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Choosing a project: listed research projects

These projects will be undertaken in summer 2022. A new list for summer 2023 will be posted here in November 2022.

UCL Projects

The listed projects usually form part of a larger research project supervisors are running at UCL, working at the forefront of their disciplines to push forward the boundaries of knowledge. 

Applicants from UCL can apply for any project which interests them from this list.  It does not have to relate to your current studies.  The projects listed are partly formulated.  If you are successful in your application, you will be expected to work with your Laidlaw supervisor to produce a full project plan before you start work in Summer 2022.

You will need to demonstrate in your application that you meet the Essential Criteria listed for each project.

When you have chosen which project you wish to apply for, make sure you read it thoroughly and think about the issues involved.  This will help you to complete your application.

Essentials for your application

  • You must demonstrate how you meet the Essential Skills listed in the project description when you complete your application form. 
  • You must also ensure that an academic reference is supplied on behalf of your application.

See Applying for more information.

Notes:

(1) The standard six week period for summer 2022 is Monday 13 June to Friday 22 July 2022.  These dates can usually be changed by agreement with the supervisor, but you should check this with them before applying.

(2) Project outputs must be completed by the end of the summer 2022.  Failure to do so could jeopardise your place on the scheme.

Project List: Summer 2022

This list is for first year undergraduates at UCL applying for the Laidlaw Scholarship.

Projects Listed by Faculty

You can apply for any topic that interests you regardless of your degree subject.

Arts and Humanities
1. Aspects of Baroque Latinity
2. Scholarly edition of letter exchanges and revised typescripts between Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) and Thomas Sturge Moore (1870-1944)

The Bartlett (Built Environment)
3. Visualising the transition to a low-carbon economy
4. Creating multi-region energy system models for climate change studies
5. Business and water: Walking the talk?
6. Making Sense of Sensors: A pilot project to enhance the quality, reliability and useability of a Low-Cost Urban Air Quality Sensors Network

Engineering
7. Understanding the fitness landscape of aging tissue
8. Development of a bench tank setup to enable single-channel validation of time-of-flight EIT via chirp current excitation
9. Developing 3D-printable tissue substitute materials for phantom development in paediatric radiotherapy
10. Development of a novel optical ultrasound sensor based on laser technology for biomedical photoacoustics  
11. Lay definitions of ethnic hate crime online and offline

IOE, UCL's Faculty of Education and Society
12. Longitudinal case study analyses of young people following STEM trajectories
13. Institutional history and adult education: the case of the Institute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge
14. University Responses to Black Lives Matter (BLM): How to Improve the Experiences of our Black Students and Colleagues
15. Yoga in Special Schools: The Impact of Body, Breath, and Movement for Individuals with Special Needs
16. Laidlaw Scholars Celebration Brochure
17. The Politics of Religion: Examining Race, Religion and Nationalism in the United States

Laws
18. A comparison of duress in contract and unjust enrichment law
19. A critical perspective on English contract law

Life Sciences
20. Mitochondrial function in health and disease
21. Author name memorability and citations
22. Self-generated sounds in human neonates: how are they tracked by the brain?
23. Understanding the role of respiratory supercomplexes
24. Nature inspired self-healing for organic electronics

Mathematics and Physical Sciences (MAPS)
25. Self-assembly and ion transport by stimuli-responsive ruthenium(II) complexes
26. Multiscale modelling of blood flow in health and disease

Medical Sciences
27. Actionable alterations in cholangiocarcinoma

Professional Services
28. Developing a Most Significant Change methodology to explore what really changes for students and charities after cross-sector and multidisciplinary collaboration?

