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publications from the Richardson lab

[Doctoral (PhD) Theses are listed beneath journal articles]

Selected journal articles:


Nishiyama, A., Shimizu, T., Sherafat, A., and Richardson, W.D. (2021).  Lifelong oligodendrocyte development and plasticity.  Seminars Cell Dev Biol  in press.  [PDF]

*Jolly, S., *Bazargani, N., Quiroga, A., #Attwell, D., #Richardson, W.D. and #Li, H., (2018).  G protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 modulates astrocyte glutamate transporters and neuronal NMDA receptors and is neuroprotective in ischemia.  Glia 66, 47-61.  doi:
10.1002/glia.23198  *equivalent contributions  #joint senior authors  [PDF]

Tripathi, R.B., Jackiewicz, M., McKenzie, I.A., Kougioumtzidou, E., Grist, M. and Richardsion, W.D. (2017). Remarkable stability of myelinating oligodendrocytes in mice.  Cell Reports 21, 316-323.  [PDF] [supplementary info]

Kougioumtzidou, E., *Shimizu, T., *Hamilton, N.B., *Tohyama, K., Sprengel, R., Monyer, H., Attwell, D.** and Richardson, W.D.** (2017).  Signalling through AMPA receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors promotes myelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival.
  eLife 2017; 6:e28080.  doi: 10.7554/eLife.28080 .   *equivalent contributions   **joint senior authors  [PDF]

*Xiao, L., *Ohayon, D, McKenzie, I.A., Emery, B., Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2016).  Rapid production of new oligodendrocytes is required in the earliest stages of motor-skill learning.  Nat Neurosci 19, 1210-1217 *equal contributions  [PDF]  [supplementary info]

Crawford, A.H., Tripathi, R.B., Richardson, W.D.* and Franklin, R.J.M.* (2016). The developmental origin of oligodendrocyte lineage cells determines their response to demyelination and susceptibility to age-related decline.  Cell Reports 15, 761-773. *joint senior authors* [PDF] 

Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2016). Evolution of the CNS regulatory program. Brain Res. 1641, 111-121. [PDF]

Bergles, D.E. and Richardson, W.D. (2015). Oligodendrocyte development and plasticity. In Glia;  Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (Cold Spring Harbor) (eds. BA Barres, MR Freeman, B Stevens)  pp139-165.  Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol.  In press.  [PDF]

*McKenzie, I.A., *Ohayon, D., Li, H., Paes de Faria, J., Emery, B., Tohyama, K. and Richardson, W.D. (2014).
Motor skills learning requires active central myelination.  Science 346, 318-322.  * equal contributions  [PDF]  [supplementary info]   Insight article by Long and Corfas (Science 346, 298-299)

Pouwels, P.J.W., Vanderver, A., Bernard, G., Wolf, N.I., Dreha-Kulczewski, S.F., Deoni, S.C.L., Bertini, E., Kohlschutter, A., Richardson, W., ffrench-Constant, C., Kohler, W., Rowitch, D. and Barkovich, A.J. (2014).  Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies: translational research progress and prospects. Annals Neurol.  76, 5-19.  doi: 10.1002/ana.24194  [PDF]

Paes de Faria, J., Kessaris, N., Andrew, P., Richardson, W.D. and Li, H. (2014).  New Olig1 null mice confirm a non-essential role for Olig1 in oligodendrocyte development.  BMC Neurosci. 15, 12.  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-12  [PDF] [additional info]

Young, K.M., Psachoulia, K., Tripathi, R.B., Dunn, S.-J., Cossell, L., Attwell, D., Tohyama, K. and Richardson, W.D. (2013). Oligodendrocyte dynamics in the healthy adult CNS: evidence for myelin remodelling.  Neuron 77, 873-885.  [PDF] [supplementary info]


Philips, T., Bento-Abreu, A., Nonneman, A., Haeck, W., Staats, K., Geelen, V., Hersmus, N., Kusters, B., Van Den Bosch, L., Van Damme, P., Richardson, W.D. and Robberecht, W. (2012). Oligodendrocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain 136, 471-482.  [PDF]


Chikka, A., Nitarska, J., Grazini, U. and Richardson, W.D. (2012). Transcription Factor Positive Regulatory Domain 4 (PRDM4) recruits Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) to mediate histone arginine methylation and control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.  J. Biol. Chem. 287, 42995-43006.  [PDF]


