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Bloomsbury Project

Bloomsbury Streets, Squares, and Buildings

Bedford Charity (Harpur) Estate

Estates in Bloomsbury

1 Duke of Bedford
2 City of London Corporation
3 Capper Mortimer
4 Fitzroy (Duke of Grafton)
5 Somers
6 Skinners' (Tonbridge)
7 Battle Bridge
8 Lucas
9 Harrison
10 Foundling Hospital
11 Rugby
12 Bedford Charity (Harpur)
13 Doughty
14 Gray's Inn
15 Bainbridge–Dyott (Rookeries)

Area between the Foundling and Harrison estates: Church land

Grey areas: fragmented ownership and haphazard development; already built up by 1800

About the Bedford Charity (Harpur) Estate

The Bedford Charity, also known as the Harpur Trust, was founded in the sixteenth century by Sir William Harpur, for the benefit of a school he had helped to found in Bedford (www.bedfordcharity.org.uk)

The original 13-acre site in the east of Bloomsbury which formed part of the original endowment is now reduced to a mere 3 acres, but is still worth millions (Shirley Green, Who Owns London?, 1986)

The original estate encompasses a crooked area south of the Rugby estate and north and east of Red Lion Square, including the southern half of what is now Lamb’s Conduit Street but was known as Red Lion Street until the late eighteenth century

Its proximity to already-developed areas to the south and east of Bloomsbury, including the legal centre of Gray’s Inn, meant that it was developed residentially much earlier than the western and northern areas of Bloomsbury, beginning in 1686

Much of the development was carried out by unscrupulous builder Nicholas Barbon, who built houses all over the Red Lion Fields area without necessarily obtaining the permission of the legal owner first (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)

The Trust continues to own freeholds in Dombey Street, Bedford Row, New North Street, Sandland Street, Red Lion Street, and Theobald’s Road; it also invested in property in Eagle Street, outside the original estate boundaries, as a “vote of confidence in the present Estate’s future” (Shirley Green, Who Owns London?, 1986)

Horse and Groom Yard

Also known as Horse and Grome Yard/Howe’s Yard

It was in the south-east of Bloomsbury, running north through a gateway on Theobald’s Road up to Bedford Court

It appears on Rocque’s map of 1746 simply as “Stable Yard”

It is marked but not named on Horwood’s map of 1799, and named “Horse and Grome Yard” on his subsequent editions of 1807, 1813, and 1819

It was presumably named after a pub on Theobald’s Road behind which it ran

In the early nineteenth century it was stables; Richard Howe of The Horse and Groom Yard, Theobalds Road, “stable keeper and hackneyman”, held an insurance policy with the Sun Fire Office in 1829

The street seems to have been renamed after him, as it then became known as Howe’s Yard; it is listed as such in the 1841 census, although there were no residents to count

All traces of it were obliterated in the twentieth century

This page last modified 14 April, 2011 by Deborah Colville


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