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Chronology of the Naqada Period

Petrie was the first to produce a chronology for the Naqada Period. Using pottery he developed the sequence dates. Eventually he divided the Naqada period into three main periods:

Later Kaiser (Kaiser 1957) refined the sequence dates and divided the Naqada period into several Stufen ('steps' = phases).

Kaiser's system remains in use with some slight modifications (see the most recent discussion: Hendrickx 1996):

Kaiser also introduced for his Stufen several subdivisions:

Naqada I a-b-c (about 4000 - 3500 BC)
Naqada II a-b-c (about 3500 - 3200 BC)
Naqada III a-b-c (about 3200 - 3000 BC)

Naqada I
The culture is still similar to the Badarian culture. The dead were buried in simple oval pits (some examples: Badari tomb 3731, Naqada tomb 1464, tomb 1613). Some larger tombs appear.

Black-topped pottery is the typical ware

painted pottery appears


Naqada II
The Naqada culture appears throughout Egypt. Some individuals are buried in larger, more elaborate tombs (see the elite cemetery in Naqada).

New pottery types appear:

Marl pottery, sometimes decorated

'rough' pottery

Considerable development in techniques

stone vessels
perfect flint knifes


Naqada III
In Upper Egypt cemeteries include extremely wealthy burials, revealing stark social differences.

Cylinder jars are characteristic grave goods.

the first writing appears



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