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Publications

Journal Articles
  • Aguirre E, Spector A & Orrell M (2014). Guidelines to adapt Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to other cultures. Clinical Interventions in Ageing, 2014:9; 1003-1007.
  • Aguirre E, Hoare Z, Spector A, Woods B and Orrell M (2014). The effects of a Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) programme for people with dementia on family caregivers' health. BMC Geriatrics 2014, 14: 31.
  • Aguirre E., Woods B., Spector A., Orrell M. (2013) Cognitive stimulation for dementia: A review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomised controlled trials. Aging Research Reviews, 12(1): 253-262.
  • Aguirre E., Hoare Z., Streater A., Spector A., Woods B., Hoe J., Orrell M.(2012) Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with dementia- who benefits most?. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10.1002/gps.3823.
  • Aguirre E, Spector A, Orrell M et al (2011).  Service users’ involvement on the development of a maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) programme:  A comparison of the views of people with dementia, staff and family carers. Dementia 10 (4): 459-47
  • Aguirre E, Orrell, M, Spector A et al (2011). Development of an evidence-based long term programme of maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for people with dementia. Non-Pharmacological therapies for Dementia, 1(3): 197-21.
  • Aguirre E, Spector A, Hoe J, Russell I, Knapp M, Woods RT and Orrell M (2010). Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Dementia: A single-blind, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of Maintenance CST versus CST for dementia. Trials 2010, 11:46.
  • Alvares-Pereira, G., Silva-Nunes, M. V., & Spector, A. (2020). Validation of the cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) program for people with dementia in Portugal. Aging & Mental Health, 1-10.
  • Bertrand, E., Naylor, R., Laks, J., Marinho, V., Spector, A., & Mograbi, D. C. (2018). Cognitive stimulation therapy for brazilian people with dementia: examination of implementation’issues and cultural adaptation. Aging & Mental Health, 1-5.
  • Cove J, Jacobi N, Donovan H, Orrell N, Stott J & Spector A (2014). Effectiveness of weekly Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with Dementia and the additional Impact of Enhancing CST with a Carer Training Programme. Clinical Interventions in Ageing.
  • Gibbor L, Yates A, Volkmer A and Spector A. (2020). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for dementia: A systematic review of qualitative research. Aging and Mental Health. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2020.1746741
  • Gultan Turan, F. (2018). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and geriatric applications: A meta-analysis. The Journal of International Social Research. 11(60), 633-636.
  • Hall L, Orrell M, Stott J & Spector A (2013). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST): Neuropsychological Mechanisms of Change. International Psychogeriatrics, 25 (3): 479-489.
  • Holden, E., Stoner, C. R., & Spector, A. (2020). Cognitive stimulation therapy for dementia: Provision in National Health Service settings in England, Scotland and Wales. Dementia
  • Knapp M, Thorgrimsen L, Patel A, Spector A, Hallam, A, Woods B, Orrell M (2006) Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia: is it cost effective? British Journal of Psychiatry, 188: 574-580.
  • Lobbia, A., Carbone, E., Faggian, S., Gardini, S., Piras, F., Spector, A., Borella, E. (2018). The efficacy of Cognitive Stimulation therapy (CST) for people with mild to moderate dementia: a review. European Psychologist.
  • Morrish, J., Walker, R., Dotchin, C., Spector, A., Orfanos, S., Mkenda, S., & Shali, E. P. (2021). Group experiences of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Aging & Mental Health, 1-10.
  • Murray CM, Gilbert-Hunt S, Berndt A, de la Perrelle L (2016). Promoting participation and engagement for people with dementia through a cognitive stimulation therapy programme delivered by students: A descriptive qualitative study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(10): 620-628.
  • Orfanos, S., Gibbor, L., Carr, C., & Spector, A. (2020). Group-based cognitive stimulation therapy for dementia: a qualitative study on experiences of group interactions. Aging & Mental Health, 1-8.
  • Orrell M, Aguirre E, Spector A, Hoare Z, Woods RT, Streater A, Donovan H, Hoe J, Russell I,  (2014) Maintenance cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for dementia: single-blind, multicentre, pragmatic randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry (204): 1-8.
  • Orrell M, Yates L, Burns A, Russell I, Woods B, Hoare Z, Moniz-Cook E, Henderson C, Knapp M, Spector A, Orgeta V (2012). Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Dementia (iCST): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13: 172.
  • Orrell M, Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B (2005) A pilot study examining the effectiveness of maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (MCST) for people with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 446-451.
