Sebastian Gardner


Professor of Philosophy

Department of Philosophy

University College London

Gower Street

London WC1E 6BT



My office is Room 2.1, on the 2nd floor of 33-35 Torrington Place, which is the building immediately opposite Waterstone's. For help with location, please see:


I joined the UCL Philosophy Department in 1998. My main research interests lie in classical German philosophy and its relation to later nineteenth-century developments.


I am on leave from UCL from May 2018 until January 2020 with a Leverhulme Research Fellowship (Freedom, Nature, and the Pursuit of the Whole: The Legacy of Kant's Third Critique).






1.      Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).


2.      Kant and the 'Critique of Pure Reason' (London: Routledge, 1999).


3.      Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness' (London: Continuum, 2009).


Edited books


1.      Art and Morality, ed. Jose Luis Bermudez and Sebastian Gardner (London: Routledge, 2003).


2.      The Transcendental Turn, ed. Sebastian Gardner and Matthew Grist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).


Chapters, papers & reviews


1.     'Splitting the Subject: An Overview of Sartre, Lacan and Derrida', Auslegung, Vol. 10, 1983, 57-64.


2.     'Psychoanalysis and the Story of Time', in Writing the Future, ed. David Wood (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 81-97.


3.     'The Unconscious', in The Cambridge Companion to Freud, ed. Jerome Neu (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 136-160.


4.     'The Nature and Source of Emotion', in Art, Mind and Psychoanalysis: Essays in Honour of Richard Wollheim, ed. James Hopkins and Anthony Savile (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), pp. 35-54.


5.     'Other Minds and Embodiment', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Vol. 94, 1993-94, 35-52.


6.     'Psychoanalytic Explanation', in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed. Samuel Guttenplan (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), pp. 493-500.


7.     'Wallace Stevens and Metaphysics: The Plain Sense of Things', European Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 2, 1994, 322-344.


8.     'Psychoanalysis, Science, and Commonsense', Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, Vol. 2, 1995, 93-113.


9.     'Psychoanalysis, Contemporary Views', in The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ed. Robert Wilson and Frank Keil (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999), pp. 683-685.


10.  'Schopenhauer, Will and the Unconscious', in The Cambridge Companion to Schopenhauer, ed. Christopher Janaway (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 375-421.


11.  'Value and Idealism', in Philosophy, the Good, the True and the Beautiful, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, Vol. 47, ed. Anthony O'Hear (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 1-18.


12.  'Psychoanalysis and the Personal/Sub-personal Distinction', Philosophical Explorations, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2000, 96-119.


13.  'The Argument for Transcendental Idealism', in Kant und die Berliner Aufklaerung, Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, ed. Volker Gerhard, Rolf-Peter Horstmann and Ralph Schumacher (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2001), Band II, pp. 549-557.


14.  'Psychoanalysis: Overview', in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, ed. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (Oxford: Elsevier/Pergamon, September 2001), pp. 12328-36.


15.  'German Idealism I', Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume, Vol. 76, 2002, 211-228.


16.  'The Romantic-Metaphysical Theory of Art', European Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 10, 2002, 275-301.


17.  'The Unconscious Mind', in The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1940, ed. Thomas Baldwin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 107-115.


18.  'Kemp Smith's Reading of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason', Introduction to new edition of Norman Kemp Smith, A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason' (London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2003), pp. xiii-xxiv.


19.  'Tragedy, Morality and Metaphysics', in Art and Morality, ed. Jose Luis Bermudez and Sebastian Gardner (London: Routledge, 2003), pp. 218-259.


20.  'Critical Notice of Richard Moran, Authority and Estrangement: An Essay on Self-Knowledge', Philosophical Review, Vol. 113, No. 2, April 2004, 249-267.


21.  'Sartre, Intersubjectivity, and German Idealism', Journal of the History of Philosophy, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2005, 325-351.


22.  Review of Henry Allison, Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense, 2nd edn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005.09.04:


23.  'The Primacy of Practical Reason', in The Blackwell Companion to Kant, ed. Graham Bird (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 259-274.


24.  'Sartre, Schelling, and Onto-Theology', Religious Studies, Vol. 42, 2006, 247-271.


25.  'Wollheims Aesthetik', Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, Vol. 54, 2006, 733-742.


26.  'Philosophical Aestheticism', in The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy, ed. Brian Leiter and Michael Rosen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 75-121.


27.  'The Limits of Naturalism and the Metaphysics of German Idealism', in German Idealism: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives, ed. Espen Hammer (London: Routledge, 2007), pp. 19-49.


28.  'The Status of the Wissenschaftslehre: Transcendental and Ontological Grounds in Fichte', Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus − Metaphysik im Deutschen Idealismus / International Yearbook of German Idealism − Metaphysics in German Idealism, Vol. 5, 2007, 90-125.


