UCL Energy Institute



Our shipping research activity is centred on understanding patterns of energy demand in shipping and how this knowledge can be applied to help shipping transition to a low carbon future.

Freight shipping

The shipping research group 

Based at the UCL Energy Institute, the group consists of 15 researchers and PhD students involved in a number of ongoing projects, funded through a mixture of research grants and our consultancy vehicle University Maritime Advisory Services (UMAS).

We undertake research both using models of the shipping system (GloTraM), shipping big data (including satellite Automatic Identification System data) and qualitative and social science analysis of the policy and commercial structure of the shipping system. Our research activity is centred on understanding patterns of energy demand in shipping and how this knowledge can be applied to help shipping transition to a low carbon future.

The shipping research team at UCL Energy Institute comprises a diverse team of individuals and we are the largest university-based research group focussing on GHG and energy matters related to shipping. Alongside the IMO 3rd GHG, the team has been involved, over the last 5 years, in ~£12m of shipping research programmes (leading the majority of the work), which has built a strong team with a multidisciplinary background, including economics, engineering, finance, statistics and programming. Through this expertise, we have developed a deep understanding of the shipping industry, and broad-ranging stakeholder connections.

Our mission is to accelerate the transition to an equitable, globally sustainable energy system through world-class shipping research, education and policy support.

The shipping research group is world-leading in two key areas: using big data to understand trends and drivers of shipping energy demand or emissions, and using models to explore 'what-ifs' for future markets and policies.

Contact us

For general inquiries, please contact Dr Tristan Smith, Head of the Shipping group:

+44 203 108 5984
UCL Energy Institute
Central House
14 Upper Woburn Place

Find out more


Head of group
Dr Tristan Smith

Research Staff
Domagoj Baresic
Dr. Santiago de la Fuente
Dr. Nishatabbas Rehmatulla

PhD students
Sinan Kalaz
Eoin O’Keeffe
Jean-Marc Bonello
Peter Lelliot
Colin Robertshaw
Joseph Lambert
Wendela Schim van der loeff

Visiting Affiliates (UMAS)
Dr Simon Davies
Isabelle Rojon
Dr Elena Hauerhof
Dr Sophie Parker
Dr Carlo Raucci


Since 2010 we have been involved in a wide range of projects funded through research grants and funding from private shipping stakeholders. Our primary funders for grant funding are the Research Council UK Energy programme and Energy Technologies Institute. In addition, we work closely with industry and policy makers through a number of sponsorships and consultancy projects, including: Shell, INTERTANKO, Lloyd’s Register, WWF, European Bank of Reconstruction & Development, Carbon War Room, BMT and International Paint.

Research grant funded projects

Shipping growth and decarbonisation scenarios - a number of outputs from GloTraM model were generated for six ship types based on key input and output parameters for an international engineering consultancy. 

Assessment of possible global regulatory measures to reduce GHG emissions from ships - UMAS in collaboration with CE Delft amongst other consortium members is supporting the DG Clima to evaluate candidate policies and their impact on states

Zero Emission Vessels – A follow on study in collaboration with Lloyds Register, the study that examines three key energy pathways to help identify the actions required for the shipping industry to transition to a zero-carbon future by 2050. Read the full report here

Reducing the maritime sector’s contribution to climate change and air pollution - Commissioned by the UK Department for Transport this project contributes to the evidence base informing: the government’s Clean Maritime Plan; the development of new policies to reduce the maritime sector’s emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; and the UK's participation in the International Maritime Organization.

Shipping Technical Working group on Climate Bonds Initiative - Dr Tristan Smith and Dr Sophie Parker from UMAS are the lead technical consultants to CBI, which has convened a Shipping Technical Working Group (TWG) and Industry Working Group (IWG) to discuss and develop the Shipping Criteria for green bonds.

