Our research activity is centred on understanding patterns of energy demand in shipping and how this knowledge can be applied to help shipping transition to a low carbon future.
The shipping research group
Based at the UCL Energy Institute, the group consists of 15 researchers and PhD students involved in a number of ongoing projects, funded through a mixture of research grants and our consultancy vehicle UMAS.
We undertake research both using models of the shipping system (GloTraM), shipping big data (including satellite Automatic Identification System data) and qualitative and social science analysis of the policy and commercial structure of the shipping system. Our research activity is centred on understanding patterns of energy demand in shipping and how this knowledge can be applied to help shipping transition to a low carbon future.
The shipping research team at UCL Energy Institute comprises a diverse team of individuals and we are the largest university-based research group focussing on GHG and energy matters related to shipping. Alongside the IMO 3rd GHG, the team has been involved, over the last 5 years, in ~£12m of shipping research programmes (leading the majority of the work), which has built a strong team with a multidisciplinary background, including economics, engineering, finance, statistics and programming. Through this expertise, we have developed a deep understanding of the shipping industry, and broad-ranging stakeholder connections.
Our mission is to accelerate the transition to an equitable, globally sustainable energy system through world-class shipping research, education and policy support.
The shipping research group is world-leading in two key areas: using big data to understand trends and drivers of shipping energy demand or emissions, and using models to explore 'what-ifs' for future markets and policies.
For general inquiries, please contact Dr Tristan Smith, Head of the Shipping group:
+44 203 108 5984
UCL Energy Institute
14 Upper Woburn Place
Find out more
Visit our websites for more information:
Head of group
Dr Tristan Smith
Dr. Santiago de la Fuente
Dr. Nishatabbas Rehmatulla
Wendela Schim van der loeff
Visiting Affiliates (UMAS)
Dr Simon Davies
Dr Elena Hauerhof
Dr Sophie Parker
Dr Carlo Raucci
Since 2010 we have been involved in a wide range of projects funded through research grants and funding from private shipping stakeholders. Our primary funders for grant funding are the Research Council UK Energy programme and Energy Technologies Institute. In addition, we work closely with industry and policy makers through a number of sponsorships and consultancy projects, including: Shell, INTERTANKO, Lloyd’s Register, WWF, European Bank of Reconstruction & Development, Carbon War Room, BMT and International Paint.
Research grant funded projects
Shipping growth and decarbonisation scenarios - a number of outputs from GloTraM model were generated for six ship types based on key input and output parameters for an international engineering consultancy.
Assessment of possible global regulatory measures to reduce GHG emissions from ships - UMAS in collaboration with CE Delft amongst other consortium members is supporting the DG Clima to evaluate candidate policies and their impact on states
Zero Emission Vessels – A follow on study in collaboration with Lloyds Register, the study that examines three key energy pathways to help identify the actions required for the shipping industry to transition to a zero-carbon future by 2050. Read the full report here
Reducing the maritime sector’s contribution to climate change and air pollution - Commissioned by the UK Department for Transport this project contributes to the evidence base informing: the government’s Clean Maritime Plan; the development of new policies to reduce the maritime sector’s emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; and the UK's participation in the International Maritime Organization.
Shipping Technical Working group on Climate Bonds Initiative - Dr Tristan Smith and Dr Sophie Parker from UMAS are the lead technical consultants to CBI, which has convened a Shipping Technical Working Group (TWG) and Industriy Working Group (IWG) to discuss and develop the Shipping Criteria for green bonds.
Shipping in Changing Climates – £3.5m multi-university and cross-industry research project funded for 3.5 years by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). The SCC project uses a whole systems approach to understand the scope for greater energy efficiency of the supply side, understand the demand side drivers and understanding the supply and demand interactions and evolution in shipping. Read more
Heavy Duty Vehicles – £2m Energy Technologies Institute cross-industry project aimed at increasing efficiency of land vehicles and marine vessels by up to 30%. The project deploys GloTraM to identify the Research and Development agenda for UK shipping, and investment in R&D for Rolls-Royce.
iTransfer – Innovative Transport Solutions for Fjords, Estuaries & Rivers, UCL Energy Institute’s involvement in this EU Interreg project was in the policy work package investigating energy efficiency and GHG’s in relation to public procurement and tendering of ferry services in the North Sea. Read more
The Newton Fund –£50,000 Research Council UK funded project that intends to strengthen research and innovation partnerships between the UK and emerging knowledge economies. The shipping research group at UCL Energy Institute is working in collaboration with Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to develop an international trade and shipping database and to study port and shipping efficiency.