Social and Historical Sciences (SHS)
29. What works and doesn't work in online economics education? A book project bringing the tools of economic analysis to new methods in education
30. UCL Economics Walk: Incorporating students' voices 
31. Where do our discarded diesel vehicles go?
32. Medieval Magic in 50 Objects
33. The discovery of lost Republican texts 
34. Written and Visual Heritage of Medieval Africa
35. Triggering politics: The gendered and racialised dynamics of emotions and political engagement in Brazil
36. Latin American Revolts Dataset (LARD): understanding two centuries of political violence
37. Reflections on the research process of disabled students conducting an innovative study on their lived experience of Covid-19    

Arts and Humanities Faculty
Project Number: 1

Aspects of Baroque Latinity

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Gesine Manuwald
Department of Supervisor: Greek and Latin
Faculty of Supervisor: Arts and Humanities
Email address of Supervisor: g.manuwald@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate):
Baroque Latinity
Brief summary of main research project: The Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded project ‘Baroque Latinity’ aims to find out what is distinctive about the Latin written in the Baroque period and demonstrate this by detailed study of examples.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Aspects of Baroque Latinity
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The scholar will help with editing the contributions to a collected volume on Baroque Latinity. This will involve checking all the Latin quotations and English translations as well as references. This process will mean that the scholar will get a good sense of examples of Baroque Latin and, on that basis, will be able to formulate their own theory on what is characteristic of Baroque Latin.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: At the end of the project the scholar will have improved the contributions to the volume (and will be credited for it). On the basis of their experience with examples of Baroque Latinity they will be able to illustrate the key features of Latin of this period on a poster. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Attention to detail
Good level of English
Basic knowledge of Latin
Details of Supervision arrangements: Regular updates by email and catch-up meetings once a week.


Project Number: 2

Scholarly edition of letter exchanges and revised typescripts between Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) and Thomas Sturge Moore (1870-1944)

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Prof Ulrich Tiedau
Department of Supervisor: School of European Languages, Culture and Society (SELCS)
Faculty of Supervisor: Arts and Humanities
Email address of Supervisor: u.tiedau@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): A novel publication model for born-digital scholarly editions
Brief summary of main research project: The overarching editorial project seeks to develop a novel publication model that has researchers working on born-digital scholarly editions of material based in Senate House Library (such as the Tagore material). It seeks to develop not only an organic process of digital edition-building, but also potential for involving students in editorial workshops, a ‘social editing’ model.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Scholarly edition of letter exchanges and revised typescripts between Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) and Thomas Sturge Moore (1870-1944)
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The aim of this project is to enable a Laidlaw scholar to produce a scholarly edition of selected letter exchanges between the 1913 Indian Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) and his English editor and translator Thomas Sturge Moore (1870-1944). Its multiple facets include questions of revision, collaboration, Empire, and the influence of Indian literature on modernists. The project is a collaboration between Senate House Library, which hosts the Sturge Moore papers (MS978), the Digital Humanities Research Hub at the School of Advanced Studies and the UCL Centre for Digital Humanities (UCLDH).
Outputs expected by the Scholar: The output includes fully encoded letter exchanges between Tagore and Sturge Moore, or related papers, their publication in a database for scholarly editions, a report in form of a blog entry and an A0 poster for participation in Laidlaw programme-wide events and other dissemination opportunities.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
An interest in English literature of the period
An interest in acquiring digital scholarly skills. 
Previous editorial experience is welcome but optional. (Full training in scholarly editorial practices and digital text encoding will be provided.)
Details of Supervision arrangements: The Laidlaw scholar(s) will receive full training in digital text encoding and scholarly practices. There will be regular, weekly, meetings between the scholar and one or more of the supervisors, who will also be available by e-mail, phone, Zoom and other appropriate ways throughout the project period.
Additional Information (where applicable): Project partners will be Dr Christopher Ohge (SAS) and Dr Richard Espley (Senate House Library). Travel to other archives may be involved. The project would particularly be suited for a junior scholar interested in literature, scholarly editions, text encoding and digital humanities.