Shipping in Changing Climates – £3.5m multi-university and cross-industry research project funded for 3.5 years by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The SCC project uses a whole systems approach to understand the scope for greater energy efficiency of the supply side, understand the demand side drivers and understanding the supply and demand interactions and evolution in shipping. Read more

Heavy Duty Vehicles – £2m Energy Technologies Institute cross-industry project aimed at increasing efficiency of land vehicles and marine vessels by up to 30%. The project deploys GloTraM to identify the Research and Development agenda for UK shipping, and investment in R&D for Rolls-Royce.

iTransfer – Innovative Transport Solutions for Fjords, Estuaries & Rivers, UCL Energy Institute’s involvement in this EU Interreg project was in the policy work package investigating energy efficiency and GHG’s in relation to public procurement and tendering of ferry services in the North Sea. Read more

The Newton Fund –£50,000 Research Council UK funded project that intends to strengthen research and innovation partnerships between the UK and emerging knowledge economies. The shipping research group at UCL Energy Institute is working in collaboration with Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to develop an international trade and shipping database and to study port and shipping efficiency.

Centre for Energy Epidemiology - The shipping group has been involved in researching energy demand in shipping through the centre for excellence awarded to UCL Energy Institute. Two cross-sectional surveys of the shipping sector have been conducted focussing on the implementation of operational and technical energy efficiency measures implemented in shipping. Read more

Well to Wake – Funded by the Energy Technologies Institute

Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach - A research project that started in January 2010 and ended in June 2013, funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (£1.7m), a number of industry partners and five UK universities. Read more

Visualising shipping activity  – Funded by the European Climate Foundation to map ship movements and showing global CO2 emissions using AIS data in partnership with UCL Research Software Development and Kiln. The project produced the award winning www.shipmap.org.

Substantiating shipping GHG policy debates - Funded by the European Climate Foundation this project seeks to raise awareness of the implications of maritime policies and to investigate whether a sought ‘best practice’ has been adopted using AIS data and infographics.

Shipping GHG: analysis, strategy and outreach – Funded by the Pisces Foundation this project further deploys research and evidence to support IMO debates on the need and justification for a progressive target for the reduction of shipping’s GHG emissions. The project also aims to develop a strategy around the communication of the latest science and research on shipping’s GHG emissions and forthcoming challenges, and the application of that strategy through a series of outreach activities.

Shipping Innovation Fast Tracker (ShIFT) – In collaboration with Carbon War Room the project seeks to interrogate the potential for wind-assistance technologies in shipping, understand possible barriers and deploy effort for the removal of these barriers to open up technology investment.

Enabling GHG reduction objectives: pathways, finance and joint action – Funded by the Pisces Foundation this project further deploys research, analysis and outreach to increase support amongst shipping industry stakeholders and IMO member states for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping sector.

Substantiating shipping GHG policy debates phase II – Funded by the European Climate Foundation this project aims to facilitate progress in policy forums by raising awareness and generating support by developing a better understanding of the ‘fair share’ discussions.

Facilitating progress at IMO – Funded by ClimateWorks this project aims to facilitate progress at IMO on the IMO GHG Strategy through the provision of technical and scientific evidence on GHG emissions in shipping.

Enabling GHG reduction objectives: finance, disclosure and joint action – Enabling the sector to contribute towards the Paris Agreement objectives, this project aims use research and analysis to increase support amongst shipping industry stakeholders for the reduction of GHG emissions from shipping and to develop and deploy big data to improve current attitudes to low carbon investments, increase transparency, and mobilise capital flows to achieve GHG reductions.

Consultancy projects

Reducing GHG emissions from shipping: Carbon pricing, ZEV and finance - With an overarching goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping emissions, in this project UMAS aims to assess carbon pricing as a policy lever for shipping decarbonization, investigate the deployment of Zero Emission Vessels and continue the development of the Poseidon Principles - to be implemented into financier risk management practices.

Enabling key stakeholders in the maritime sector to better characterise their fleets exposure - Working with industrial partners, Carbon War Room and Global Maritime Forum, this project aims to leverage UMAS’ data, algorithms, and knowledge to produce a commercial client-ready tool that visualises the information required by financiers.

Further conceptualising and deploying carbon pricing policy design options for reducing GHG emissions in shipping - This project aims to produce relevant policy information and drive the discussion on market based measures MBM’s at a crucial stage in the negotiations at UN IMO (public policy) and high level forums e.g. World Bank Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition and Global Maritime Forum.