Centre for Energy Epidemiology - The shipping group has been involved in researching energy demand in shipping through the centre for excellence awarded to UCL Energy Institute. Two cross-sectional surveys of the shipping sector have been conducted focussing on the implementation of operational and technical energy efficiency measures implemented in shipping. Read more
Well to Wake – Funded by the Energy Technologies Institute
Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach - A research project that started in January 2010 and ended in June 2013, funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (£1.7m), a number of industry partners and five UK universities. Read more
Visualising shipping activity – Funded by the European Climate Foundation to map ship movements and showing global CO2 emissions using AIS data in partnership with UCL Research Software Development and Kiln. The project produced the award winning www.shipmap.org.
Substantiating shipping GHG policy debates - Funded by the European Climate Foundation this project seeks to raise awareness of the implications of maritime policies and to investigate whether a sought ‘best practice’ has been adopted using AIS data and infographics.
Shipping GHG: analysis, strategy and outreach – Funded by the Pisces Foundation this project further deploys research and evidence to support IMO debates on the need and justification for a progressive target for the reduction of shipping’s GHG emissions. The project also aims to develop a strategy around the communication of the latest science and research on shipping’s GHG emissions and forthcoming challenges, and the application of that strategy through a series of outreach activities.
Shipping Innovation Fast Tracker (ShIFT) – In collaboration with Carbon War Room the project seeks to interrogate the potential for wind-assistance technologies in shipping, understand possible barriers and deploy effort for the removal of these barriers to open up technology investment.
Enabling GHG reduction objectives: pathways, finance and joint action – Funded by the Pisces Foundation this project further deploys research, analysis and outreach to increase support amongst shipping industry stakeholders and IMO member states for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping sector.
Substantiating shipping GHG policy debates phase II – Funded by the European Climate Foundation this project aims to facilitate progress in policy forums by raising awareness and generating support by developing a better understanding of the ‘fair share’ discussions.
Facilitating progress at IMO – Funded by ClimateWorks this project aims to facilitate progress at IMO on the IMO GHG Strategy through the provision of technical and scientific evidence on GHG emissions in shipping.
Enabling GHG reduction objectives: finance, disclosure and joint action – Enabling the sector to contribute towards the Paris Agreement objectives, this project aims use research and analysis to increase support amongst shipping industry stakeholders for the reduction of GHG emissions from shipping and to develop and deploy big data to improve current attitudes to low carbon investments, increase transparency, and mobilise capital flows to achieve GHG reductions.
Reducing GHG emissions from shipping: Carbon pricing, ZEV and finance - With an overarching goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping emissions, in this project UMAS aims to assess carbon pricing as a policy lever for shipping decarbonization, investigate the deployment of Zero Emission Vessels and continue the development of the Poseidon Principles - to be implemented into financier risk management practices.
Enabling key stakeholders in the maritime sector to better characterise their fleets exposure - Working with industrial partners, Carbon War Room and Global Maritime Forum, this project aims to leverage UMAS’ data, algorithms, and knowledge to produce a commercial client-ready tool that visualises the information required by financiers.
Further conceptualising and deploying carbon pricing policy design options for reducing GHG emissions in shipping - This project aims to produce relevant policy information and drive the discussion on market based measures MBM’s at a crucial stage in the negotiations at UN IMO (public policy) and high level forums e.g. World Bank Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition and Global Maritime Forum.
Facilitating the low-carbon transition of the shipping industry - advocating the adoption of ambitious policy measures at IMO, by continuing to demonstrate and communicate the viability of low-carbon fuel options, by promoting industry leadership, both within the shipping and port community.
Third IMO GHG study 2014 - The study of greenhouse gas emissions from ships (the Third IMO GHG Study 2014) was commissioned by the International Maritime Organisation as an update to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009. Dr Tristan Smith and staff from UCL Energy Institute Shipping research group led the Third IMO GHG with a consortium of nine other organisations. The Third IMO GHG study is a key reference document for shipping stakeholders. Read more
Russian Green Shipping Programme – Commissioned by the European Bank of Reconstruction & Development to undertake a technology assessment and market review of the Russian Fleet. This was the first deployment of GloTraM to develop a regional/national level strategy for investment in technology and operational measures that can be used to reduce the carbon intensity of Russian shipping. Read more
Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using Satellite AIS – Commissioned by ICCT this was the first satellite AIS derived estimates of shipping’s global activity and emissions intensity. The study also provides the first comparison of estimated EEDI and estimated EEOI for different ship type and size categories. Read more
Global Marine Fuel Trends – This project provides an analysis of the future fuels landscape, looking at the interaction of fuel, machinery, speed and energy efficiency technology choices to comply with MARPOL Annex VI SOx and NOx regulations, EEDI and future fuel price scenarios. Click here to the full report.
