Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society

c/o Wessex Archaeology,
Portway House,
Old Sarum Park,

Tel: 01722 326867
Fax: 01722 337562
E email:


Notes for Contributors

1.     All correspondence on the publication of articles should be addressed in the first instance to Julie Gardiner at the above address.

2.     Editorial Policy
The Prehistoric Society publishes papers on all aspects of prehistory with an emphasis on the British Isles, Europe, SW Asia, and the countries bordering the Mediterranean. Additionally, individual volumes of the Proceedings may bring together papers from specific areas or on particular themes. However, the aim is to present volumes which are wide ranging in both their subject matter and areas of interest, reflecting the broad range of interests of Society members. Individual papers of outstanding methodological, theoretical, or factual merit are also welcome. Articles can be research, excavation reports, surveys, or works of synthesis or review but should be of more than local or regional interest.

Notes and short contributions on significant discoveries, new interpretations, or new methodology are welcome.

Reviews are now published on our website ( and all correspondence should be sent to Dr Michael Allen at the address above.

All papers received are sent to three academic referees and the Editor acts on their advice, forwarding comments to the author as applicable. Unless specifically instructed otherwise by the referees themselves, all refereeing is anonymous.

3.     Length
All articles, other than grant-aided excavation reports, should be no longer than 8000 words (excluding bibliography, tables, and captions); authors considering submission of articles of greater length must discuss them with the Editor in advance of submission. Grant-aided excavation reports of up to 25,000 words will be considered, longer reports may be considered but authors are advised to discuss the matter with the Editor before submission. It may be necessary to defer publication of longer reports in order to spread the cost of publication of the Proceedings across several issues.

4.     Publication grants
Please note that all papers submitted are considered entirely on merit.

Reports on state-aided work (English Heritage, Cadw, Historic Scotland etc) are eligible for a publication grant. The Editor will be pleased to provide an estimate of costs on request. It is essential that manuscripts of all reports eligible for grant-aid, from whatever source, be read by the relevant organisation and a grant approved in principle before it is submitted to PPS. On acceptance of the report for publication a copy of the relevant in-principle offer should be forwarded to the Editor.

Reports that are directly the result of developer funded work under PPG 16 must bring with them a grant of at least 75% towards the cost of printing. The average cost is £55 per printed page (this applies to all pages of the report including tables, illustrations etc) based on 900 words per page.

All authors are, in any case, encouraged to seek financial support wherever possible. It would be helpful if authors could indicate on submission of a manuscript whether any grant-aid is available as this assists in the planning of individual volumes.

5.     Copy date and Presentation of manuscripts
The final date for receipt of a draft text for publication in the any volume of PPS is Christmas of the preceeding year (ie a paper for publication in the volume for the year 2010 must be received by Christmas 2009). A paper received after that date cannot be guaranteed publication in the next issue and may be deferred to the following year. The Editor reserves the right to defer publication of any paper for one year only on economic grounds.

Three paper copies of all text, tables, and bibliography should be submitted. Copy should be A4 size (or nearest word-processor equivalent), double-spaced thoughout, and with good margins. Please do not email draft texts without prior agreement with the Editor. Most text will be typeset in 10pt text with 9pt used for detailed descriptions (eg feature fills) and catalogue entries. Intended changes in type-size may be indicated in the margin for typewritten text or by use of different point sizes for word-processed text. The Editor reserves the right to make changes to the point size depending on available space.

If using a word-processor do not send your paper on disk in the first instance. Likewise, three sets of xerox reductions of figures and plates should be submitted with the manuscript not originals until a paper has been accepted. Please supply clearly legible copy. Final copies may also be sent via email but a hard copy should also be supplied in case of any difficulties.

6.      Layout
6a Authors’ names & addresses: The name and addresses of all principal author's should be provided. Where there are a large number of specialist contributors their addresses will not normally be printed. Unless instructed otherwise, the editor will correspond only with the individual author who submits the paper. The author’s email address may be included but bear in mind that email addresses do tend to get changed regularly!

6b Abstract:
An abstract should be supplied of no more than 500 words. It should describe the main content of the paper, results, and conclusion.

6c Headings: Please rationalise your use of headings. The hierarchy of headings for PPS is as follows:
    1. 10pt text centre, capitals, no full stop
    2. 10pt text left, italics, no full stop
    3. 9pt text centre, capitals, no full stop
    4. 9pt text left, italics, no full stop
    5. 9pt/10pt text as appropriate, left, italic followed by a colon, text runs on.