Facilitating the low-carbon transition of the shipping industry - advocating the adoption of ambitious policy measures at IMO, by continuing to demonstrate and communicate the viability of low-carbon fuel options, by promoting industry leadership, both within the shipping and port community.

Third IMO GHG study 2014 - The study of greenhouse gas emissions from ships (the Third IMO GHG Study 2014) was commissioned by the International Maritime Organisation as an update to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009. Dr Tristan Smith and staff from UCL Energy Institute Shipping research group led the Third IMO GHG with a consortium of nine other organisations. The Third IMO GHG study is a key reference document for shipping stakeholders. Read more

Russian Green Shipping Programme – Commissioned by the European Bank of Reconstruction & Development to undertake a technology assessment and market review of the Russian Fleet. This was the first deployment of GloTraM to develop a regional/national level strategy for investment in technology and operational measures that can be used to reduce the carbon intensity of Russian shipping. Read more

Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using Satellite AIS – Commissioned by ICCT this was the first satellite AIS derived estimates of shipping’s global activity and emissions intensity. The study also provides the first comparison of estimated EEDI and estimated EEOI for different ship type and size categories. Read more

Global Marine Fuel Trends – This project provides an analysis of the future fuels landscape, looking at the interaction of fuel, machinery, speed and energy efficiency technology choices to comply with MARPOL Annex VI SOx and NOx regulations, EEDI and future fuel price scenarios. Click here to the full report.

Analysis of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator – Commissioned by INTERTANKO  to provide further understanding of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) developed by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) using data from its member shipowners in 2010-2013. The work undertaken also analysed the differences in EEOI as proposed by several member states and shows significant variation in the results from the different proposals.

European Union Monitoring Reporting Verification (MRV) - commissioned by the Royal Belgian Shipowners Association (RBSA) to provider further insights into ship efficiency, specifically the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) and recent policy events, such as the EU MRV policy, through examining individual ship’s as well as fleets’ data over this period. Read more

Review of the Shell Trajectory Model - Review of modelling methods used to understand shipping’s potential to reduce its CO2 emissions over the period 2010-2050. The work also contributed to a review presented by OCIMF at IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 61. Click here to read the paper submission to IMO MEPC 61.

The Existing Shipping Fleet's CO2 Efficiency - The IMO Secretariat commissioned, using residue funds donated for the Third IMO GHG Study 2014 and other related research projects, an update of the data for ship CO2 efficiency. The findings can be found in MEPC 68 inf.24

Mobility model – Commissioned by International Energy Association (IEA) to integrate international and domestic shipping scenarios of technical and operational change in the period 2010-2050 for the inclusion of shipping in IEA’s Mobility Model.

ISO 19030 – Hull and propeller performance measurement – This is the first deployment of uncertainty analysis to assist ship owners and operators in understanding trends in hull and propeller performance – extensive experience in handling measurements/data of shipping’s energy demand.

Innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits – Worked with the Carbon War Room in its shipping operations to develop a methodology for assessing fuel savings for an innovative financing model, whereby multiple vessels could be upgraded with retrofit efficiency technology with tailored preferable finance and insurance in place to facilitate the retrofits for maximum scalability across the industry. Read more

Estimating savings on routes for wind assist – We have been providing B9 Shipping with technical expertise through the deployment of the GloTraM model to estimate savings on routes for potential clients. This work capitalises on the group’s significant in-house capability to model fuel savings on routes by combining vessel particulars with S-AIS data and wind data and providing financial modelling to explore the different financing options available and model the investment and returns of the options.

Understanding the split incentive in shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative finance work stream to investigate the charter market for developing an innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits. The investigation included ascertaining the duration of time charters and whether energy efficiency results in a premium on the time charter rate. Read more

Voyage optimisation - Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative technology work stream to conduct a detailed analysis of the savings per voyage for BP Shipping. The work included looking at the annualised savings achieved from Virtual Arrival, slow steaming and other operational measures.

