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Expected Results

  • knowledge of the dynamics of resistance emergence at a variety of body sites during the administration of a range of antibiotics frequently used in Europe
  • knowledge of the dynamics of the persistence of antibiotic-resistant organisms in humans at various body sites
  • information concerning the effects of antibiotic administration on the composition of the cultivable microbiota of the oral cavity, anterior nares, three skin sites and the colon
  • information derived from the use of state-of-the-art 454 pyrosequencing on the composition of the entire (cultivable plus not-yet-cultivated) microbial communities inhabiting the oral cavity and colon and the effect of antibiotic administration on these communities
  • information on the antibiotic concentrations at three body sites during and following the administration of different classes of antibiotics
  • identification, using state-of-the-art microarrays, of the resistance determinants in those antibiotic-resistant isolates that emerge during the administration of different classes of antibiotics
  • information on the emergence and persistence of resistance determinants following the administration of several different classes of antibiotics
  • knowledge of the nature, and persistence, of resistance determinants present in the indigenous microbiotas of a number of body sites in individuals who have not recently been administered antibiotics
  • development of improved microarrays for the identification of resistance determinants in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria
  • information on the entire complement of resistance determinants (the resistome) in the oral and faecal microbiotas and the effect of antibiotic administration on these
  • determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the spread of mobile genetic elements
  • development of a microarray for the identification of mobile genetic elements
  • information of the impact of different SCCmec elements and other resistance determinants on the fitness of S. aureus
  • information concerning how different resistances or resistance combinations affect the growth rate and virulence characteristics of staphylococci
  • information on how changing antibiotic regimes affect the resistance profiles, pathogenesis and dissemination of S. aureus clonal lineages
  • information concerning how different resistances, or resistance combinations, affect the growth rate of enterococci and various Gram-negative species
  • information concerning how the acquisition of transferable resistance elements affects the ability of selected clinically-important organisms to colonise, and survive in, the gastrointestinal tract in vivo.