Introductory outline of the types of plant remains which survive in different archaeological settings; their sampling and recovery, and the archaeological questions that can be addressed. The use of pollen and wood charcoal in reconstructing environments and human impacts. Seasonality of occupation of hunter-gatherer sites, their diet and the role of ethno-ecological modelling. The problems of detecting domestication and the start of pre-domestication cultivation and subsequent dispersals. The evolution of food technologies and dietary reconstruction.