Albania decriminalised homosexual relationships in January 1995. In 2010 the Parliament adopted a non-discrimination law which prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, promoting equal access to employment, education, goods and services, health services and housing. Civil society has played a crucial role in monitoring hate speech, especially by high ranking officials (ERA – LGBTI Equal Rights Association for Western Balkans and Turkey: report on Albania). In May 2015, the Albanian parliament passed a resolution entitled “On Protection of Rights and Freedoms of persons belonging to the LGBT community in Albania” (PINK Embassy: Albanian parliament approves historical resolution in support of LGBTI rights).The University of Tirana does not have a dedicated Gender or LGBT/Queer studies departments. Civil society and activists are leading the discourse on LGBTQ and gender rights. The relationships between Civil society and governmental ministries is regulated by the LGBTI National Action Plan 2016-2020. The National Strategy and Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2020 offers a comprehensive overview of existing gender and LGBTQ rights and legal frameworks.
- An overview of rights and legal acts by ILGA Europe [in English].
- Country ranking by ILGA Europe [in English].
- Allyn, Murray, Roscoe, Allyn, Eric, & Roscoe, Will. (1997). Islamic homosexualities: Culture, history, and literature. New York: New York University Press.
- Daskalova, Krassimira et. al. (2012). Gendering Post-Socialist Transition: Studies of Changing Gender Perspectives. Wien/Berlin: LIT Verlag.
- Donert, C. (2002). Trees of blood and trees of milk: customary law and the construction of gender in northern Albania. London : Centre for South-East European Studies, School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London.
- Shaw, A. & Ardener, S. (2005). Changing sex and bending gender. New York, NY: Berghahn Books.
- Vinther, Christian Kjaelder. Between Liberal Policies and Conservative Values: The Role of the EU in Improving Sexual Minority Rights in Albania. Thesis defended at the Charles University in Prague [in English].
Selected journal articles
- Xhaho, A. (2015). Nationalism and homophobic discourses in Albania. A case study analysis. In About Gender: An International Journal of Gender Studies, Vol. 4, N° 7, pp. 58-80.
- Curi, Urjana. (2018). Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons. Academicus: International Scientific Journal, MMXVIII(17), 111-121.
- Xhensila Kadi. (2014). The approach towards gay marriage in the Albanian legislation and society. Academicus: International Scientific Journal, Vol.MMXIV(9), pp.79-92.
- Annual Review of the Human Rights Situation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex People. ILGA Europe, available from 2011 onwards [in English].
- Being LGBTI in Eastern Europe: Albania Country Report. Reducing Inequalities & Exclusion and Combating Homophobia & Transphobia experienced by LGBTI people in Albania (2017). In collaboration with local NGOs, USAID and UNDP [in English].
- Country Policy and Information Note, Albania: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, UK Home Office, 2019 [in English].
- Life on the Margins: Survey Results of the Experiences of LGBTI People in Southeastern Europe. World Bank Group, September 2018 [in English].
- Rainbow Europe - ILGA-Europe’s annual benchmarking tool, which ranks 49 countries in Europe on their LGBTI equality laws and policies. Available from 2009 onwards [in English].
- Sociological Report: Albania. Study on Homophobia, Transphobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. The Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2010 [in English].
- Special Report For the protection and respect of the rights of LGBTI community in Albania by the Commissioner for the Protection of Discrimination, Tirana, 2014 [in English].
- History-makers: LGBT activism in Albania 2010-2015, Council of Europe [in English].
- The Struggle of Being Gay in Albania, VICE International [in English].
- Aleanca LGBT - a non-governmental organization dealing with advocacy and lobbying and awareness-raising, hosts a dynamic Facebook page with various local events on cooking and English courses, film nights and book club [in English and Albanian].
- ERA - LGBTI Equal Rights Association for Western Balkans and Turkey [in English].
- Pink Embassy - a non-profit organization which works for the protection and advancement of the rights of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender, intersex and queer people in Albania, contains an archive of publications [in English and Albanian].
- Other resources
- ERA - Online Resource Centre [in English].