Tsai, H.-H., Li, H., Fuentealba, L., Molofsky, A.V., Taveira‑Marques, R., Zhuang, H., Tenney, A., Murnen, A.T., Fancy, S.P.J., Merkle, F., Kessaris, N., Alvarez-Buylla, A.*, Richardson, W.D.* and Rowitch, D.H.* (2012).  Regional astrocyte allocation regulates CNS synaptogenesis and repair.  Science 337, 358-362.  * joint senior authors  [PDF]


Clarke, L.E., Young, K.M., Hamilton, N.B., Li, H., Richardson, W.D. and Attwell, D. (2012). Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex and piriform cortex of the mouse.  J.Neurosci. 32, 8173-8185. [PDF]


Richardson, W.D., Young, K.M., Tripathi, R.B. and McKenzie, I. (2011).  NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells: fact or fantasy?  Neuron 70, 661-673.  [PDF]


Tripathi, R.B., Clarke, L.E., Burzomato, V., Anderson, P.N., Kessaris, N., Attwell, D., and Richardson, W.D. (2011). Dorsally- and ventrally-derived oligodendrocytes have similar electrical properties but myelinate preferred tracts.  J. Neurosci.31, 6809-6819.  [PDF]


Li, H., Paes de Faria, J., Andrew, P., Nitarska, J. and Richardson, W.D. (2011). Phosphorylation regulates OLIG2 co-factor choice and the motor neuron-oligodendrocyte fate switch.  Neuron 69, 918-929 [PDF] [suppl info]


Tripathi, R.B., Rivers, L.E., Jamen, F. Young, K.M. and Richardson, W.D. (2010). NG2 glia generate new oligodendrocytes but few astrocytes in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of demyelinating disease. J. Neurosci. 30, 16383-16390. [PDF] [suppl info]


Young, K.M., Mitsumori, T., Pringle, N., Grist, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2010). An Fgfr3‑iCreERT2 transgenic mouse line for studies of neural stem cells and astrocytes.  Glia 58, 943-953.  [PDF]  [suppl Fig.S1] [suppl Fig.S2]


Zawadzka, M., Rivers, L.E., Fancy, S.P.J., Zhao, C., Tripathi R., Jamen, F., Young, K.M., Goncharevich, A., Pohl, H., Rizzi, M., Rowitch, D.H., Kessaris, N., Suter, U., Richardson, W.D.* and Franklin, R.M.J.*  (2010). CNS-resident glial progenitor/stem cells produce Schwann cells as well as oligodendrocytes during repair of CNS demyelination.  Cell Stem Cell 6, 578-590.  * joint senior authors   [PDF]

Richardson, W.D. (2009).  Oligodendrocyte Specification.  In, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Larry Squire, editor).  Elsevier. [PDF]

Psachoulia, K., Jamen, F., Young, K.M. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).
  Cell cycle dynamics of NG2 cells in the postnatal and ageing mouse brain.  Neuron Glia Biology 5, 57-67. [PDF]


Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).  The evolution of Olig genes and their roles in myelination.  Neuron Glia Biology 4, 129-135.  [PDF]


Li, H., He, Y., Richardson, W.D. and Casacchia, P. (2009). Two-tier transcriptional control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.  Curr. Opinion Neurobiol. 19, 479-485.  [PDF]


Li, H. and Richardson, W.D. (2009).  Genetics meets epigenetics:  HDACs and Wnt signalling in oligodendrocyte development and regeneration. Nat. Neurosci. 12, 815-817. (News and Views)  [PDF]

Rivers, L.E., Young, K.M., Rizzi, M., Jamen, F., Psachoulia, K., Wade, A., Kessaris, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2008).  PDGFRA/ NG2-positive glia generate myelinating oligodendrocytes and piriform projection neurons in adult mice.  Nat. Neurosci.
11, 1392-1401. [PDF]  [suppl info]


Pontecorvi, M., Goding, C.R., Richardson, W.D. and Kessaris, N. (2008). Expression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 in the developing hypothalamic-pituitary axis.  Gene Expression Patterns 8, 411-417.  [PDF]


Kessaris, N., Pringle, N.P. and Richardson, W.D. (2008). Specification of CNS glia from neural stem cells in the embryonic neuroepithelium.

Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B  363, 71-85.   [PDF]



Li, H., Lu, Y., Smith, H.K. and Richardson W.D. (2007).  Olig1 and Sox10 interact synergistically to drive myelin basic protein (mbp) transcription in oligodendrocytes.  J. Neurosci. 27, 14375-14382.  [PDF]  [suppl info]


Young, K., Fogarty, M., Kessaris, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2007).  Subventricular zone stem cells are heterogeneous with respect to their embryonic origins and neurogenic fates in the adult olfactory bulb.  J. Neurosci. 27, 8286-8296.   [PDF]  [suppl info]


Barrio, M.G., Taveira-Marques, R., Muruyama, Y., Yuk., D.‑I., Li, S., Wines-Samuelson, M., Shen., J., Smith, H.K., Xiang, M., Rowitch, D. and Richardson, W.D. (2007).  A regulatory network involving Foxn4, Mash‑1 and Delta‑like 4/Notch‑1 generates V2a and V2b spinal interneurons from a common progenitor pool.  Development  134, 3427-3436.  [PDF]


Kazakova, N., Li, H., Mora, A., Jessen, K., Mirsky, R., Richardson, W.D. and Smith, H.K. (2006).  A screen for mutations in zebrafish that affect myelin basic protein expression in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes.  Dev. Biol. 297, 1-13. [PDF]


Richardson, W.D., Kessaris, N., & Pringle, N.P. (2006). Oligodendrocyte Wars.  Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 11-18. [PDF]

Kessaris, N., Fogarty, M., Iannarelli, P., Grist, M., Wegner, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2006).  Competing waves of oligodendrocytes in the forebrain and postnatal elimination of an embryonic lineage.  Nat. Neurosci. 9, 173-179 [PDF]

Fogarty, M., Richardson, W.D. and Kessaris, N. (2005).  A subset of oligodendrocytes generated from radial glia in the dorsal spinal cord.  Development 132, 1951-1959. [PDF]

West, H., Richardson, W.D. and Fruttiger, M. (2005).  Stabilization of the retinal vascular network by reciprocal feedback between blood vessels and astrocytes.  Development 132, 1855-1862. [PDF]

Billon, N., Terrinoni, A., Jolicoeur, C., McCarthy, A., Richardson, W.D., Melino, G. and Raff, M. (2004). Roles for p53 and p73 during oligodendrocyte development. Development 131, 1211-1220. [PDF]

Kessaris, N., Jamen, F., Rubin, L.L., and Richardson, W.D. (2004). Cooperation between Sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor/ MAPK signalling pathways in neocortical precursors.  Development 131, 1289-1298. [PDF]

Woodruff, R.F., Fruttiger, M., Richardson, W.D. and Franklin, R.J.M. (2004).  Platelet-derived growth factor regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor numbers in adult CNS and their response following CNS demyelination.  Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 25, 252-262.[PDF]

Ivanova, A., Agochiya, M., Amoyel, M. and Richardson, W.D. (2003).  Receptor tyrosine phosphatase zeta/ beta in astrocyte progenitors in the developing chick spinal cord.  Gene Expression Patterns 4, 161-166. [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Howell, M., Colvin, J.S., Ornitz, D.M., and Richardson, W.D. (2003). Fgfr3 in astrocytes and their precursors: evidence that spinal cord astrocytes and oligodendrocytes originate in separate neuroepithelial domains.  Development 130, 93-102. [PDF]


Rowitch, D.H., Lu, Q.R., Kessaris, N., and Richardson, W.D. (2002). An oligarchy rules neural development.  Trends Neurosci. 25, 417-422. [PDF]


Fu, H., Qi, Y., Tan, M., Cai, J., Takebayashi, H., Nakafuku, M., Richardson, W.D., and Qiu, M. (2001).  Dual origin of spinal oligodendrocyte progenitors and evidence for the cooperative role of Olig2 and Nkx2.2 in the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation.  Development 129, 681-693.