The Bartlett (Built Environment) Faculty

Project Number: 3

Visualising the transition to a low-carbon economy

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Paul Dodds
Department of Supervisor: Bartlett School of Environment, Energy and Resources
Faculty of Supervisor: Bartlett
Email address of Supervisor: p.dodds@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Development of a multi-regional UK TIMES energy system model
Brief summary of main research project: The UK TIMES energy system model contains a comprehensive representation of all energy flows and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK.  It is a techno-economic model that is used to identify least-cost pathways to decarbonise the UK economy over the coming decades. The model is jointly developed with the UK Government, who have used it for several major publications including the Net Zero Strategy.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Visualising the transition to a low-carbon economy
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: How can we best visualise the many facets of an energy system transition for stakeholders, using data produced by energy system models?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: An improved system to analyse energy system outputs, and some novel outputs. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Programming skills, ideally with R and possibly python  
Ability to use the command line to develop and run software
Details of Supervision arrangements: There will be weekly meetings with the main supervisor, include formal meetings at the start, middle and end of the project work.  There might also be meetings with other researchers and possibly civil servants working in this area.


Project Number: 4

Creating multi-region energy system models for climate change studies

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Paul Dodds
Department of Supervisor: Bartlett School of Environment, Energy and Resources
Faculty of Supervisor: Bartlett
Email address of Supervisor: p.dodds@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Automating the creation of multi-region TIMES energy system models
Brief summary of main research project: The UK TIMES energy system model contains a comprehensive representation of all energy flows and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK.  It is a techno-economic model that is used to identify least-cost pathways to decarbonise the UK economy over the coming decades.  The model is jointly developed with the UK Government, who have used it for several major publications including the Net Zero Strategy.  This joint project with the UK Government is producing a new multi-region version of UK TIMES that represents 12 UK regions.  We have a simple Python-based route to produce the regional descriptions from energy data.  This could be greatly improved and applied to a range of TIMES models at global, EU and national scales.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Creating multi-region energy system models for climate change studies
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: How can substantial and disparate energy datasets be automatically organised to create energy system models?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: An improved system to automate the creation energy system models, which is tested with a multi-region UK model.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Deep programming skills using Python are necessary  
Ideally, shell script development
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly meetings, including formal meetings at the outset, mid-point and end of the period.


Project Number: 5

Business and water: Walking the talk?

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Samuel Tang
Department of Supervisor: Bartlett School of Environment, Energy and Resources
Faculty of Supervisor: Bartlett
Email address of Supervisor: samuel.tang@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Symbolic corporate environmentalism
Brief summary of main research project: Corporate sustainability reporting is often the first step in business companies communicating their strategy, behaviours and actions in response to grand challenges like climate change, water security, health, and gender inequality. Information shared in corporate reports are widely used by investors, shareholders, policymakers, and consumers, among other stakeholders, to inform decision making. The problem with relying on corporate sustainability reporting to make informed decisions, however, resides in the level of trust potential in the transparency of information shared, particularly when we know some companies will convey a false impression or provide misleading information about the environmental and social characteristics of its products, services and actions. Such greenwashing and bluewashing of sustainability behaviours are a widespread and prevalent phenomenon. Such deviations between a firm’s communications and its environmental performance have long been the subject of public and academic interest. Although literature is well versed on greenwashing behaviour – having identified types of greenwash and why it occurs at different levels – there is little work on how and why firms maintain mismatches between environmental communications and performance, and whether it is intentional or unintentional.​ This project aims to better understand how organisations position themselves towards environmental and societal values to achieve and sustain legitimacy, and whether, how, and why firms maintain or change their position overtime.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Business and water: Walking the talk?
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: What information are business companies sharing on water security, risks and opportunities? How are business companies sharing their water performance information? To what extent is shared information on business water actions symbolic or substantive?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Analysis of corporate annual reports to produce a water disclosure index based on quantity and quality of shared information.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Attention to detail
Good level of reading and writing fluency in English
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly meeting between the Laidlaw Scholar and supervisor.
Additional Information (where applicable): Like climate change, it is essential for business to tackle water security to protect the bottom line. Businesses are significant water uses and polluters whether directly or indirectly. And failure to manage water risks can be costly for society, environment, and economy.


