George Atkinson

6th Jun 1795 - 29th Mar 1849

Claimant or beneficiary

Biography

George Atkinson and James Hozier (q.v.) were awarded the compensation for groups of enslaved people hired and employed by the British authorities as 'Pioneers' or slave-labourers at military camps and other installations in Jamaica. The pair shared the awards with the 7th Earl of Balcarres (q.v.). All three appear to have inherited the arrangement from a partnership formed in the 1790s between the 6th Earl of Balcarres and a predecessor firm of Atkinson & Hozier. The background to these awards has been clearly identified but the evidence that the George Atkinson of these awards was the son of George Atkinson (1764-1814) the Island Secretary, while extensive, remains circumstantial.

  1. George Atkinson retired from the Kingston, Jamaica firm of Atkinson, MacGregor as of 31/12/1846, when the firm was continued by Richard Atkinson and Charles MacGregor. In 1844 the firm had been Atkinson, Hozier. In 1824 George Atkinson was shown as 'contractor for victualling the squadron with fresh beef.'

  2. Rubinstein shows George Atkinson (1764-1814) as 'Island Secretary for Jamaica and ADC to Lord Balcarres when Governor', then Agent-General for Jamaica in London, 'formerly of Kingston Jamaica, then Newcastle-upon-Tyne, also of Morland Hall, Penrith, Westmorland and of Lee in Kent, marrying 1794 Susan Mackenzie Dunkley (d. Feb 1830) of Clarendon Jamaica; son of George Atkinson (1730-1781 Receiver-General for Cumberland and Westmorland). David Geggus says 'The Island Secretary and Agent-General George Atkinson was to decline the post of Agent-General for the Saint-Domingue expedition, as he thought Martinique would be a richer plum. Nonetheless, he left hotfoot for London and offered his services in financing the operation'. George Atkinson's successor as Island Secretary was Matthew Atkinson: George Atkinson (1764-1814) had a brother Matthew 'of Carr Hill, near Newcastle-on-Tyne', d. 1829: Richard Atkinson of Jamaica and Temple Sowerby in 1861 was born at Carr Hill: see below. The will of George Atkinson of Newcastle upon Tyne Northumberland 31/01/1815 is extremely hard to read: it appears to confirm that Matthew Atkinson his brother was late of Kingston but now of Newcastle; and that he left his Jamaican property to his eldest son George.

  3. Burke's Landed Gentry 1855 and/or 1871 Atkinson of Morland appears to be the source for Rubinstein et al. [Rubinstein cites 1856]. George Atkinson (1795-1849, died unmarried) was the oldest son of George Atkinson (1764-1814, son of George Atkinson of Temple Sowerby, 1730-1781) the island secretary of Jamaica, ADC to Balcarres and afterwards agent-general for the island. Burke's LG also says that Francis Baring Atkinson, 'the 3rd but eldest surviving son' succeeded his father on his death on 11 May 1814: both George Atkinson the oldest son and a brother, Thomas, the 2nd son, were alive as of 1814, so the succession by Francis Baring is mysterious.

  4. The George Atkinson of the award is nevertheless thus almost certainly the son of George Atkinson (1764-1814) above and Susan Mackenzie Dunkley (whose son George b. 6 June 1795 and died 29 March 1849 according to ancestry.com) , and hence grandson of George Atkinson of Temple Sowerby.

  5. George Atkinson of Temple Sowerby and his son George Atkinson (1764-1814) belonged to important networks in the north-east. Dorothy (d. 1827), daughter of George Atkinson of Temple Sowerby, m. 1786 Nathaniel Clayton (1754-1832) solicitor and Town Clerk in Newcastle, who left £160,000. George Atkinson's (1764-1814) daughter Jane m. Edward Johnson of Newcastle-on-Tyne; his son William was Hon. Canon of Durham, and married Jane-Elizabeth, daughter of William Clarke of Belford Hall Co. Northumberland. The Bridget, daughter of 'George Atkinson Esq., of Temple Sowerby' who married Robert Robertson of Auchleeks (purchased Membland 1827 and was High Sheriff of Devonshire 1836) and died in 1884 was presumably also a daughter of George Atkinson (1764-1814).

  6. The Richard Atkinson who succeeded to the Jamaica merchants in the 1840s appears to have been the cousin of George Atkinson (1795-1849), rather than his brother. Burke's Landed Gentry 1855 'Atkinson of Rampsbeck Lodge and Morland' shows that George Atkinson 1795-1849 had a brother Richard, b. 5 August 1813, m. Caroline daughter of Rev. J. Landon of Aberford. 'Visitation of England and Wales p. 61 shows Richard Atkinson (youngest son of George Atkinson of Temple Sowerby and Morland, Co. Westmorland, Island Secretary of Jamaica by Susan Mackenzie his wife, daughter of A. Dunkley of Clarendon) born 5 August 1813, died in 1862 = Caroline, marr. In October 1834, died at Aberford Co. York 30/01/1883 buried there, will proved at Wakefield 21/02/1883 by James Mark Landon and the Rev. Charles Page Eden, nephews.:

  7. The Richard Atkinson who was shown as being in Jamaica at least until 1851 (when his daughter Elizabeth was born there) was back at Temple Sowerby by 1860-1 (when his daughter Catherine was born there), dying in 1876: his wife, also Elizabeth (born Jamaica 1828), was head at Temple Sowerby for the 1881 census with her 3 daughters, and died there in 1898. National Probate Calendar for Richard Atkinson formerly of Kingston but late of Temple Sowerby d. 18/01/1876 shows effects under £30,000, will proved by John Matthew Ridley of Walwick Hall Humshaugh. 1861 census shows Richard Atkinson in Temple Sowerby, aged 48 landed proprietor, born Durham Carr Hill; his wife Elizabeth Catherine aged 33 b. Jamaica, Elizabeth aged 10 b. Jamaica.

