G123 Conservation:

Materials Science


Plaster, Mortar, Cement & Concrete

Lecturer: Dr Ruth Siddall


Course Notes

Lime Kilns

Lime Cement Manufacture Flowchart

Describing Cements, Mortars and Concretes


Lecture 1 (1 hour)

History and applications of lime plasters, mortars and concretes from Neolithic through Late Antiquity.
10-11 am

      PPNB in the Levant; Ain' Ghazal
      Bronze Age Aegean
      Greek and Hellenistic Periods
      Roman Period; 'the Architectural Revolution'
      Decline in technology
      Discovery of Ordinary Portland Cement in 1824

Lecture 2 (1 hour)
Technology and manufacture of lime plasters, mortars and concretes; chemistry and construction techniques.
12-1 pm

      Limestone to lime; chemistry of reactions
      Lime kilns and fuels
      Different applications of materials
      The importance of regional geology

Practical Session (1.5 - 2 hours)
The Site: Recording and analysis of 'Hellenistic' and Roman mortars from Central Greece; Athenian Agora, the Sanctuary of Poseidon at Isthmia and Ancient Corinth.

      Assessing application phases
      Using a Harris Matrix
      Fabric Analysis
      Petrological Analysis