Analysis of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator – Commissioned by INTERTANKO to provide further understanding of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) developed by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) using data from its member shipowners in 2010-2013. The work undertaken also analysed the differences in EEOI as proposed by several member states and shows significant variation in the results from the different proposals.
European Union Monitoring Reporting Verification (MRV) - commissioned by the Royal Belgian Shipowners Association (RBSA) to provider further insights into ship efficiency, specifically the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) and recent policy events, such as the EU MRV policy, through examining individual ship’s as well as fleets’ data over this period. Read more
Review of the Shell Trajectory Model - Review of modelling methods used to understand shipping’s potential to reduce its CO2 emissions over the period 2010-2050. The work also contributed to a review presented by OCIMF at IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) 61. Click here to read the paper submission to IMO MEPC 61.
The Existing Shipping Fleet's CO2 Efficiency - The IMO Secretariat commissioned, using residue funds donated for the Third IMO GHG Study 2014 and other related research projects, an update of the data for ship CO2 efficiency. The findings can be found in MEPC 68 inf.24
Mobility model – Commissioned by International Energy Association (IEA) to integrate international and domestic shipping scenarios of technical and operational change in the period 2010-2050 for the inclusion of shipping in IEA’s Mobility Model.
ISO 19030 – Hull and propeller performance measurement – This is the first deployment of uncertainty analysis to assist ship owners and operators in understanding trends in hull and propeller performance – extensive experience in handling measurements/data of shipping’s energy demand.
Innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits – Worked with the Carbon War Room in its shipping operations to develop a methodology for assessing fuel savings for an innovative financing model, whereby multiple vessels could be upgraded with retrofit efficiency technology with tailored preferable finance and insurance in place to facilitate the retrofits for maximum scalability across the industry. Read more
Estimating savings on routes for wind assist – We have been providing B9 Shipping with technical expertise through the deployment of the GloTraM model to estimate savings on routes for potential clients. This work capitalises on the group’s significant in-house capability to model fuel savings on routes by combining vessel particulars with S-AIS data and wind data and providing financial modelling to explore the different financing options available and model the investment and returns of the options.
Understanding the split incentive in shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative finance work stream to investigate the charter market for developing an innovative financing model for energy efficiency retrofits. The investigation included ascertaining the duration of time charters and whether energy efficiency results in a premium on the time charter rate. Read more
Voyage optimisation - Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative technology work stream to conduct a detailed analysis of the savings per voyage for BP Shipping. The work included looking at the annualised savings achieved from Virtual Arrival, slow steaming and other operational measures.
Attitudes on fuel consumption monitoring in shipping - International Paint commissioned this study aimed to develop and share knowledge and insight from a broad range of ship owners, operators and managers about the current views on energy efficiency solutions, the extent of fuel consumption monitoring, attitudes to its use. Click here to read the full report.
IMO 0.5% sulphur fuel oil study – As part of a consortium led by CE Delft, the demand and supply of compliant fuel oil in 2020 is studied. The project deploys GloTraM (Global Transport Model) to model the fuel supply side, such as refineries.
CO2 emission targets for shipping – Commissioned by the Sustainable Shipping Initiative the study provides the SSI an understanding of what a 2°C target would mean for shipping and what would be the implications or consequences for SSI members and the industry at large to committing to such a target.
Investigation into INTERTANKO member’s fleets’ energy efficiency – Follow on project to monitor performance of a member of INTERTANKO and a similarity analysis of sister ships.
Guidance documents and rapid assessments for the GloMEEP project (Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnerships Project) – GloMEEP is USD 2million, IMO, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) funded project, which aims to support increased uptake and implementation of energy-efficiency measures for shipping. Our work supported the developments of guidance documents and creating templates for Rapid Assessments to aid the IMO member states that are involved in the project.