6d Footnotes and endnotes
: Footnotes are not to be used. Endnotes are not encouraged but their position in text is indicated by superscript numbers running in sequence. They should be provided on a separate sheet.

6e Dates: Please see Appendix 2 for instructions on the use of radiocarbon dates. The term kyr is acceptable for early dates rather than BC/BP but should be used consistently.

6f Abbreviations and contractions: the Editor is responsible for house-style but it would save much time if authors could note the following: in general contractions have no full stop, abbreviations do, except for units of measurement (mm, cm) which also have no `s'.
eg, c., et al., No., Nos, Fig. Figs, ie, mm, ha, kg, g, cf.

6g Numbers: One to ten to be spelt out, up to 9999, no comma; 10,000 plus, use comma.

6h Cross-references: Avoid the use of cross-references to specific pages of your text as these can only be inserted (by the author) at the last moment and are very time-consuming. All figures and tables should be referred to in text. The general rule is that all figures and tables are placed as close as possible to the first reference to them in text. Any instructions to the contrary should be indicated on the manuscript.

6i Bibliographical references in text: use the Harvard system of author and year (Taylor 1989), (Taylor 1989, 123-5), or `Taylor (1989, 123) says'. Note that there is no comma before the year but there is before the page reference. For three or more authors use eg Taylor et al. 1978. Semicolon between references (Taylor 1989; 1990; Smith 1993). Generally where multiple references are cited they should be given in chronological order, or with the major reference first. Papers `in prep.' cannot appear in the bibliography in sufficient detail to be helpful to the reader; reference to them should be avoided (pers. comm. is preferable), a `forthcoming' paper is one which has been accepted for publication and for which it is possible to cite the volume or journal, and for an `in press' paper virtually a full bibliographical reference should be available.

6j Acknowledgements: appear at the end of the main text.

6k Appendices: No separate bibliography or figure numbers.

6l Bibliography: Please note that journal and book series titles are always given in full as PPS has an international audience. Books should have place of publication and publisher and papers in multi-author volumes require page numbers. All authors names should be cited in full - et al. is not acceptable in the bibliography. The correct date for a paper in a journal is the year for which the journal was published. If publication is several years behind schedule the actual year of publication may be given in brackets at the end of the reference. The following are examples of different types of entry. Please refer to the most recent volume of PPS for further examples. Please type each entry as a normal paragraph without any indents, the typesetter will add the paragraph formatting.

Allen, M.J. 1988. Archaeological and environmental aspects of colluviation in south-east England. In W. Groenman-van Waateringe and M. Robinson (eds), Man-made Soils, 67-92. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S410
Bedwin, O. 1980. Neolithic and Iron Age material from a coastal site at Chidham, West Sussex, 1978. Sussex Archaeological Collections 118, 163-70
Driesch, A. von den. 1975. Die Bewertung pathologischanatomischer Veränderungen an vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Tierknochen. In A.T. Clason (ed.), Archaeozoological Studies, 413-25. Amsterdam: Elsever
Fasham, P.J. 1985. The Prehistoric Settlement at Winnall Down, Winchester. Winchester: Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society Monograph 2
Gerloff, S. 1993. Zu Fragen mittelmeerländischer Kontackte und absoluter Chronologie der Frühbronzezeit in Mittel- und Westeuropa. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 68, 58-102
Harding, P. 1988. The Chalk Plaque Pit, Amesbury. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 54, 320-7
Harding, P. 1990. The comparative analysis of four stratified flint assemblages and a knapping cluster. In Richards 1990, 213-25
Miles, D. 1981. Social landscapes: pattern and purpose? In M. Jones and G.W. Dimbleby (eds), The Environment of Man: the Iron Age to the Anglo-Saxon Period, 9-18. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 87
Smith, K., Coppen, J., Wainwright, G.J. & Becket, S. 1981. The Shaugh Moor Project: third report -- settlement and environmental investigations. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 47, 205-73
Jones, R. 1978. Why did Tasmanians stop eating fish? In R. Gould (ed.), Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology, 11-47. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press
Richards, J.C. 1990. The Stonehenge Environs Project. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 16
Vita-Finzi, C. 1978. Archaeological Sites in their Setting. London: Thames and Hudson.

