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B250 Biology of Development. Final examination 2000



Answer FOUR questions in three hours:


1. What is a morphogen? Write briefly about TWO of the following morphogens:


a) Bicoid

b) Hedgehog

c) Sonic Hedgehog


2. Write about the homeotic (HOM) gene complexes of Drosophila and their vertebrate equivalents.


3. Write an essay on the germ layers and mesoderm induction in amphibian embryos.


4. Describe the formation and migration of the neural crest and how it contributes to embryonic development.


5. Write an essay on gametogenesis and fertilisation.


6. Write an essay on sex determination in mammals.


7. Outline pre-implantation development of the mouse. Explain the derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and how they can be used to "knock out" genes in mice.


8. Write an essay on branching morphogenesis.