Attitudes on fuel consumption monitoring in shipping - International Paint commissioned this study aimed to develop and share knowledge and insight from a broad range of ship owners, operators and managers about the current views on energy efficiency solutions, the extent of fuel consumption monitoring, attitudes to its use. Click here to read the full report.

IMO 0.5% sulphur fuel oil study – As part of a consortium led by CE Delft, the demand and supply of compliant fuel oil in 2020 is studied. The project deploys GloTraM (Global Transport Model) to model the fuel supply side, such as refineries.

CO2 emission targets for shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative the study provides the SSI an understanding of what a 2°C target would mean for shipping and what would be the implications or consequences for SSI members and the industry at large to committing to such a target.

Investigation into INTERTANKO member’s fleets’ energy efficiency – Follow on project to monitor performance of a member of INTERTANKO and a similarity analysis of sister ships.

Guidance documents and rapid assessments for the GloMEEP project (Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships Project) – GloMEEP is USD 2millionIMO, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) funded project, which aims to support increased uptake and implementation of energy-efficiency measures for shipping. Our work supported the developments of guidance documents and creating templates for Rapid Assessments to aid the IMO member states that are involved in the project.

Stranded assets in shipping: Implications for investors, companies, and insurers – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work investigates the different categories of risk that could result in asset stranding in shipping, identifies some potential future scenarios that could result in different extents of asset stranding, and proposes an analysis framework for quantifying whether a ship is or might become a stranded asset.

Existing Vessel Design Index and retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this project looks to see the revision of a vessel’s Existing Vessel Design Index (EVDI), and subsequent improvement in a vessels GHG rating, based on a monitoring data post clean tech retrofit. This includes the revision of the current Existing Vessel Design Index methodology, which rates existing vessels based on their design efficiency, to be able to accurately reflect a retrofit’s improvement in its design rating.

Developing a carbon credits methodology for retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this projects develops methodology with the Gold Standard and FREMCO to assess a vessel’s baseline emissions pre-retrofit and quantify fuel savings directly resulting from interventions using multi-variate regression analysis.

Savings analysis for the Self Financing Fuel Saving Mechanism (SFFSM) – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work assesses savings from vessels retrofitted with a bundle of technologies under a third-party finance mechanism, utilizing both noon reports and continuous monitoring data.

Inventory of UK domestic GHG emissions - This project supports AEA Ricardo in an inventory of UK domestic shipping GHG emissions. Its involves estimating shipping GHG emissions using bottom-up methods and also involves an extension to include spatial attribution of emissions.

Performance analysis of hull coatings – Funded by International Paint (AkzoNobel) this project involves onboard measurements of ship performance to estimate the performance trends attributable to hull coatings. The project started in early 2015 and continues throughout 2016.

UK shipping CO2 emissions - This project supports the Committee on Climate Change’s review of the UK shipping CO2 emissions (baseline and future scenarios) building on previous CCC studies and deploys GloTraM on UK-centric trade flows.  

CO2 reduction targets for shipping – Funded by the Danish Shipowners Association, the aim of this project is to provide the Danish Shipowners Association with support and evidence so that it can establish specific, ambitious, achievable and time dependent reduction targets for CO2 emissions.

BetterFleet – Funded by the Carbon War Room, the aim of this project was to develop a free-to-access ship operational efficiency portal, on ShippingEffieincy.org to show how efficiently an individual vessel has operated over the past year and compares it against its peers.

LNG policies & infrastructure in the EU – Funded by the Transport & Environment, the aim of this project to assess the prospective future investments of EU member states on LNG port/bunkering infrastructure consistent with EU plans to foster the widespread uptake of LNG as a means of decarbonising the shipping sector.  

Data analysis for tanker operations: AIS derived information and freight rate modelling – Funded by a leading tanker operator the aim of this project is to explore the world-scale prediction and define a scope of work that can be undertaken to produce predictions. Support the company in thinking through its use of AIS data, and its development of an integrated operational platform. 

Poten & Partners – Yearly forecasts of various ship types out to 2040 under various transport demand scenarios

Zero Emission Vessels – In collaboration with Lloyds Register, this study that aims to demonstrate the viability of zero emission vessels (ZEVs) – identifying the drivers need to be in place to make them a competitive solution for decarbonisation.