Stranded assets in shipping: Implications for investors, companies, and insurers – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work investigates the different categories of risk that could result in asset stranding in shipping, identifies some potential future scenarios that could result in different extents of asset stranding, and proposes an analysis framework for quantifying whether a ship is or might become a stranded asset.
Existing Vessel Design Index and retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this project looks to see the revision of a vessel’s Existing Vessel Design Index (EVDI), and subsequent improvement in a vessels GHG rating, based on a monitoring data post clean tech retrofit. This includes the revision of the current Existing Vessel Design Index methodology, which rates existing vessels based on their design efficiency, to be able to accurately reflect a retrofit’s improvement in its design rating.
Developing a carbon credits methodology for retrofits – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this projects develops methodology with the Gold Standard and FREMCO to assess a vessel’s baseline emissions pre-retrofit and quantify fuel savings directly resulting from interventions using multi-variate regression analysis.
Savings analysis for the Self Financing Fuel Saving Mechanism (SFFSM) – Funded by the Carbon War Room, this work assesses savings from vessels retrofitted with a bundle of technologies under a third-party finance mechanism, utilizing both noon reports and continuous monitoring data.
Inventory of UK domestic GHG emissions - This project supports AEA Ricardo in an inventory of UK domestic shipping GHG emissions. Its involves estimating shipping GHG emissions using bottom-up methods and also involves an extension to include spatial attribution of emissions.
Performance analysis of hull coatings – Funded by International Paint (AkzoNobel) this project involves onboard measurements of ship performance to estimate the performance trends attributable to hull coatings. The project started in early 2015 and continues throughout 2016.
UK shipping CO2 emissions - This project supports the Committee on Climate Change’s review of the UK shipping CO2 emissions (baseline and future scenarios) building on previous CCC studies and deploys GloTraM on UK-centric trade flows.
CO2 reduction targets for shipping – Funded by the Danish Shipowners Association, the aim of this project is to provide the Danish Shipowners Association with support and evidence so that it can establish specific, ambitious, achievable and time dependent reduction targets for CO2 emissions.
BetterFleet – Funded by the Carbon War Room, the aim of this project was to develop a free-to-access ship operational efficiency portal, on ShippingEffieincy.org to show how efficiently an individual vessel has operated over the past year and compares it against its peers.
LNG policies & infrastructure in the EU – Funded by the Transport & Environment, the aim of this project to assess the prospective future investments of EU member states on LNG port/bunkering infrastructure consistent with EU plans to foster the widespread uptake of LNG as a means of decarbonising the shipping sector.
Data analysis for tanker operations: AIS derived information and freight rate modelling – Funded by a leading tanker operator the aim of this project is to explore the world-scale prediction and define a scope of work that can be undertaken to produce predictions. Support the company in thinking through its use of AIS data, and its development of an integrated operational platform.
Poten & Partners – Yearly forecasts of various ship types out to 2040 under various transport demand scenarios
Zero Emission Vessels – In collaboration with Lloyds Register, this study that aims to demonstrate the viability of zero emission vessels (ZEVs) – identifying the drivers need to be in place to make them a competitive solution for decarbonisation.
Impact Assessment for a revision of the EU Regulation for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) - The objective of this study is support the Commission on the preparation of the impact assessment for the legislative initiative to amend the Shipping MRV Regulation. UMAS used GloTraM to assess the different impacts of aligning policy options with IMO’s data collection system (DCS).
Study on methods and considerations for the determination of GHG emission reduction for international shipping - The overall objective of the study it to allow the Commission to contribute to the development of the comprehensive IMO Strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships, in particular on the level of ambition of this strategy.
Assessing the impacts of IMO GHG Strategy on Island member states – This study provides a literature review and quantifies the impacts on an Island state, resulting from potential IMO targets and measures to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. The study considers the role of transport costs in member states trade and how these costs might be affected by IMO targets and measures to limit GHG emissions from international shipping under different scenarios.
Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-carbon Shipping - Involvement at a ministerial workshop to contribute to the ambitious and effective implementation of the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement, with a Nordic perspective. Read full report here: https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1111495/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Cost-derived share of CO2 emissions from shipping: In this project UMAS undertook two simulations, constrained budget on CO2 emissions and non-constrained CO2 emissions for a leading shipowner operator in the container sector.