  • Orrell M, Woods B & Spector A (2012). Should we use individual cognitive stimulation therapy to improve cognitive function in people with dementia? BMJ 344: e633.
  • Spector, A., Stoner, C. R., Chandra, M., Vaitheswaran, S., Du, B., Comas-Herrera, A., Dotchin, C., Ferri, C., Knapp, M., Krishna, M., Laks, J., Michie, S., Mograbi, D., Orrell, M., Paddick, S., Shaji, K. S., Rangawsamy, T., & Walker, R. (2019).  Mixed methods implementation research of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for dementia in lower and middle-income countries: Study protocol for Brazil, India and Tanzania (CST-International). BMJ Open, 9(8).  e030933. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030933.
  • Spector A, Gardner C & Orrell M (2011). The impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy groups on people with dementia: views from participants, their carers and group facilitators. Ageing & Mental Health 15 (8): 945-950.
  • Spector A, Orrell M & Aguirre, E (2010). Translating research into practice: A pilot study examining the use of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) after a one-day training course. Non-Pharmacological Therapies in Dementia, 1 (1): 61-70.
  • Spector A, Orrell M & Woods B (2010). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST): effects on different areas of cognitive function for people with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25 (12): 1253-1258.
  • Spector A, Woods B, Orrell M (2008).  Cognitive Stimulation for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8 (5): 751-757.
  • Spector A, Orrell M (2006) A review of the use of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 2, 8, 3-6
  • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Royan L, Davies S, Butterworth M, Orrell M (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 248-254.
  • Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B (2001) Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Developing and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 11, 3\4, 377-397.
  • Spector A, Woods B, Davies S, Orrell MW (2000) Reality orientation for dementia: a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomized controlled trials. The Gerontologist, 40, 2, 206-212.
  • Stoner, C. R., Chandra, M., Bertrand, E., Du, B., Durga, H., Klaptocz, J., ... & Orrell, M. (2020). A new approach for developing ‘Implementation Plans’ for Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) in low and middle-income countries: Results from the CST-International study. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 342.
  • Stoner, C. R., Lakshminarayanan, M., Durgante, H., & Spector, A. (2019). Psychosocial interventions for dementia in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review of effectiveness and implementation readiness. Aging & Mental Health, 1-12.
  • Streater, A., Aguirre, E., Spector, A., and Orrell, M (2016). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with dementia in practice: A service evaluation'. British Journal of Occupational Therapy: 1-7.
  • Streater, A.,  Spector A., Hoare, Z.,  Aguirre, E.,  Russell, I.,  Orrell, M. (2016). Staff training and outreach support for Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and its implementation in practice: a cluster randomised trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
  • Streater A, Spector A, Aguirre E, Hoe J, Hoare Z, Woods B, Russell I, Orrell M (2012).'Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation therapy (CST) in practice - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13:91.
  • Marinho V, Bertrand E, Naylor R, Bomilcar I, Laks J, Spector A, Mograbi D (2021). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for people with dementia in Brazil (CST-Brasil): results from a single blind randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
  • Werheid, K., Schaubs, B., Aguirre, E., & Spector, A. (2020). Cognitive stimulation therapy: Model-based cultural adaptation and manual translation of an evidence-based psychosocial group therapy for people with dementia. GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry.
  • Wong, G. H., Yek, O. P., Zhang, A. Y., Lum, T., & Spector, A. (2017). Cultural adaptation of cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for Chinese people with dementia: multicentre pilot study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 
  • Woods B, Aguirre E, Spector A, Orrell M (2012). Cognitive Stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Wiley.
  • Yamanaka K, Noguchi D, Nakaaki S, Watanabe N & Spector A (2013). Effects of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy Japanese Version (CST-J) for People with Dementia: A Single-BlindControlled Clinical Trial. Aging and Mental Health, DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2013.777395.
  • Young K, Ng P, Kwok T, Ho F, Cheng D, Mak V.. Lau A. (2018). The effects of an expanded cognitive stimulation therapy model on the improvement of cognitive ability of elderly with mild stage Dementia living in a community: A randomized waitlist controlled trial. Aging & Mental Health, 21May. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1471586.
Books