Impact Assessment for a revision of the EU Regulation for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) - The objective of this study is support the Commission on the preparation of the impact assessment for the legislative initiative to amend the Shipping MRV Regulation. UMAS used GloTraM to assess the different impacts of aligning policy options with IMO’s data collection system (DCS).

Study on methods and considerations for the determination of GHG emission reduction for international shipping - The overall objective of the study it to allow the Commission to contribute to the development of the comprehensive IMO Strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, in particular on the level of ambition of this strategy.

Assessing the impacts of IMO GHG Strategy on Island member states – This study provides a literature review and quantifies the impacts on an Island state, resulting from potential IMO targets and measures to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. The study considers the role of transport costs in member states trade and how these costs might be affected by IMO targets and measures to limit GHG emissions from international shipping under different scenarios.

Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-carbon Shipping - Involvement at a ministerial workshop to contribute to the ambitious and effective implementation of the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, with a Nordic perspective. Read full report herehttps://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1111495/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Cost-derived share of CO2 emissions from shipping: In this project UMAS undertook two simulations, constrained budget on CO2 emissions and non-constrained CO2 emissions for a leading shipowner operator in the container sector.

Including maritime transport sector in Nationally Determined Contributions: Commissioned by Asian Development Bank the project aimed to develop an Action and Implementation Plan for the maritime transport sector (including indicative implementation schedule and cost estimates) to be endorsed by the relevant agencies of a Government and be part of the group of measures of the Government’s NDC and presented in the different COP23 events