Including maritime transport sector in Nationally Determined Contributions: Commissioned by Asian Development Bank the project aimed to develop an Action and Implementation Plan for the maritime transport sector (including indicative implementation schedule and cost estimates) to be endorsed by the relevant agencies of a Government and be part of the group of measures of the Government’s NDC and presented in the different COP23 events
- Agnolucci, P, Lazarou, N, Mander, S & Walsh, C 2015, 'Shipping demand scenarios using estimated elasticities', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
- Agnolucci, P, Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2014, 'Energy efficiency and time charter rates: Some evidence quantifying the extent of split incentive problem in the panamax drybulk market', Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol 66, pp. 173-184.
- Aldous, L & Smith, T 2012, 'Speed optimisation for Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers: A techno-economic model', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 11- 12 September, Newcastle.
- Aldous, L, Smith, T & Bucknall, R 2013, 'Noon report data uncertainty', Low Carbon Shipping Coference, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
- Aldous, L, Smith, T, Bucknall, R & Thompson, P 2015, 'Uncertainty analysis in ship performance monitoring', Ocean Engineering, vol 110, pp. 29-38. Calleya, J, Pawling, R, Smith, T & Greig, A 2012, 'Ship design and evaluation for a GHG constrained future', The Environmentally Friendly Ship, 28 - 29 February, Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London.
- Baresic, D., 2016. Regional sustainability transitions in the maritime industry: the case of LNG and Methanol in northern Europe, London
- Baresic, D., 2017. Sustainability transitions in shipping and the role of LNG as a ship fuel- A comparative. Glasgow, SCC 2017.
- Baresic, D. S. T., Raucci, C. R. N. & Narula, K. R. I., 2018. LNG as a marine fuel in the EU: Market, bunkering infrastructure investments and risks in the context of GHG reductions, London: UMAS.
- Goundar, A. et al., 2017. King Canute muses in the South Seas: Why aren’t Pacific Islands transitioning to low carbon sea transport futures?. Marine Policy, Volume 81, pp. 80-90.
- Haji, S, C, W, Dray, L, Gilbert, P, Smith, T & Kesieme, U 2015, 'Exploring the sectoral level impacts and absolute emission changes of using alternative fuels in international shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
- Haji, S, Smith, T, Sabio, N & Mangset, L 2014, 'Bridging the shipping gap: 2 degrees pathways and carbon pricing', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference: Provisioning the future, 18-19 June 2014, Liverpool.
- Haji, S, Smith, T, Walsh, C, Traut, M & Raucci, C 2015, 'Policy implications of meeting the 2°C climate target', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference 2015, 24 - 26 November 2015, Glasgow.
- Halim, R., Smith, T. & Englert, D., 2019. Understanding the Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies on Shipping. [Online]
- Jia, Prakash, V & Smith, T 2015, 'Estimating vessel utilization in the drybulk freight market: The reliability of draught reports in AIS data feeds', ECONSHIP 2015, 24-27 June 2015, Chios.
- Jia, H., Adland, R., Prakash, V., & Smith, T. (2017). Energy efficiency with the application of Virtual Arrival policy. Transportation Research Part D, 54, 50-60.
- Karlssen, R., Papachristos, G. & Rehmatulla, N., 2019. An agent-based model of climate-energy policies to promote wind propulsion technology in shipping. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions.
- Mitchell, J & Rehmatulla, N 2015, 'Dead in the water: an analysis of industry practices and perceptions on vessel efficiency and stranded ship assets', 2nd Shipping in Changing Climates conference 2015, 24th-26th November 2015, Glasgow.
- O'Keeffe, E 2010, 'Shipping and trade: a vulnerability analysis', CCCEP PhD Symposium, 15 September, London.
- O'Keeffe, E 2013, 'Agent-based modelling of the global dry bulk shipping sector', 26th European Conference on Operations Research, 1-4 July, Rome.
- Parker, S 2013, 'Matching on the tanker market', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 9 - 10 September, London.
- Parker, S 2013, 'The influence of agent choices and spatial dynamics on tanker movements', Energy Working Group on Financial Commodities.
- Parker, S 2015, 'Approaches to investment modelling', Working paper, UCL Energy Institute, London.
- Parker, S & Prakash, V 2015, 'Risk or reward: Energy efficiency premiums in the time charter market', ECONSHIP 2015, 24 - 27 June, Chios.