  8. An annotated copy of Lady Nugent's Journal alludes to Nugent's complaints about a merchant acting as Collector of the Port of Kingston, and identifies him as Matthew Atkinson, who held the office of Commissary General and Island Secretary: 'the firm of Atkinsons Mure and Bogle had purchased the lease of the Island Secretaryship from the patentee the Hon Charles Wyndham, son of the Earl of Egremont, to whom the Crown had granted a reversion of the patent for his lifetime in 1763, when he was 3 years old.'

  9. Richard Atkinson (1738-1785) of Fenchurch Street, MP for New Romney 1784-1785, was the third son of Matthew Atkinson of Temple Sowerby and Margaret Sutton of Kirkby Lonsdale, and had been a West India merchant as partner in Mure, Son & Atkinson in 1774. He was said to be worth over £300,000 at death. He was presumably the brother of George Atkinson (1730-1781).

  10. The Indenture of 24 December 1833 between George Atkinson of the Inner Temple, London, Isabella Atkinson of Appleby, widow and the rector of Long Marton [equidistant from Temple Sowerby and Appleby in Cumbria] for sale of land for 5s for new school at Long Marton, although referring to the same area and proabbly connected with the same family, appears to refer to a different George Atkinson to the man in these awards.

Sources

  1. London Gazette, Issue 20702, 12/02/1847, p. 592; Jamaica Almanac 1824.

  2. William D. Rubinstein, Who were the rich? A biographical dictionary of British wealth-holders Volume One 1809-1839 (London, Social Affairs Unit, 2009) reference 1815/1. David Geggus, 'Jamaica and the Saint Domingue Slave Revolt 1791-1793', The Americas, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Oct. 1981), pp. 219-233 (sourced in footnote 37 to CO 137/50 Atkinson to Nepean 20th October 1793); PROB 11/1564.

  3. Sir Bernard Burke A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland (London, Hurst & Blacket, 1855) 'Atkinson of Rampsbeck Lodge and Morland'.

  4. Burke op.cit.

  5. Rubinstein op. cit. 1832/30; Burke op.cit.

  6. Burke op.cit.; 'Visitation of England and Wales' p. 61.

  7. http://www.templesowerby.com/aboutus/history.cfm [accessed 17/09/2010]; 1861 and 1881 censuses online; National Probate Calendar 1876.

  8. http://www.xjt60.dial.pipex.com/HYMLobj-308/Lady_Nugent_s_Journal_Jamaica_1801-1805_.doc, p. Xxiv; Columbian Magazine September 1798 death in Kingston of John Atkinson of Atkinson, Mure Bogle & Co. [www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com]; 1811 JA Atkinsons Bogle & Co shown owning Darleston in Westmorland, (Matthew Atkinson owning Dean's Valley); 1831 JA Darliston owned by George Atkinson and G. Bogle (in the 1796 JA George Atkinson and George Bogle are shown as Commissary General and Deputy Commissary General respectively). Atkinson, Bogle (& Co.) appears in the House Correspondence Old Series of Barings: (A) 1799-1807 Newcastle and Jamaica: G&N Atkinson, George Atkinson and Atkinsons, Bogle & Co., with Sir Francis Baring & Co., and John and Francis Baring and Co., relates to miscellaneous business including recovery of debts owed to them in Jamaica in 1799; request from George Atkinson requesting the help of Charles Wall in extending the contract of the Tyne Iron Co. (at Newcastle); (B) dealings around AALindo c. 1801; (C) correspondence on affairs of Atkinson, Mure & Bogle after failure of its London correspondent in 1793 ('For a background note on Atkinson see HC.5.3.2') [http://www.baringarchive.org.uk/materials/the_baring_archive_hcos.pdf

  9. I. R. Christie, 'Atkinson, Richard (1738-1785) of Fenchurch St. London', http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/atkinson-richard-1738-85 accessed 09/01/2014.

  10. John F. Curwen , The later records relating to North Westmorland: or the Barony of Appleby' (1932) pp. 167-74 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43509 accessed 09/09/2010.] Robsons London Directory and Court Guide 1840 shows Geo. Atkinson, Special Pleader, 1 Inner Temple La.


Associated Claims (15)

£757 1S 6D
Awardee (Judgement creditor)
£181 12S 9D
Awardee
£683 19S 1D
Awardee
£454 1S 10D
Awardee
£925 1S 5D
Awardee
£40 2S 3D
Awardee
£227 0S 2D
Awardee
£3,017 0S 11D
Awardee
£2,146 17S 2D
Awardee
£1,447 12S 3D
Awardee
£384 19S 6D
Awardee
£239 3S 6D
Awardee
£153 1S 6D
Awardee
£0 S D
Awardee
£571 0S 0D
Awardee

Legacies Summary

Commercial (1)

Name partner
Atkinson, Hozier & Co.
West India merchant