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Kings of the Second Intermediate Period

The number and sequence of the kings is very uncertain.

There is disagreement in research about which dynasties should be assigned to the Middle Kingdom and which to the Second Intermediate Period. The general tendency is to say that the Middle Kingdom as a period of political unity lasts as long as the country was ruled by one king. Therefore, most recent research treats the early Thirteenth Dynasty as part of the Middle Kingdom, because it is generally thought that the kings still ruled the whole country, until some point in the mid Thirteenth Dynasty. However Ryholt 1997 proposed that the country was already divided at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Therefore the Thirteenth Dynasty belongs for him to the Second Intermediate Period. His ideas are not generally accepted.

Compare the following lists of kings:

von Beckerath 1964 | Ryholt 1997 | New arrangement


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