6m Tables: Should be submitted at the end of the text not integrated within it. Each table should be on a separate sheet headed with the authors’ name(s) and the title of the paper and presented double spaced with caption to the top and any notes at the bottom. No ruled lines. In tables of numbers please place a dash or 0 where there is no entry. Lengthy or complicated tables will generally be supplied to the printer as camera-ready copy to minimise cost. All proof corrections to tables are expensive so all should be checked very carefully before submission.

6n Figure captions: should be presented as a separate list. PPS no longer uses separate plate sections, photographs are integrated into text. Line illustrations and photographs should therefore be numbered in one sequence

7.     Illustrations
Illustrations should be supplied with the initial submission as xeroxes. On acceptance of the paper, illustrations may be sent as hard copy (originals no larger than A3) or digitally. Any intended use of colour or foldouts should be discussed with the Editor in advance of submission as both are expensive. The Society cannot bear any part of the cost of producing colour images .

Increasingly contributors are sending their images as digital files. However, if material is not sent within certain preferred parameters there may be a risk that print quality is compromised. It also costs time and money to convert images to appropriate formats and this may create some difficulties.

Preferred File Type: Scans or digital photographs that have been saved as either an EPS, TIFF or JPEG. To get the best quality these must be saved at a resolution of 400dpi at the actual size they need to print or larger. Photographs must be saved as grey tiffs/jpegs, not RGB or CMYK. If it has been agreed that colour photographs may be used they must be saved as CMYK.

Potential Problems and Solutions: Print quality will be reduced the smaller the resolution (dpi) of the file. If a file is sent at 400dpi, but is smaller than the size it prints it will need to be be enlarged, and in so doing the resolution will proportionately decrease. This cannot be compensated for by the printers. Anything incorporating line work or text such as maps and plans should not be sent as this file format – see line drawings, below.

Copy to be Scanned (photographs, transparencies and printed material)
These need to be undamaged and clearly marked with the following: Author, figure number, any cropping details if required. Please do not write directly on the back of photographs (attach a label) as the scanner may pick this up.

Potential Problems and Solutions: Any copy sent as a scanned image will become pixelated (picture format), which is fine for photos but not ideal if line work and/or text is required. It is possible for us to edit and improve pixelated text in a photo file but at a cost to the Society.

Line drawings
Preferred File Type: Vector based graphic saved as an EPS with embedded fonts (ie, not picture-based or scanned). Files need to be created and saved in a vector based software package such as Freehand or Illustrator on a Macintosh/PC or PC based Corel Draw (but see below). This is essential if the image contains line work, text and areas of shading.

Bitmap (not ideal) – only if image is black & white (no grey shading) this must be saved at 1200dpi. Any pixilation of lines and text in the bitmap will appear in the print.

Potential Problems and Solutions: Corel vector EPS files will need to be resaved by the printers in Freehand or Illustrator, if not and the Corel EPS is dropped into the Quark page the colours/brightness may not remain true to the original and the fonts may be lost.

If a black & white image is received as a non-vector graphic for example: a JPEG saved in Photoshop or a similar photo editing package, the image will be pixelated (a picture file) including any line work & text within that image. We can minimise this by resaving the file as a Bitmap, but the quality will still not be as good as if the file been sent as a vector based EPS file. The original must be at least 400dpi or higher and at the actual intended print size or larger otherwise quality will be further compromised.

Files can only be resaved as Bitmaps if they are black & white only images, those images supplied with grey shaded areas cannot be saved as bitmaps. If a file containing line work and text is supplied as a photo file and not a vector there is little we can do to improve its print quality. Text will almost certainly print with some pixilation, the severity of this will depend upon the resolution and size of the file (the higher the better).

In the past we have had problems with PDFs especially with fonts not embedded and low resolution and it is preferred that files are not sent as PDFs until we can draw up a detailed specification for how they need to be saved.

Pictures and photos need to be saved at a resolution of 400dpi or greater and at the intended print size or larger, they must not include text or line work.

  • Line drawings need to be a vector-based filetype (ie, saved in Freehand, Illustrator or Corel Draw). Line work and text supplied as a picture format file will be pixelated, resulting in fine lines, edges and text appearing ‘jagged’ when printed. Similarly hard copy sent for scaning can only be saved as a picture format file and therefore the same constraints apply.
Preferred Picture Format (for photos)
  • EPS - 400dpi, print size, no text
  • TIFF - 400dpi, print size, no text
  • JPEG - 400dpi, print size, no text
  • High resolution, undamaged copy/trannies, no line work/text for scanning.
Preferred Chart/Illustration/Diagram format
  • EPS – saved as vector graphic on Mac based Illustrator or Freehand
  • EPS – saved as vector graphic on PC based Illustrator, Freehand or Corel Draw (embedded fonts).
  • High resolution, undamaged copy/trannies, no line work or text
In some instances it may not be possible to supply the ‘Preferred’ file type. In this case we will need to assess if anything can be done to improve print quality so please discuss this with the Editor before submission. We cannot work miracles!