Project Number: 6

Making Sense of Sensors

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Hua zhong
Department of Supervisor: Bartlett School of Sustainable Construction
Faculty of Supervisor: Bartlett
Email address of Supervisor: H.zhong@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Sensor monitoring air pollution
Brief summary of main research project: The existing air quality (AQ) data from low-cost AQ sensor networks is lacking in quality, reliability and useability.   This project aims to check, calibrate and maintain the AQ data quality of existing and new AQ sensor networks to optimise the design of urban ventilation systems.   This project, focusing on PM2.5, applies Airnode AQ data quality software that calibrates sensor network data at selected locations used for European Centre Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)2 in collaboration with DAFNI, Urban Observatory (UO). Analysing and understanding the capabilities of an existing network will inform a new pilot network in NTU city campus which is within City Air Quality Management Areas (AQMA) and close to the existing Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN) station as a living lab. Investigating the type and the configuration of the sensors in the NTU living lab would provide the optimum performance of AQ data for ventilation system optimisation.  This best practice will benefit the dissemination of the Breathing City project for Clean Air strategy.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Making Sense of Sensors:     A pilot project of enhancing the quality, reliability and useability of a Low-Cost Urban Air Quality (AQ) Sensors Network
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: • How to enhance data quality, reliability and usability of existing low-cost sensor AQ network datasets by measuring these data and add them as features to AI data quality analysis software for identifying the irregularities.  •How to optimise a new low-cost AQ network at campus minimising the uncertainty of air quality levels at inputs to ventilation systems.   • How to evaluate the unique characteristics of the new network on the campus, understanding factors of maximum distance between sensors   • How to identify biases, the maximum distance for levels of data quality, sampling rate and ranges of AQ levels of ventilation design.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Writing a systematic review article; producing a new dataset; visualizing the existing dataset.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
High level Academic english writing
MATHEMATICAL AND Data analysis using Python or R
General knowledge of the built environment
Details of Supervision arrangements: Supervision meetings will be online or face to face once a week.

Engineering Faculty


Project Number: 7

Understanding the fitness landscape of aging tissue

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Ben Hall
Department of Supervisor: Medical physics and biomedical engineering
Faculty of Supervisor: Engineering
Email address of Supervisor: b.hall@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): The impact of competition in healthy aged tissue on carcinogenesis
Brief summary of main research project: As tissues age, they accrue mutations. These mutations can increase the fitness of cells, allowing them to persist and expand over time. Over a lifetime, fit clones spread in the tissue until they collide with similarly fit or more fit clones, which may lead to the clone stopping spreading or regressing. This process of mutation, clonal expansion, and collision is repeated many times over a lifetime. Crucially, whilst cancer promoting mutations need to be fit to persist, fit mutations need not lead to cancer.     We study how mutations change the cell, how these changes allow cells to spread in the tissue, and the impact this has on cancer development.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Understanding the fitness landscape of aging tissue
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: We have previously shown how mutations takeover tissues through a combined computational modelling and experimental work in models of aged tissue. Whilst sequencing analysis showed how mutations to one gene (NOTCH1) dominated the tissue, the impact of less fit mutations to NOTCH1 and other genes was less clear. This project would seek to use computational models of mutation in tissues to explore the impact of this broader population and to find out whether the shape of the distribution could be inferred from existing experimental data.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: The scholar would generate a series of models in NetLogo exploring how different fitness distributions change the takeover of the tissue. They should expect to write code in NetLogo and to model their system and analyse their simulations. In addition to the poster, they would write a short report and give a presentation of their results to my group.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
A mathematical or biological science background
A keen interest in biology or medicine
Details of Supervision arrangements: As a member of my group they would meet the group weekly at group meeting, and the scholar and I would meet for a regular scheduled 30 minute meeting each week. We would arrange additional meetings if necessary, and the scholar would be expected to meet with other members of the group for networking and further support.
Additional Information (where applicable): Training on NetLogo will be provided.  I have successfully hosted undergraduates in my group for several years, including this past summer.  


