IOE - Faculty of Education and Society


Realist synthesis of impact of accountability interventions in low and middle income countries

This systematic review, funded by the UK Department for International Development, explored the conditions under which accountability may lead to improvements in school systems and learning outcomes for schoolchildren in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our review provided an overview of evidence around the following question:

Under what conditions do the following elements of an education system improve system efficiency, service delivery and learning outcomes, especially for the poorest and most marginalised in low-and middle-income countries?

  • Monitoring systems, including using administrative data systems (e.g. EMIS) as well as more targeted monitoring mechanisms
  • Inspection systems
  • Assessment system

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