8.     Submission of text on disk
PPS is able to accept many types of disk, CDs and email submissions but certain file formats can cause problems. Appendix 1 is a separate set of notes for submission on disk/CD. Do not send disks/CDs until your paper has been accepted for publication

9.     Copyright
All papers published in PPS become copyright of the Society on publication. The Society allows limited reproduction of material for educational and personal research purposes in accordance with UK Copyright Licence Agreements but any requests for use of material, particularly illustrative material, for commercial use will be referred to the authors concerned before any permission is granted. A copyright agreement form will be forwarded to authors on acceptance of the paper.

Authors are responsible for obtaining (in writing) copyright permission for any copyrighted material included with their paper including any material which is the intellectual property of any person(s) other than the author(s). A copy of the relevant permission(s) should be forwarded to the Editor. If you are in any doubt please contact the Editor.

Ordnance Survey (OS) copyright
maps and plans that use OS data as base mapping in any form are now subject to an OS publishing copyright fee (current minimum fee £47.50 exc VAT). An application form is downloadable from You will need A5 or A4 facsimile mapping (depending on the size at which you wish to reproduce your illustration) on a 1900 print run. If you are reprducing an OS map as published you will need a reproduction licence (note that these are very expensive). Please quote that The Prehistoric Society is a registered charity no. 1000567 in order to obtain a 20% discount. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain and pay for an OS licence.

10.     Proofs and proof corrections
PPS is typeset directly to page proof. Two copies will be sent to the author, or to the principal author for distribution to other contributors. One copy should be returned, preferably marked up using standard proof correction symbols (copies can be supplied by the Editor on request). Please mark author's corrections clearly and unambiguously in blue ink and printer's corrections in red; do not use pencil. Proof corrections are very expensive and the Society will charge for excessive author's corrections. Additions or major alterations to text will only be accepted at the Editor's discretion. Second page proofs will only be sent to authors if major or complicated changes have been made.

11.     Offprints
Twenty-five offprints will be supplied free for single author papers, 50 for multi-author papers. Further offprints can be ordered at proof-stage only . An order form quoting the cost of additional offprints will be sent with proofs. Offprints are sent direct to the author from the printers. Authors are reminded that a condition of most state-aided publication grants is that a number of free offprints be supplied to the funding body. These will be forwarded to the grant-paying organisation by the Editor on publication.

12. The Editor will be pleased to discuss any aspect of the preparation of papers.

Issued: January 1995
This revision: June 2005

Appendix 1: Submission of texts on disk, CD or via email
PPS can accept final texts via email, on disk or CD in a wide range of formats. We will need to know the program (and version) in which text is written. Please note that the editorial side of PPS is PC-based though the printers use a Mac system. Mac discs cannot be accepted for editing. Mac-based illustrations may be provided but hard copy must be suppled to the editor for reference. It it is possible to send most Mac generated papers via email.

Please do NOT send your paper via email or on disk/CD until your paper has been accepted and any amendments or corrections resulting from the academic refereeing have been incorporated.

It is vital that a hard copy of the paper is submitted together with the email copy/disk/CD in case of any problems in disk translation and particularly if there are many foreign characters or accents

Preparation of text on disk

1. The text should be presented in as few text files as possible and each file named logically and in a clear order.
2 . Do NOT use any of the following: `soft' or manual hyphens; hidden text; headers, footers, or footnotes; manual page or line breaks (except the latter between paragraphs); tabs (see note on tables); empty frames to indicate the position of illustrations or tables. Any such items not removed can cause problems in disk translation. If using Word 6.0 or more recent versions please save your file as Word 2.0 as this eliminates some automatic formatting that can override typesetting instructions.
3. Do use the following: if your keyboard has both an open quotation and a close quotation mark, please use both; indicate a dash used in punctuation by two hyphen marks -- like this. Please use italic and bold where you intend them to be used.
4 . All tabulated material, captions, mathematical equations, and endnotes with be rekeyed. Please supply them in hard copy only with your disk. In the case of equations, please indicate their intended position in your text file on disk/CD.
5 . When submitting your disk/CD please ensure that it is carefully packaged and labelled with your name and the program which has been used. Please indicate if you wish to have it returned.
6. Always keep a copy of the paper both on disk/CD and in hard copy.