  • Agnolucci, P, Lazarou, N, Mander, S & Walsh, C 2015, 'Shipping demand scenarios using estimated elasticities', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
  • Agnolucci, P, Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2014, 'Energy efficiency and time charter rates: Some evidence quantifying the extent of split incentive problem in the panamax drybulk market', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol 66, pp. 173-184.
  • Aldous, L & Smith, T 2012, 'Speed optimisation for Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers: A techno-economic model', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 11- 12 September, Newcastle.
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  • Raucci, C, McGlade, C, Smith, T & Tanneberger, K 2014, 'A framework to evaluate hydrogen as a fuel in international shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates: Provisioning the future, 18-19 June 2014, Liverpool.
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  • Rehmatulla, N, Smith, T & Wrobel, P 2013, 'Implementation barriers to Low Carbon Shipping', Low Carbon Shipping Conference, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
  • Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Future trends in green shipping', ESI Bulletin on Energy Trends and Development, vol 9, no. 3, pp. 8-11.
  • Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Take-up of innovative energy efficiency technologies in maritime transport', International Association of Maritime Economists, 24-25 August, Hamburg.
  • Rehmatulla, N, Haji, S, Calleya, J, Smith, T & Raucci, C 2016, 'Investigating the energy efficiency gap in shipping', SCC Conference 2016, 10-11 November, Newcastle.
  • Romera, S. M. (2017). Workshop Report: Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-carbon Shipping. Retrieved from https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1111495/FULLTEXT01.pdf
  • Rojon, I (2013). ''Blowin' in the wind? Possibilities of the International Maritime Organisation to promote the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping (Unpublished MSc thesis)', Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht. Rojon, I & Dieperink, C 2014, 'Blowin' in the wind? Drivers and barriers for the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping', Energy Policy, vol 67, pp. 394-402. Rojon, I & Smith, T 2014, On the attitudes and opportunities of fuel consumption monitoring and measurement within the shipping industry and the identification and validation of energy efficency and performance intervention, viewed 24 February 2014, <http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/energy/news/documents/Report-On_the_attitudes_and_opportunities_for_fuel_consumption_monitoring.pdf>.
  • Rojon, I., Davies, S., Smith, T. & Rehmatulla, N., 2018. Ship Emissions Toolkit. Guide 3: Development of a national ship emissions reduction strategy. <https://glomeep.imo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ship_emissions_toolkit-g3-online_New.pdf>
  • Scarborough, T., Tsagatakis, I, Smith, K., Wakeling, D., Smith, T., . . . Hauerhoff, E. (2017). A review of the NAEI shipping emissions methodology . Retrieved from www.u-mas.co.uk/Portals/0/ED61406%20NAEI%20shipping%20report%2012Dec2017...
  • Schaumeier, J, Alegre, R, Smith, T & Hetherington, J 2015, 'A visual approach to data analysis', Shipping in Changing Climates, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow. Scott, J, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N & Milligan, B In Press, 'The promise and limits of private standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law.
  • Schim van der Loeff, W., Godar, J. & Prakash, J., 2018. A spatially explicit data-driven approach to calculating commodity-specific shipping emissions per vessel. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 205, pp. 895-908.
  • Scott, J, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N & Milligan, B, 2017, 'The promise and limits of private standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law, vol 132, pp. 1-32
  • Larkin, A, Smith, T & P, W 2017, 'Shipping in changing climates', Marine Policy, vol 75, pp. 188-190.Smith, T, Raucci, C, Hosseinloo, S, Rojon, I, Calleya, J, Suarez De La Fuente, S, Wu, P & Palmer, K 2016, CO2 emissions from international shipping: Possible reduction targets and their associated pathways, <https://www.shipowners.dk/en/presse/nyheder/reducing-shippings-co2-emissions-the-danish-shipowners-way-forward/>.
  • Smith, T 2012, 'Technical energy efficiency, its interaction with optimal operating speeds and the implications for the management of shipping's carbon emissions', Carbon Management, vol 3, no. 6, pp. 589-600. Smith, T, Argyros, D, Sabio, N & Raucci, C 2014a, Global Marine Fuel Trends 2030 <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Global_Marine_Fuel_Trends_2030_single_page_v2_tcm155-249392.pdf>.
  • Smith, T, Bracewell, T & Mulley, R 2015, 'Stranded assets in shipping', First Global Conference on Stranded Assets 2015, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford. Smith, T, Bracewell, T, Mulley, R & Palmer, K 2015, 'Stranded assets and the shipping industry', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
  • Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach: Final report <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf>.
  • Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Mangan, J, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping A Sytems Approach Final Report, viewed 17 March 2014 <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf>.
  • Smith, T, Jalkanen, J, Anderson, B, Corbett, J, Faber, J, Hanayama, S, O'Keefe, E, Parker, S, Johansson, L, Aldous, L, Raucci, C, Traut, M, Ettinger, S, Nelissen, D, Lee, D, Ng, S, Agarwal, A, Winebrake, J, Hoen, M, Chesworth, S, et al. 2014, Third IMO GHG study 2014, International Maritime Organisation, London <http://www.imo.org/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Studies-2014.aspx>. Smith, T, Newton, P, Graeme, W & Grech La Rosa, A 2013b, 'Analysis techniques for evaluating the fuel savings associated with wind assistance', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2013, 9-10 September, UCL, London.
  • Smith, T & O'Keefe, E 2012, 'What is an appropriate measurement and apportionment strategy for shipping?', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2012, 11 - 12 September, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
  • Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Aldous, L & Agnolucci, P 2013, Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using satellite AIS data, viewed 15 April 2013, <http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/UCL_ship_efficiency_forICCT_2013.pdf>.
  • Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013, 'GloTraM method', UCL Energy Institute, London. Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013b, 'What is a fair measurement and apportionment scheme?', Low Carbon Shipping 2013, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
  • Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Haji, S & Agnolucci, P 2013, 'GloTram external factors', UCL Energy Institue, London.
  • Smith, T, Parker, S & Rehmatulla, N 2011, 'On the speed of ships', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 22 - 24 June, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
  • Smith, T, Prakash, V, Aldous, L & Krammer, P 2015, 'The existing fleets CO2 efficiency', UCL Energy Institute, 68/INF.24, IMO , London. Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2015, CO2 emission targets for shipping, <http://ssi2040.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CO2-emission-targets-UCL-report-for-SSI.pdf>.
  • Smith, T, Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C & Wrobel, P 2015, CO2 Targets, Trajectories and Trends for International Shipping, viewed 12 May 2015, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/Ben_Howett/CO2_targets_trajectories_and_trends_for_international_shipping.pdf>.
  • Stulgis, V, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N, Powers, J & Hoppe, J 2014, Hidden treasure: Financial models for retrofits, viewed 27 June 2014, <http://www.carbonwarroom.com/sites/default/files/reports/CWR%20Shipping%20Efficiency%20Finance%20Report.pdf>. Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C, Sharmina, M & Smith, T 2015, 'Emissions budgets for shipping in a 2°C global warming scenario and implications for operational efficiency', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference 2015, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
  • Smith, T., 2018. The IMO’s 2018 climate agreement explained.<http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/UCL_QA_IMO_Strategy_Final.pdf>

