West R (2017) Want, need and habit as drivers of smoking behavior: A preliminary analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 76, 135-8. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.004.

101. West R, Coyle K, Owen L, Coyle D, Pokhrel S (2017) Estimates of effectiveness and reach for ‘return on investment’ modelling of smoking cessation interventions using data from England. Addiction, 113, 19-31. doi:10.1111/add.14006.

102. West, R (2017) Tobacco Smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychology and Health, 32, 1018-36. doi:10.1080/08870446.2017.1325890.

103. Wu J, Tombor I, Shahab L, West R (2017) Usability testing of a smoking cessation smartphone application (‘SmokeFree Baby’): A think-aloud study with pregnant smokers. Digital Health, 3, 1-9. doi:10.1177/2055207617704273