Computer viruses

If at all possible, please check your disk/CD for viruses before you send it.

Disks will be processed initially via the computer network belonging to the Wessex Archaeology Ltd. All incoming disks are screened for boot sector viruses. In the event of any undetected virus infecting the network the WA may pass the cost of remedial action onto the author whose disk/CD introduced it. Please note that any unlabelled disks/CDs arriving without an accompanying letter will be disposed of to minimise the risk of viral infection.

Appendix 2: Guidance notes for the use and quotation of radiocarbon dates

All cited radiocarbon determinations should be expressed in radiocarbon years BP (Before Present -- AD 1950) and the laboratory reference number quoted (eg OxA-8006, 4410±40 BP). Where possible, radiocarbon results should be calibrated using the appropriate curve and programme. We recommend the internationally-accepted IntCal04 curve (Reimer et al. 2004) and the OxCal programme (Bronk Ramsey 1995; 2001). The calibration curve and programme used should be cited and referenced. Prior to 10,000 BP, the citation of uncalibrated dates is acceptable, although it is preferable that all dates throughout your paper are cited consistently.

Calibrated dates should be quoted at two standard deviations (ie 95% confidence), and cited as cal BC. The calibrated ranges should be rounded outwards and quoted in the form recommended by Mook (1986); ie the end points rounded outwards to 10 years when the radiocarbon error term is greater than or equal to 25 radiocarbon years, and rounded outwards to 5 years for error terms less than this. Some calibration programmes automatically round out to 10 years.

OxA-4834, 4460±45: 3344-2927 cal BC, rounded out to 3350-2920 cal BC
UB-3790, 4367±18: 3039-2919 cal BC, rounded out to 3040-2915 cal BC
UB-3794, 4432±22: 3301-2929 cal BC, rounded out to 3305-2925 cal BC

For northern Europe the recommended calibrations data sets are as follows and calibrations can be performed using computer programmes such as CALIB 3, CALIB 2 or OxCal 2. Elsewhere in the world other calibration programmes may be more applicable. It is preferable that the same calibration programme and dataset is used for all the dates quoted in your paper. However, in some instances where results range from before c. 7000 BP to after that date it may be necessary to consider using two calibration sets (see below). If it is not neceassry to compare between dates of the Mesolithic and of the Neolithic or later, then you should consider using two calibration programmes (such as CALIB v3 or OxCal v2 for pre c. 7000 and CALIB v2 for results after c. 7000 BC). This will allow you to compare results calibrated using the same programme, but not between the two (see for instance Allen & Bayliss 1995).

Dates after c. 10,000 BP
You should calibrate all dates and your paper should give the results (i.e. radiocarbon age ± BP), the laboratory number, and your calibrated date stating the calibration data source and calibration method. A good example of the quotation and use of radiocarbon dating is Allen & Bayliss (1995).

Dates before c. 10,000 BP
For dates prior to 10,000 BP use IntCal04 or determinations may be cited as uncalibrated dates BP.

BP Before Present
cal BC calibrated radiocarbon determination BC
kyr Thousand years ago (but state whether your use is calibrated or uncalibrated)


Allen, M.J. & Bayliss, A. 1995. Appendix 2: The Radiocarbon Programme. In R.M.J. Cleal, K.E. Walker & R. Montague, Stonehenge in its Landscape; twentieth century excavations. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 10. (see also the conventions on p6 of this volume)
Bronk Ramsey C., 1995. Radiocarbon Calibration and Analysis of Stratigraphy: The OxCal Program. Radiocarbon 37(2) 425-430
Bronk Ramsey C., 2001, Development of the Radiocarbon Program OxCal, Radiocarbon 43 (2A) 355-363
Mook, W.G. 1986. Business meeting: recommendations/resolutions adopted by the twelfth International Radiocarbon Conference. Radiocarbon 28, 799
Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C.J.H., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G.S., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L, Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., Manning, S., Ramsey, C.B., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J., Weyhenmeyer, C.E., 2004. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3), 1029-58

Home Page The Prehistoric Society Home Page