22 March 2019
UCL Energy Institute Shipping group cited in major Department for Transport report

12 December 2018
Dr Tristan Smith comments on shipping giant Maersk's 2050 carbon neutral pledge

16 October 2018
UCL Energy Institute joins as a member on the newly launched Clean Maritime Council

9 October 2018
New approach developed by UCL opens opportunities for exploring specific shipping emission drivers

4 October 2018
Maritime carbon taxes have potential, working paper suggests

29 June 2018
Report criticising EU’s focus on LNG in shipping receives widespread coverage

22 May 2018
Zero Emission Vessels: ‘What needs to be done?’ asks Sustainable Shipping Initiative

16 April 2018
Reducing shipping industry's carbon emissions is 'major progress'

26 March 2018
Livestream - UCL researchers on French shipping decarbonisation panel

2 January 2018
'Trouble on the High Seas' - Tristan Smith speaks to 'i'

15 December 2017
Domestic shipping fuel consumption 250% higher than previously estimated, report finds

11 December 2017
Defining decarbonisation pathway for shipping - Zero Emission Vessels 2030 study released

20 November 2017
As shipping emissions rise, so does financial risk - Dr Tristan Smith speaks to the Huffington Post

14 November 2017
Sea Change interviews Dr Tristan Smith

9 November
Banks explore challenges decarbonisation poses to ship finance

2 November 2017
ETI report stresses ‘best practices’ for LNG, CNG and L-CNG as driver to providing pathway benefits

23 October 2017
UMAS involved in shipping decarbonisation summit

11 October 2017
Industry-led task force pushes for decarbonization urgency

21 July 2017
Shipping in Changing Climates conference registration open

26 June 2017
Shipping in Changing Climates conference to gather industry experts and academia in London

30 May 2017
Apply for our PhD Studentship in hydrogen and hydrogen products as potential marine fuels

27 February 2017
Climate risks should not be left unchecked by major shipping banks, UCL research suggests

11 November 2016
UCL-Energy at the United Nations International Maritime Organisation’s 70th Marine Environment Protection Committee

19 October 2016
Lloyd Register and Shipping in Changing Climates release Low Carbon Pathways 2050 study

30 August 2016
New UCL-Energy and Carbon War Room study finds that efficient ships save millions but the market fails to reward the owners

26 April 2016
UCL-Energy at the United Nations International Maritime Organization’s 69th Marine Environment Protection Committee

19 April 2016
CO2 emissions for every ship for every hour, now that's big data!

26 February 2016
Dr Tristan Smith selected to be on the Carbon War Room’s recently launched Shipping Efficiency Advisory Board

19 February 2016
New report states wind technology can yield up to 60% fuel savings for ships 

29 January 2016
Could a levy on air and shipping fuel sink emissions?

29 January 2016
AIS data suggests that ships sailing in the North American ECA are not slowing down when switching to more expensive fuels

29 January 2016
UCL-Energy named in Lloyd’s List top 10 regulators of 2015

15 January 2016
Shipping under scrutiny at COP21, UCL-Energy Lecturer Tristan Smith participates in COP21 side event

09 December 2015
UCL-Energy Deputy Director and heads of research groups state hopes for COP21

02 December 2015
AkzoNobel launches Intertrac Vision, the shipping industry’s first consultancy tool to predict the impact of fouling control coatings on ship efficiency

16 October 2015
UCL-Energy’s Shipping Group and partners win new study for the IMO on the availability of low sulphur fuels for shipping