Current CST manuals 

  • Aguirre E, Spector A, Streater A, Hoe J, Woods B, Orrell M (2018). Kognitive Stimulationstherapie. Ein evidenzbasiertes Gruppenprogramm für Menschen mit Demenz. Aufbaukurs mit Querverweisen zum Basiskurs., Hg. von Katja Werheid. Dortmund: Verlag Modernes Lernen. (German translation)
  • Aguirre E, Spector A, Streater A, Hoe J, Woods B and Orrell M (2012). Making a Difference 2: an evidence based group program to offer maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to people with dementia. Hawker Publications, UK. 
  • Borella, E., Lobbia, A., Michelini, G. Faggian, S., Gardini, S. (2016). Promuovere il benessere nella persona con demenza. Una guida pratica per la stimolazione cognitiva ad uso del familiare e del caregiver. Franco Angeli, Italy. (Italian translation)
  • Johannesen, A., Spector, A. Gregersen, R. (2019). Kognitiv Stimulationsterapi (CST): Et evidensbaseret gruppe program til mennesker med demens. VIA University College. (Danish translation).
  • Spector, A., Thorgrimsen, L., Woods, B., & Orrell, M. (2018). Hukommelses-Stimulerende Terapi. (Norweigan translation).
  • Spector, A., Thorgrimsen, L., Woods, B., & Orrell, M. (2017) 認知刺激治療CST 為認知障礙症設計的循證小組活動 (Cognitive stimulation treatment CST Evidence-based group activities designed for dementia). HKU Press. (Chinese translation).
  • Spector A., Woods B., Stoner R. C., and Orrell M. (2020). Making a Difference 1: an evidence based group program to offer maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to people with dementia. (Second edition) Hawker Publications, UK. 

Other books and previous editions of CST manuals

  • Yates, L., Yates, J., Orrell, M., Spector, A. & Woods, B. (2017). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for dementia: History, Evolution and Internationalism. Routledge.
  • Spector A., Thorgrimsen L., Woods B. & Orrell M. (2013). Kognitive Anregung (CST) für Menschen mit Demenz: Evidenzbasiertes Praxis- und Gruppenhandbuch. Huber: Germany.
  • Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B & Orrell M (2006) Making a difference: an evidence based group program to offer Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) to people with dementia (First edition). Hawker Publications, UK.
  • Spector A,Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, Orrell M (2005) Our time: an evidence based group program to offer cognitive stimulation to people with dementia – manual for group leaders. Freiberg Press, USA.
Book Chapters
  • Aguirre, E., Spector, A., Streater, A., & Orrell, M. (2020). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for People with Dementia Living in the Community. Timely Psychosocial Interventions in Dementia Care: Evidence-Based Practice, 85.
  • Clarke, C., Wolverson, E. Stoner, C. & Spector, A. (2016) Overview and Ways Forward for a Positive Psychology Approach to Dementia. In C. Clarke & E. Wolverson (Eds.) Psychology Approaches to Dementia. London: Jessica Kingsley. 
  • Spector, A. (2014). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) for people with dementia. In: Improving later life. Services for older people – what works? Age UK books, UK.
Reports