- Parker, S, Raucci, C, T, S & Laffineur, L 2015, Understanding the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator: An empirical analysis of ships from the Royal Belgian Shipowners’ Association, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/Ben_Howett/RBSA_final_main.pdf>.
- Parry, I., Heine, D., Kizzier, K. & Smith, T., 2018. Carbon Taxation for International Maritime Fuels: Assessing the Options. [Online]
- Prakash, V, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N, Mitchell, J & Adland, R 2016, Revealed preferences for energy efficiency in the shipping markets, viewed 07 September 2016, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Revealed_preferences_for_energy_efficiency_in_shipping_markets.pdf>
- Prakash, V. et al., 2018. CO2 emissions from shipping: a route-level perspective, London: IMarEST, ISWG-GHG 03 February 2011.
- Raucci, C, Walsh, C, Calleya, J, Traut, M, Smith, N, Suarez De La Fuente, S, Haji, S & Smith, T 2016, Low Carbon Pathways 2050, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/LR_Lowcarbonpathways2050_171016_web_lR.pdf>.
- Raucci, C 2013, 'Evaluating scenarios for alternative fuels in international shipping', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 9-10 September, London.
- Raucci, C, Calleya, J, Suarez De La Fuente, S, Pawling & R 2015, 'Hydrogen on board ship: A first analysis of key parameters and implications', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.~
- Raucci, C, McGlade, C, Smith, T & Tanneberger, K 2014, 'A framework to evaluate hydrogen as a fuel in international shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates: Provisioning the future, 18-19 June 2014, Liverpool.
- Raucci, C., Smith, T., Rehmatulla, N., Palmer, K., Balani, S., & Pogson, G. (2017). Zero-Emission Vessels 2030: How do we get there? <http://www.u-mas.co.uk/Latest/Post/344/Defining-decarbonisation-pathway-for-shipping-Zero-Emission-Vessels-2030-study-released>
- Raucci, C. and Smith, T. 2018. The costs of GHG reduction in international shipping, ISWG-GHG 3/3, London: IMarEST.
- Raucci, C. et al., 2019. Zero-emission vessels: transition pathways. <https://www.lr.org/en-gb/latest-news/lr-and-umas-release-new-zero-emission-vessels-transition-pathways-study/>
- Rehmatulla, N 2011, 'Applying systems thinking approaches for qualitative analysis of GHG emissions regulations in shipping', First International Conference on Marine & Maritime affairs, 4 - 5 April 2011, University of Plymouth, Plymouth.
- Rehmatulla, N 2012, 'Barriers to uptake of energy efficient operational measures: Survey Report', Energy Institute, UCL, http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Rehmatulla_2012_Low_C....
- Rehmatulla, N 2014, Effects of EU policy regulations on ferry operation, viewed 06 December 2014, <http://www.itransferproject.eu/media-lib/IfS-UCL-Effect-of-EU-policy-regulations-on-ferry-operations-Report.pdf>.
- Rehmatulla, N 2014, 'Market failures and barriers affecting energy efficient operations in shipping (unpublished PhD thesis)', UCL Energy Institute, University College London (UCL), London.
- Rehmatulla, N 2015, 'Assessing the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping: Survey report', UCL Energy Institute, London.
- Rehmatulla, N, Haji, S, Calleya, C & Smith, T 2015, 'The diffusion of energy saving technologies in shipping', Shipping in Changing Climates 2015, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
- Rehmatulla, N. (2017). Scottish ferries: Sailing towards greater energy efficiency and decarbonisation? Fraser of Allander Economic Commentary, 49-58.
- Rehmatulla, N, Parker, S, Smith, T & Stulgis, V 2017, 'Wind technologies: Opportunities and barriers to a low carbon shipping industry', Marine Policy, vol 75, pp. 217–226.
- Rehmatulla, N, Calleya, J & Smith, T 2017, 'The implementation of technical energy efficiency and CO2 emission reduction measures in shipping', Ocean Engineering, vol 139, pp. 184-197.
- Rehmatulla, N, Parker, S, Smith, T, Stulgis, V & Mitchell, J 2015, Barriers to uptake of wind propulsion technologies - Poster presented at the Green Shipping Technology conference 2015, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/GST_poster_v9.pdf>.
- Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2012, 'Implementation barriers to Low Carbon Shipping', Low Carbon Shipping Conference, 11 - 12 September, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
- Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, 'Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem in shipping', Energy Policy, vol 84, pp. 44-57.
- Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, CO2 emission targets for shipping: Report commissioned by Sustainable Shipping Initiative, <http://ssi2040.org/uncategorized/ssi-releases-co2-impact-report-commissioned-from-ucl/>.
- Rehmatulla, N & Smith, T 2015, 'Barriers to energy efficient and low carbon shipping', Ocean Engineering, vol 110, pp. 102-112.
- Rehmatulla, N, Smith, T & Tibbles, L 2017, 'The relationship between EU's public procurement policies and energy efficiency of ferries in EU', Marine Policy, vol 75, pp. 278–289.
- Rehmatulla, N, Smith, T & Wrobel, P 2013, 'Implementation barriers to Low Carbon Shipping', Low Carbon Shipping Conference, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
- Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Future trends in green shipping', ESI Bulletin on Energy Trends and Development, vol 9, no. 3, pp. 8-11.
- Rehmatulla, N 2016, 'Take-up of innovative energy efficiency technologies in maritime transport', International Association of Maritime Economists, 24-25 August, Hamburg.
- Rehmatulla, N, Haji, S, Calleya, J, Smith, T & Raucci, C 2016, 'Investigating the energy efficiency gap in shipping', SCC Conference 2016, 10-11 November, Newcastle.
- Romera, S. M. (2017). Workshop Report: Nordic Action for a Transformation to Low-carbon Shipping. Retrieved from https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1111495/FULLTEXT01.pdf
- Rojon, I (2013). ''Blowin' in the wind? Possibilities of the International Maritime Organisation to promote the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping (Unpublished MSc thesis)', Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht. Rojon, I & Dieperink, C 2014, 'Blowin' in the wind? Drivers and barriers for the uptake of wind propulsion in international shipping', Energy Policy, vol 67, pp. 394-402. Rojon, I & Smith, T 2014, On the attitudes and opportunities of fuel consumption monitoring and measurement within the shipping industry and the identification and validation of energy efficency and performance intervention, viewed 24 February 2014, <http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/energy/news/documents/Report-On_the_attitudes_and_opportunities_for_fuel_consumption_monitoring.pdf>.
- Rojon, I., Davies, S., Smith, T. & Rehmatulla, N., 2018. Ship Emissions Toolkit. Guide 3: Development of a national ship emissions reduction strategy. <https://glomeep.imo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ship_emissions_toolkit-g3-online_New.pdf>
- Scarborough, T., Tsagatakis, I, Smith, K., Wakeling, D., Smith, T., . . . Hauerhoff, E. (2017). A review of the NAEI shipping emissions methodology . Retrieved from www.u-mas.co.uk/Portals/0/ED61406%20NAEI%20shipping%20report%2012Dec2017...
- Schaumeier, J, Alegre, R, Smith, T & Hetherington, J 2015, 'A visual approach to data analysis', Shipping in Changing Climates, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow. Scott, J, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N & Milligan, B In Press, 'The promise and limits of private standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law.
- Schim van der Loeff, W., Godar, J. & Prakash, J., 2018. A spatially explicit data-driven approach to calculating commodity-specific shipping emissions per vessel. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 205, pp. 895-908.
- Scott, J, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N & Milligan, B, 2017, 'The promise and limits of private standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from shipping', Journal of Environmental Law, vol 132, pp. 1-32
- Larkin, A, Smith, T & P, W 2017, 'Shipping in changing climates', Marine Policy, vol 75, pp. 188-190.Smith, T, Raucci, C, Hosseinloo, S, Rojon, I, Calleya, J, Suarez De La Fuente, S, Wu, P & Palmer, K 2016, CO2 emissions from international shipping: Possible reduction targets and their associated pathways, <https://www.shipowners.dk/en/presse/nyheder/reducing-shippings-co2-emissions-the-danish-shipowners-way-forward/>.
- Smith, T 2012, 'Technical energy efficiency, its interaction with optimal operating speeds and the implications for the management of shipping's carbon emissions', Carbon Management, vol 3, no. 6, pp. 589-600. Smith, T, Argyros, D, Sabio, N & Raucci, C 2014a, Global Marine Fuel Trends 2030 <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Global_Marine_Fuel_Trends_2030_single_page_v2_tcm155-249392.pdf>.
- Smith, T, Bracewell, T & Mulley, R 2015, 'Stranded assets in shipping', First Global Conference on Stranded Assets 2015, Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford. Smith, T, Bracewell, T, Mulley, R & Palmer, K 2015, 'Stranded assets and the shipping industry', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference, 24-26 November, Glasgow.
- Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping - A Systems Approach: Final report <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf>.
- Smith, T, Day, S, Bucknall, R, Mangan, J, Dinwoodie, J, Landamore, M, Turan, O & Wrobel, P 2014, Low Carbon Shipping A Sytems Approach Final Report, viewed 17 March 2014 <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/Low_Carbon_Shipping_A_Systems_Approach_2014.pdf>.
- Smith, T, Jalkanen, J, Anderson, B, Corbett, J, Faber, J, Hanayama, S, O'Keefe, E, Parker, S, Johansson, L, Aldous, L, Raucci, C, Traut, M, Ettinger, S, Nelissen, D, Lee, D, Ng, S, Agarwal, A, Winebrake, J, Hoen, M, Chesworth, S, et al. 2014, Third IMO GHG study 2014, International Maritime Organisation, London <http://www.imo.org/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Greenhouse-Gas-Studies-2014.aspx>. Smith, T, Newton, P, Graeme, W & Grech La Rosa, A 2013b, 'Analysis techniques for evaluating the fuel savings associated with wind assistance', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2013, 9-10 September, UCL, London.
- Smith, T & O'Keefe, E 2012, 'What is an appropriate measurement and apportionment strategy for shipping?', Low Carbon Shipping Conference 2012, 11 - 12 September, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
- Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Aldous, L & Agnolucci, P 2013, Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using satellite AIS data, viewed 15 April 2013, <http://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/UCL_ship_efficiency_forICCT_2013.pdf>.
- Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013, 'GloTraM method', UCL Energy Institute, London. Smith, T, O'Keefe, E & Haji, S 2013b, 'What is a fair measurement and apportionment scheme?', Low Carbon Shipping 2013, 9 - 10 September, UCL, London.
- Smith, T, O'Keefe, E, Haji, S & Agnolucci, P 2013, 'GloTram external factors', UCL Energy Institue, London.
- Smith, T, Parker, S & Rehmatulla, N 2011, 'On the speed of ships', Low Carbon Shipping conference, 22 - 24 June, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.
- Smith, T, Prakash, V, Aldous, L & Krammer, P 2015, 'The existing fleets CO2 efficiency', UCL Energy Institute, 68/INF.24, IMO , London. Smith, T & Rehmatulla, N 2015, CO2 emission targets for shipping, <http://ssi2040.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CO2-emission-targets-UCL-report-for-SSI.pdf>.
- Smith, T, Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C & Wrobel, P 2015, CO2 Targets, Trajectories and Trends for International Shipping, viewed 12 May 2015, <http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/Ben_Howett/CO2_targets_trajectories_and_trends_for_international_shipping.pdf>.
- Stulgis, V, Smith, T, Rehmatulla, N, Powers, J & Hoppe, J 2014, Hidden treasure: Financial models for retrofits, viewed 27 June 2014, <http://www.carbonwarroom.com/sites/default/files/reports/CWR%20Shipping%20Efficiency%20Finance%20Report.pdf>. Traut, M, Bows-Larkin, A, Anderson, K, McGlade, C, Sharmina, M & Smith, T 2015, 'Emissions budgets for shipping in a 2°C global warming scenario and implications for operational efficiency', Shipping in Changing Climates Conference 2015, 24-26 November 2015, Glasgow.
- Smith, T., 2018. The IMO’s 2018 climate agreement explained.<http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/files/ucl_admin/UCL_QA_IMO_Strategy_Final.pdf>
2 January 2018
'Trouble on the High Seas' - Tristan Smith speaks to 'i'
14 November 2017
Sea Change interviews Dr Tristan Smith
23 October 2017
UMAS involved in shipping decarbonisation summit
11 October 2017
Industry-led task force pushes for decarbonization urgency
26 February 2016
Dr Tristan Smith selected to be on the Carbon War Room’s recently launched Shipping Efficiency Advisory Board
19 February 2016
New report states wind technology can yield up to 60% fuel savings for ships
29 January 2016
Could a levy on air and shipping fuel sink emissions?
29 January 2016
UCL-Energy named in Lloyd’s List top 10 regulators of 2015
8 September 2015
UCL Energy Institute’s shipping group is recognised for their applied research work with the maritime industry and launch UMAS, a new vehicle to work further with shipping stakeholders
- In the Media
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