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Foreign relations of the Old Kingdom (about 2686-2181 BC)

(click on the marked areas for mor information - except Near East)

There is little evidence for Egyptian contact with the west in the Old Kingdom, although there are depictions of Egyptian military campaigns in this area on walls of royal cult temples.

Trade with Byblos: many objects with names of Egyptian kings (Khaefre, Niuserre, Pepy I, Pepy II) have been found at Byblos. Egypt imported from there mainly cedar wood.

In periods of trade with Byblos there is less evidence for contact between Egypt and Palestine.

The easternmost findplace of Old Kingdom objects (Khaefre, Pepy I) is Ebla (Syria). However, Egypt is not mentioned in the archives of Ebla.

On the Palermo Stone is recorded an expedition under Sahure to Punt. This country is generally located in Africa (Somalia, Ethopia) or Arabia.

Further reading:
Smith 1965
(on foreign - Near Eastern - influence on Egyptian Art)

Old Kingdom | Middle Kingdom | New Kingdom | Late Period | Ptolemaic Period | Roman Period


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