Animal Research


Facts & figures

The Home Office keeps records of how many animals are used in scientific procedures in the UK every year. These are published annually and can be accessed on the Home Office website.

Mice in cages at UCL

UCL is committed to being open about our use of animals in scientific research. As part of this commitment, we audit and publish the number of animals used in UCL research.

Below are the key figures for the numbers of scientific procedures carried out on animals at UCL in 2016:

  • 203,744 procedures in total, comprising:

    • 131,836 on mice
    • 62,476 on zebrafish
    • 8,341 on rats
    • 775 on amphibians
    • 181 on rabbits
    • 6 on other fish
    • 14 on gerbils
    • 57 on pigs
    • 45 on Guinea pigs
    • 13 on ferrets
    • 0 on hamsters
    • 0 on Rhesus monkeys
    • 0 on cats
    • 0 on dogs

UCL is a large institution with over 5,000 staff in the School of Life and Medical Sciences alone. We have a high research output, with new scientific results being published every day as we strive to increase our knowledge of human and animal health. To achieve valid results, some research projects require the use of many animals. For example, new cancer treatments may need to be tested on large groups of mice in order to reliably determine how effective the treatments are.

Animals are only used where alternatives are not available, and 'transgenic' (genetically modified) mice have replaced many higher orders of animal as a model for human diseases. The use of rats, hamsters and larger animals continues to decrease nationwide as a result of more research transitioning to transgenic mice and alternative models. We constantly strive to replace, reduce and refine our use of animals for research.


Despite advances in non-animal models, transgenic mice often offer the best way to learn about human diseases. 80% of human genes are also in mice, making them a good starting point for research into human conditions. Genetically modifying mice to insert or remove genes is a well-established way of finding out what specific genes actually do. This helps researchers to find out what role genes play in the development of diseases such as cancer and heart disease, information which can then be used to develop better treatments.


Zebrafish are small tropical fish used for studying gene function during embryonic development. 84% of genes implicated in human diseases are found in zebrafish and their embryos are transparent, making them ideal for studying developmental processes without the need for invasive procedures. For further information on UCL's zebrafish facilities, please see the zebrafish group website.

Non-human primates

Our non-human primate (NHP) research is of the highest quality, regulated by the strict provisions of the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and carried out by a highly skilled, responsible and caring team of researchers and animal technologists, with specialist veterinarian support and scrutiny. Non-human primate work is only conducted when there are no alternatives available.

UCL is particularly strong in neuroscience with a substantial international reputation. The capacity to carry out research on NHPs is essential for developing an understanding of complex brain mechanisms at the level most relevant to man for which no other valid model exists. NHPs represent the best available animal model for human function and are particularly important for research into neurological and psychiatric diseases, diseases which now affect over 1 billion people worldwide.

We recognise that research using NHPs brings with it additional responsibilities in terms of ethical issues and welfare needs. UCL supports the provision of the best possible facilities and environment for them and is committed to sustaining these facilities and the associated expertise in the long term. UCL is committed to the principle of the 3Rs with regard to all research animals including NHPs.

Last year there were no completed procedures involving NHPs, but 8 are currently involved in ongoing work at UCL.


There are currently no studies using cats taking place at UCL. They have been used as models for eye disease and spinal cord injury in the past, where no alternatives were available. If cats are the only appropriate models for researchers to answer important medical or scientific questions, their use will be considered by the relevant committees. See how we protect animals for further information on the research approval process.


There are currently no studies using dogs taking place at UCL. If dogs are the only appropriate models for researchers to answer important medical or scientific questions, their use will be considered by the relevant committees.

Further information