Kessaris, N., Pringle, N. and Richardson, W.D. (2001).  Ventral neurogenesis and the neuron-glial switch.  Neuron 31, 677-680. [PDF]

Tekki-Kessaris, N., Woodruff, R., Hall, A.C., Gaffield, W., Kimura, S., Stiles, C.D., Rowitch, D.H., and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Hedgehog-dependent oligodendrocyte lineage specification in the telencephalon. Development 128, 2545-2554. [PDF]

Richardson, W.D (2001). Oligodendrocyte development. In Glial Cell Development (KR Jessen and WD Richardson, editors). Oxford University Press. In press. [pre-print]

van Heyningen, P., Calver, A.R. and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Control of progenitor cell number by mitogen supply-and-demand. Current Biology 11, 232-241. [PDF]

Woodruff, R.H., Tekki-Kessaris, N., Stiles, C.D., Rowitch, D.H. and Richardson, W.D. (2001). Oligodendrocyte development in the spinal cord and telencephalon: common themes and new perspectives. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 19, 379-385. [PDF]

Fruttiger, M., Calver, A.R. and Richardson, W.D. (2000). PDGF is constitutively secreted from neuronal cell bodies but not from axons. Current Biology 10, 1283-1286. [PDF]

Sun, T., Jayatilake, D., Ataliotis, P., Afink, G.B., Nister, M., Richardson, W.D. and Smith, H.K. (2000). A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRa knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRa in prenatal lung growth. Development 127, 4519-4529. [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Smith, H.K., Sun, T., Pringle, N.P., Hall, A. and Woodruff, R. (2000). Oligodendrocyte lineage and the motor neuron connection. Glia 29, 136-142. [PDF]

Fruttiger, M., Karlsson, L., Hall, A.C., Abramsson, A., Calver, A.R., Bostrom, H., Willetts, K., Bertold, C.-H., Heath, J.K., Betsholtz, C. and Richardson, W.D. (1999). Defective oligodendrocyte development and severe hypomyelination in PDGF-A knockout mice. Development 126, 457-467. [PDF]

Sun, T., Pringle, N.P., Hardy, A., Richardson, W.D. and Smith H.K. (1998). Pax6 influences the time and site of origin of glial precursors in the ventral neural tube. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 12, 228-239.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Guthrie, S., Lumsden, A., and Richardson, W.D. (1998). Dorsal spinal cord neuroepithelium generates astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes. Neuron 20, 883-893.  [PDF]

Calver, A.R., Hall, A.C., Yu, W-P., Walsh. F.S., Heath, J.K., Betsholtz, C. and Richardson, W.D. (1998). Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and the role of PDGF in vivo. Neuron 20, 869-882.  [PDF]


Pringle, N.P., Nadon, N.L., Rhode, D., Richardson, W.D. and Duncan, I.D. (1997). Normal temporal and spatial distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the myelin- deficient (md) rat. J. Neurosci. Res. 47, 264-270.

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P. and Hall, A.C. (1997). Origins of spinal cord oligodendrocytes: possible developmental and evolutionary relationships with motor neurons. Dev. Neurosci. 19, 54-64.  [PDF]

Hall, A.C., Giese, N.A. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). Spinal cord oligodendrocytes develop from ventrally-derived progenitor cells that express PDGF alpha-receptors. Development 122, 4085-4094.  [PDF]

Fruttiger, M.., Calver, A.R., Kruger, W., Mudhar, H.S., Michalovich, D., Takakura, N., Nishikawa, S.-I. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). PDGF mediates a neuron-astrocyte interaction in the developing retina. Neuron 17, 1117-1131.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Guthrie, S., Roelink, H., Lumsden, A., Peterson, A.C. and Richardson, W.D. (1996). Determination of neuroepithelial cell fate: induction of the oligodendrocyte lineage by ventral midline cells and Sonic hedgehog. Dev. Biol. 177, 30-42.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Yu, W.-P., Collarini, E.J. and Hall, A.C. (1995). Embryonic origin and early development of oligodendrocytes. In: Glial Cell Development. K.R. Jessen and W.D. Richardson, eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York), pp53-70.

Yu, W.-P., Collarini, E.J., Pringle, N.P. and Richardson, W.D. (1994). Embryonic expression of myelin genes: evidence for a focal source of oligodendrocyte precursors in the ventricular zone of the neural tube. Neuron 12, 1353-1362.  [PDF]

Ninkina, N.N., Stevens, G.E.M., Wood, J.S., and Richardson,W.D. (1993). A novel Brn3-like POU transcription factor expressed in subsets of rat sensory and spinal cord neurons. Nucleic Acids Res., 21, 3175-3182.