29.  'Nietzsche, the Self, and the Disunity of Philosophical Reason', in Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy, ed. Ken Gemes and Simon May (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 1-31.


30.  'Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious', in Thinking the Unconscious: Nineteenth-Century German Thought, ed. Angus Nicholls and Martin Liebscher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 173-199.


31.  'The Transcendental Dimension of Sartre's Philosophy', in Reading Sartre: On Phenomenology and Existentialism, ed. Jonathan Webber (London: Routledge, 2010), Ch. 4, pp. 48-72.


32.  'Jenes Lichtbild. The Possibility of a Theory of Tragedy', in Das Tragische begreifen. Reflexionen aus Philosophie, Kultur und Sozialwissenschaft, hrsg. von Christopher Hamilton, Gottfried Schweiger und Clemens Sedmak (Hamburg: Kovac, 2010), pp. 35-56.


33.  'Idealism and Naturalism in the Nineteenth Century', Edinburgh Critical History of Nineteenth-Century Philosophy, ed. Alison Stone (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011), pp. 89-110.


34.  'Kant's Practical Postulates and the Limits of the Critical System', Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain, Vol. 63, Nos. 1-2, 2011, 187-215 [Special Issue on Kant and Hegel, ed. Lea Ypi and Katerina Deligiorgi].


35.  'Psychoanalytic Theory: A Historical Reconstruction' (Symposium with Beatrice Longuenesse: 'Freud and Philosophy'), Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86, 2012, 41-60. Reprinted in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychoanalysis, ed. Michael Lacewing and Richard Gipps (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).


36.  'Schopenhauer's Contraction of Reason: Clarifying Kant and Undoing German Idealism', Kantian Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2012, 375-401.


37.  'Transcendental Philosophy and the Possibility of the Given', in Mind, Reason, and Being-in-the-World: The McDowell-Dreyfus Debate, ed. Joseph K. Schear (London: Routledge, 2013), Ch. 5, pp. 110-142.


38.  'Nietzsche's Philosophical Aestheticism', in The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche, ed. Ken Gemes and John Richardson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), Ch. 26, pp. 599-628.


39.  'The Unconscious: Transcendental Origins, Idealist Metaphysics and Psychoanalytic Metapsychology', in The Impact of Idealism: The Legacy of Post-Kantian German Thought, ed. Nicholas Boyle and Liz Disley, Vol. I, Philosophy and Natural Sciences, ed. Karl Ameriks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), Ch. 3, pp. 134-165.


40.  'Method and Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Art', Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. 51 (New Series: Vol. 7), No. 2 (50th Anniversary Issue), 2014, 230-253.


41.  'Spinoza, Enlightenment, and Classical German Philosophy', Diametros, Vol. 40, June 2014, 22-44. doi: 10.13153/diam.40.2014.628


42.  'Schopenhauer', in The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Michael Forster and Kristin Gjesdal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), Ch. 6, pp. 108-136.


43.  'Introduction: The Transcendental Turn', in The Transcendental Turn, ed. Sebastian Gardner and Matthew Grist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 1-19.


44.  'Merleau-Ponty's Transcendental Theory of Perception', in The Transcendental Turn, ed. Sebastian Gardner and Matthew Grist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), Ch. 14, pp. 294-323.


45.  'Transcendental Idealism at the Limit: On A. W. Moore's Criticism of Kant', Philosophical Topics, Vol. 43, Nos. 1 & 2, Spring/Fall 2015, 63-85. (The Evolution Of Modern Metaphysics: Responses and Replies, ed. Edward Minar.)


46.  'Nietzsche and Freud: The ''I'' and its Drives', in Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity, ed. Joao Constancio, Maria Joao Mayer Branco, and Bartholomew Ryan (The Hague: Walter de Gruyter, 2015), Ch. 14, pp. 367-393.


47.  'Freud', in Debates in European Nineteenth-Century Philosophy: Essential Readings and Contemporary Responses, ed. Kristin Gjesdal (London: Routledge, 2016), Ch. 28, pp. 349-359.


48.  'German Idealism, Classical Pragmatism, and Kant's Third Critique', in Pragmatism, Kant, and Transcendental Philosophy, ed. Gabriele Gava and Robert Stern (London: Routledge, 2016), Ch. 1, pp. 22-45.


49.  'Introduction to Schelling', in The Nineteenth-Century Philosophy Reader, ed. Benjamin Crowe (London: Routledge, 2016), Ch. 9, pp. 109-120.


50.  'Kant's Third Critique: The Project of Unification', in The History of Philosophy: Twentieth-Century Perspectives, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, Vol. 78, ed. Anthony O'Hear (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), pp. 161-185.


51.  'Schelling and the Problem of Consciousness', in Consciousness and the Great Philosophers, ed. Stephen Leach and James Tartaglia (London: Routledge, 2016), Ch. 16, pp. 133-141.