01 October 2015
UCL-Energy shipping expert comments on shipping industry progress ahead of COP21

29 September 2015
UCL Energy Institute’s Dr Tristan Smith talks about the Carbon emissions from shipping at the fourth Britain and the Sea Conference during the London International Shipping Week 2015

8 September 2015
UCL Energy Institute’s shipping group is recognised for their applied research work with the maritime industry and launch UMAS, a new vehicle to work further with shipping stakeholders

16 June 2015
Dr Tristan Smith wins UCL Consultant of the Year Award 2015

7 July 2015
UCL survey paints a vivid picture on implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping

11 June 2015
Shipping industry’s take-up of operational energy efficiency measures not ideal

9 June 2015
UCL Energy Institute welcomes the appointment of the new Minister for Shipping and Ports, Robert Goodwill MP

20 May 2015
Cutting the shipping sector’s CO2 emissions in line with global climate change targets needs a new approach

14 May 2015
Collaboration between UCL-Energy Shipping Group and the Carbon War Room targets the small and large fuel/CO2 saving opportunities in shipping

In the Media

Why aren't ships using wind-power to cut their climate footprint?
The Guardian

Event Review: The UK Shipping Summit
Ship Efficiency Review

Low Carbon Shipping Conference to Gather Industry Experts and Academia in Newcastle
Ship Efficiency Review

Is Your Nomination in for the Ship Efficiency Awards 2016?
Ship Efficiency Review

Research Proves Efficient Ships Save Millions but Ship Owners are not Rewarded
Ship Efficiency Review

Owners failing to get cost benefits of fuel efficiency
Lloyds List

Why ship owners see little point in greener vessels
Climate Change news

No green payback for owners

Market fails to reward owners of efficient ships

Is the shipping market hindering efficiency?
Energy Live News

Low-Carbon, Efficient Ships Save Millions. So Why Aren’t Owners Reaping the Rewards?
Environmental Leader

Is the shipping market hindering efficiency?
British Utilities

Report Shows Efficiency Doesn't Reward Owners
Maritime Connector

No ROI for shipowners favouring efficiency despite fuel payers saving millions
Ship Efficiency The Insight

Researchers highlight failure to reward fuel-efficient vessels

Banks Need to Play a Bigger Role in the Uptake of More Fuel Efficient Tonnage: CWR
Ship & Bunker

Lowering GHG Emissions Gives Better Than Expected Bunker Cost Savings: Study
Ship & Bunker

No Longer Any Financial Benefit for TC Owners to Make Their Vessels More Fuel Efficient
Ship & Bunker

Shipping markets must reward most efficient vessels, say researchers
Business Green

Report Shows Efficiency Doesn't Reward Owners
The Martime Executive

Finalists Announced for Wind Propulsion Innovations Awards 2016
Shipping Efficiency Review

Symposium on Decarbonisation
Hellenic Shipping News

Danish Shipowner Association launches study on shipping's CO2 emissions

The eco guide to cargo ships
The Guardian
June 2016

Expert Duo Address Shipping GHG Policy Movements at Recent Seminar – Part One
Shiping Efficiency Review

Expert Duo Address Shipping GHG Policy Movements at Recent Seminar – Part Two
Shiping Efficiency Review

After Paris, A Move to Rein In Emissions by Ships and Planes
Yale Environment 360

This is an incredible visualization of the world's shipping routes

Mapped: Global Shipping Routes, Using 250 Million Data Points
Visual Capitalist

WATCH huge cargo ships sail in and out of Plymouth: Mesmerising map shows global impact of shipping
The Herald

Watch cargo ships sail Earth's oceans: Hypnotic interactive map follows the route of giant vessels over a year
Dailymail Online

UN shipping chief: Climate change is ‘top priority’

UN shipping body shelves emissions target

US, China resist shipping emissions curbs at UN meet

Wind Power Can Help Older Tonnage Compete with Newer Eco-Ships, Says New Study
Ship & bunker

"No Denying" Renewable Energy is the Future of Vessel Propulsion: Norsepower CEO
Ship & bunker