Project Number: 8

Development of a bench tank setup to enable single-channel validation of time-of-flight EIT via chirp current excitation

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Kirill Aistovich
Department of Supervisor: Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of Supervisor: Engineering
Email address of Supervisor: k.aristovich@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): The novel high-accuracy impedance tomography enabled by the time-of-flight EIT via chirp current excitation
Brief summary of main research project: The traditional Electrical Impedance Tomography is an imaging technique that produces images of the internal electrical impedance of a subject using arrays of electrodes. Measurements of the transfer impedance are made, usually with an injection of a constant-frequency, constant-amplitude current at 1-50kHz, through a pair of electrodes and recording of the resulting induced potentials at all of the others. A multiplexer is used to enable the rapid collection of several hundred such transfer impedances from many combinations of electrodes. Traditional EIT results in the severely under-determined and ill-posed inverse imaging problem, the solution of which requires linearization, regularisation, and is heavily dependent on prior information. The resulting images normally cannot resolve small inclusions and are very blurry. Coupled with the boundary problems (such as contact impedance), there is also no reliable technique to reconstruct absolute conductivity within the object. The time-of-flight EIT was theoretically suggested previously, where the single delta-function pulse current is injected into the object, and times of the arrival of the different portions of distorted wave are measured, enabling subdivision of the voltage response corresponding to the different paths that the current has travelled, and the spatial resolution can be infinitely improved. However, it was proven to be almost impossible to resolve due to the complexity of full Maxwell equations describing the propagation of delta-function current in the imaging medium. The proposed project aims to overcome the above limitations of time-of-flight EIT by using a combination of chirp current excitation (linear frequency modulation) with the adaptive linearization of the forward problem. If successful, the novel technique will allow absolute and functional imaging of internal conductivity distribution within the object with the improved resolution (theoretically up to the microscale) and enable the whole range of applications in non-invasive and non-distractive imaging, ranging from biomedical (brain imaging, cancer imaging) to industrial (geology, industrial flow imaging).
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Development of a bench tank setup to enable single-channel validation of time-of-flight EIT via chirp current excitation
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The student will work on developing the benchtop experimental setup for testing the hypotheses proposed by the project. In particular, the student will answer the question:   What is the best chirp paradigm design to allow instantaneous decomposition of EIT signal in a single channel setting?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Experimental setup installed on the bench and validated  - Internal 2-3 page report on the performance of the setup and recommendations on the chirp design  - If a student is proactive and successful in the research it is expected that the student presents their findings at the annual EIT conference.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Good electronics skills
Hands-on skills
Details of Supervision arrangements: The supervisor will have weekly meetings with the student.  In addition, members of the lab will be on-site at all times, and ready to support the student whenever needed.


Project Number: 9

Developing 3D-printable tissue substitute materials for phantom development in paediatric radiotherapy