52.  'Fichte and Schelling: The Limitations of the Wissenschaftslehre?', in The Cambridge Companion to Fichte, ed. David James and Guenther Zoeller (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), Ch. 12, pp. 326-349.


53.  'On Omri Boehm, Kant's Critique of Spinoza' ['From Kant's Beweisgrund to Schelling's Late Philosophy'], Virtual Critique, December 2016.


54.  'The Metaphysics of Human Freedom: From Kant's Transcendental Idealism to Schelling's Freiheitsschrift', British Journal of the History of Philosophy, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2017, 133-156. [In German translation: 'Die Metaphysik der menschlichen Freiheit. Von Kants transzendentalem Idealismus zu Schellings Freiheitsschrift', Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2017, 211-238.]


55.  'Reply to Dews, and a Plea for Schelling', British Journal of the History of Philosophy, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2017, 179-191. [In German translation: 'Replik auf Dews und ein Plaedoyer fuer Schelling', Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2017, 267-282.]


56.  'Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology in the Light of Kant's Third Critique and Schelling's Real-Idealismus', Continental Philosophy Review, Guest Issue on 'Merleau-Ponty's Gordian Knot', ed. Jack Reynolds and Andrew Inkpin, March 2017, Vol. 50, No. 1, 5-25.


57.  'Sartre's Ethics', in The Cambridge History of Moral Philosophy, ed. Sacha Golob and Jens Timmermann (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), Ch. 48, pp. 636-652.


58.  'Schopenhauer's Metaphilosophy: How to Think a World Without Reason', in Schopenhauer's Fourfold Root, ed. Jonathan Head and Dennis Vanden Auweele (London: Routledge, 2017), Ch. 1, pp. 11-31.


59.  'Kant's Practical Postulates and the Development of German Idealism', in German Idealism Today, ed. Markus Gabriel and Anders Moe Rasmussen (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2017), pp. 27-71.


60.  'Art's Loss of Vocation: Hegel and Philosophical Romanticism', in The Art of Hegel's Aesthetics: Hegelian Philosophy and the Perspectives of Art History, ed. Paul Kottman and Michael Squire (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2017), pp. 331-361.


61.  'Nietzsche on Kant and Teleology in 1868: 'life' is something entirely dark ...', Inquiry, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2018, 1-26 (Proceedings of the International Society of Nietzsche Studies, ed. Jessica N. Berry and Brian Leiter).


62.  'Sartre's Original Insight', Metodo. International Studies in Phenomenology and Philosophy, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, 45-71; Special Issue 'Intersubjectivity and Recognition', ed. Elisa Magri and Danielle Petherbridge.


63.  'The Desire of the Whole in Classical German Philosophy', Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus: Begehren (International Yearbook of German Idealism: Desire), ed. Dina Emundts and Sally Sedgwick, Vol. 13, 2017, 233-256.


64.  'Metaphysical Motivation: Crime and Punishment in the Light of Schelling', in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment: Philosophical Perspectives, ed. Robert Guay (Oxford Studies in Philosophy and Literature) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), Ch. 4, pp. 96-122.


65.  'Hermeneutics and Psychoanalysis', in The Cambridge Companion to Hermeneutics, ed. Michael Forster and Kristin Gjesdal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), Ch. 8, pp. 184-210.


66.  'Nietzsche on the Arts and Sciences', in The New Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche, ed. Thomas Stern (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), Ch. 12, pp. 302-326.


67.  'Schelling's Substantive Reinterpretation of the Transcendental Turn: Beyond Method', in British Journal of the History of Philosophy, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2019, 271-292 (Special Issue on Kant's Method in Philosophy and its Reception, ed. Gabriele Gava).


68.  'The Aesthetic Dimension of Passion', in The Passions and the Emotions, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, Vol. 85, ed. Anthony O'Hear (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019), pp. 111-133.


69.  'Post-Schopenhauerian Metaphysics: Hartmann, Mainlaender, Bahnsen, and Nietzsche', in Oxford Handbook of Schopenhauer, ed. Robert Wicks (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020), Ch. 26, pp. 455-478.


70.  'Thought's Indebtedness to Being: From Kant's Beweisgrund to Schelling's Quelle', in Schelling's Philosophy: Freedom, Nature, and Systematicity, ed. G. Anthony Bruno (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020), Ch. 11, pp. 209-230.


71.  'Sartres Loesung zur Antinomie der sozialen Realitaet in der Kritik der dialektischen Vernunft', Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, Vol. 68, No. 6, 2020, 817-847.


72.  'Fichte's Reception of Kant's Critique of Judgement', in The Bloomsbury Companion to Fichte, ed. Marina Bykova (London: Bloomsbury, 2020), Ch. 3, pp. 61-79.


73.  'Proust's Philosophical Background and Influences', in The Proustian Mind, ed. Anna Elsner and Thomas Stern (London: Routledge, forthcoming 2022).



Last updated 02 October 2022