Mudhar, H.S., Pollock, R.A., Wang, C., Stiles, C., and Richardson, W.D. (1993). PDGF and its receptors in the developing rodent retina and optic nerve. Development 118, 539-552.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., and Richardson, W.D. (1993). A singularity of PDGF alpha receptor expression in the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube may define the origin of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Development 117, 525-533.  [PDF]

Barres, B.A., Hart, I.K., Coles, H.S.R., Burne, J.F., Voyvodic, J.T., Richardson, W.D. and Raff, M.C. (1992).  Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage.  Cell 70, 31-46.  [PDF]

Pringle, N.P., Mudhar, H.S., Collarini, E.J. and Richardson, W.D. (1992). PDGF receptors in the rat CNS: during late neurogenesis, PDGF alpha-receptor expression seems to be restricted to glial cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage.  Development 115, 535-551.  [PDF]


Pringle, N., Collarini, E.J., Mosley, M.J., Heldin, C.‑H., Westermark, B and Richardson, W.D.  (1989). PDGF A chain homodimers drive proliferation of bipotential (O-2A) glial progenitor cells in the developing rat optic nerve. EMBO J. 8, 1049-1056.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D., Pringle, N.P., Mosley, M.J., Westermark, B. and Dubois-Dalcq, M. (1988). A role for platelet-derived growth factor in normal gliogenesis in the central nervous system.  Cell 53, 300-310.  [PDF]

Richardson, W.D. and Westphal, H. (1981).  A cascade of adenovirus early functions is required for expression of adeno-associated virus.  Cell, 27, 133-141.  [PDF]

Doctoral (PhD) Theses:

Lawrence M.J. Best (2020).  "Magnetic resonance imaging of mouse models of de- and dys-myelination."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Palma Iannarelli (2017).  "Oligodendrocyte population dynamics and plasticity probed by genetic manipulation in mice."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London

Eleni Kougioumtzidou (2015). "Regulation of oligodendrocyte development by neuron-glial
electrical interactions."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London

Alexander Sinclair-Wilson (2015). " Phosphorylation of Olig2 and the control of stem cell fate choice in the developing spinal cord."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London

Raquel Taveira-Marques (2011).  "Fate-mapping neural stem cells in the mouse ventral neural tube by Cre-lox transgenesis."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Konstantina (Nada) Psachoulia (2010).  "NG2 cells in adult neural plasticity.Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Leanne E. Rivers (2009).   "Oligodendrocyte progenitors and their role in adult neural cell genesis."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Nina A.L. Callard (2008).  "Time-lapse studies of neural precursor cell divisions in vitro."  Doctoral Thesis, University of London.

Lisbeth Flores-Garcia (2007).  "Transcriptional regulation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGFRA) gene during development."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Ana Mora (2006).  "Studies of gliogenesis in the central nervous system of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Matthew H. Fogarty (2005).  "Fate-mapping the mouse neural tube by Cre-loxP transgenesis."  Doctoral Thesis, University of London.

Heloise West (2003).  "Control of retinal astrocyte numbers during development of the retina."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Paul van Heyningen (2000).  "Control of glial progenitor cell number in the developing central nervous system."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London

Andrew R. Calver (1999).  "Oligodendrocyte population dynamics: insights from transgenic mice."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Anita C. Hall (1999).  "Platelet-derived growth factor and its alpha-receptor subunit in oligodendrocyte development."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Tao Sun (1999).  "Function and regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha during development."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Wei-Ping Yu (1995).  "Glial cell lineages in the developing central nervous system."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Georgina E.M. Stevens (1994).  "POU-domain transcription factors in the developing rat nervous system."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Hardeep Singh Mudhar (1994).  "Platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in retinal development."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Nigel P. Pringle (1992).  "Platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in the developing rat central nervous system."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Richard A. Pollock (1992).  "Investigations into the function of structural isoforms of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

Colin A. Hodgkinson (1990).  "Studies on the expression and functional activities of bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and vaccinia virus guanylyltransferase in mammalian cells."  Doctoral Thesis, University College London.

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