Social Functioning in Dementia Scale (SF-DEM)

SF-DEM is a patient- and carer-reported outcome measure designed for the assessment of the social functioning of people with dementia.

Scale development and validation

We developed the Social Functioning in Dementia Scale (SF-DEM) at University College London together with researchers at Brighton and Sussex Medical School and clinicians at Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

The SF-DEM is designed to assess social functioning in people with mild dementia in order to identify changes related to dementia. It is the only available measure specifically designed to assess the engagement with social networks and participation in social activities of a person with dementia.

SF-DEM consists of two questionnaires.

  • SF-DEM - Person with dementia: a 20 item interviewer-administered questionnaire answered by a person with dementia
  • SF-DEM - Carer: a 20 item interviewer-administered questionnaire answered by a family carer of a person with dementia

The social functioning in dementia scale was developed and validated using key psychometric principles in a population of older people living in Camden and Islington, London and we undertook a further validation and established the factor structure in a multi-centre study based in London and Sussex.

Researchers in China, Germany, Japan, and Hong Kong are currently translating and validating the scale in their local settings.


SF-DEM Files for download



SF-DEM is freely available for use by other researchers under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


German SF-DEM

The German SF-DEM (Sozialfunktionen bei Demenz - Fragebogen) was developed and validated by Susanne Röhr, Jessica Grothe, Melanie Luppa, and Steffi G. Riedel-Heller from the ISAP at University of Leipzig (https://www.uniklinikum-leipzig.de/einrichtungen/isap).

Contact information: Prof. Steffi G. Riedel-Heller, MPH; Phone: +49 (0)341/9715408; E-mail: Steffi.Riedel-Heller@medizin.uni-leipzig.de


Hong Kong (Cantonese) SF-DEM

The Hong Kong (Cantonese) SF-DEM (HK SF-DEM) was developed by Dr Kenny Chui from The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Contact information: Dr Kenny Chui; E-mail: kenny.chui@jccpa.org.hk




Validation studies