The milli-Kelvin temperature range is typically any temperature below 0.3 K but above or equal to 0.001K. The temperature range of interest to the cryogenics group is from 0.1 down to 0.01 Kelvin (i.e. 100 to 10 mK).
All refrigerators need a hot end and for these refrigerators the hot end is 4K or lower.
For obtaining temperatures in the mK region there are two types of refrigerator
- Dilution system
- Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR).
The cryogenics research group at mssl specializes in ADRs.