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Catarina Isabel Correia Veloso da Veiga
Department of Supervisor: Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of Supervisor: Engineering
Email address of Supervisor: c.veiga@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): 3D-printed phantom development for paediatric radiotherapy
Brief summary of main research project: Radiotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill the cancer cells. Quality Assurance (QA) techniques play an important role in radiotherapy delivery by assuring that the prescribed medical doses are provided in a consistent and safe manner. Protocols are used routinely in the clinic to ensure that the target volumes (i.e., the tumour) are getting the correct dose while minimising the irradiation of normal healthy tissues. QA protocols typically make use physical devices, known as “phantoms”, that mimic the radiobiological properties of biological tissues and hence can be used to measure dose experimentally. Phantoms are often made of plastic materials and allow us to test the quality of the treatments that are being delivered to patients. This becomes even more relevant in paediatric patients, since children are more sensitive to radiation than adults, and thus more likely to develop secondary late harmful effects when healthy tissues are irradiated. During this summer project, the student will contribute to the development of 3d-printed radiotherapy phantoms by characterizing and/or optimizing 3D-printable plastic materials, aiming to verify how equivalent they are to biological tissues in terms of interaction with radiation. These plastic materials can then be 3D-printed into realistic anatomical shapes and used as surrogate to the human body in irradiation experiments. Therefore, the student might be involved in the computational optimization of new plastic materials/combinations for new samples, in the 3D printing of samples made of such materials, and/or in the analysis of the radiological and physical properties of 3D printed samples.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Developing 3D-printable tissue substitute materials for phantom development in paediatric radiotherapy
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The main research questions of this project is:  - Which 3D-printing filaments are more tissue equivalent for photons or proton irradiation?  - How can we improve the equivalency of these materials by using doping techniques? Which materials can we add to them and in which percentage?  - What are the optimal 3d-printing settings to achieve tissue equivalent materials?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Written final report (1/2 pages in paper format)  Poster or Oral presentation to the research group (15min + 5Q/A).  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
Background in mathematics, physics and/or engineering
Details of Supervision arrangements: The student will meet weekly with the supervisory team to track on progress and discussion on following work. The student will be based at UCL Medical Physics, and have access to the computational (HPC cluster) and experimental resources (3D-printer, CT scanner) required for the project. Remote work can also be arranged.


Project Number: 10

Development of a novel optical ultrasound sensor based on laser technology for biomedical photoacoustics

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Thomas Allen
Department of Supervisor: Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Faculty of Supervisor: Engineering
Email address of Supervisor: t.allen@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Biomedical photoacoustics; a novel imaging technique for clinical diagnostics
Brief summary of main research project: Photoacoustic tomography is a relatively new biomedical imaging modality, which is based on laser generated ultrasound. It is a hybrid modality which combines the high contrast of optical imaging techniques with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It offers the possibility of acquiring high-quality 3D images of the internal structure of soft biological tissues such as blood vessels. The technique provides not only structural but also functional information through methods such as spectroscopy, flow measurements or thermometry. Potential clinical applications include the clinical assessment of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and skin pathologies. Our current research encompasses the full range of activities in photoacoustic methods: excitation instrumentation and photoacoustic signal detection, modelling of photoacoustic signals, image reconstruction algorithms, spectroscopic methods and the application of the technique in the clinical and life sciences.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Development of a novel optical ultrasound sensor based on laser technology for biomedical photoacoustics
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The detection of broadband ultrasound waves with a high sensitivity underpins a number of biomedical imaging techniques such as clinical ultrasound imaging, as well as photoacoustic tomography and microscopy. These imaging technologies currently rely on piezoelectric ultrasound sensors which represent the state of the art. However, piezoelectric sensors suffer from two fundamental limitations; (1) they require a relatively large sensing area in order to achieve a high sensitivity, which results in a directional response, (2) their frequency response tends to be relatively narrow, precluding a faithful representation of the incident acoustic wave. Both of these limitations ultimately compromise image quality. The optical sensing of ultrasound waves has the means to overcome these limitations. The aim of this project is to design an entirely new type of optical ultrasound sensor based on laser technology. The candidate will build a prototype and evaluate its performance.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: In terms of research output, a functioning prototype and the characterisation of its performance would be expected. The candidate will have the opportunity to present their results at one of the photoacoustics group meetings and would be required to provide one A0 poster. Ultimately, the work could potentially lead to a publication in a peer-reviewed journal.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Motivated, curious, with a strong interest in physics and engineering  
Keen to do hands-on experimental work
Details of Supervision arrangements: The nature of the project will require my supervision style to be very hands-on, initially providing training to the candidate as well as helping then getting started in the laboratory. I will therefore make myself available on a daily basis. I will have a weekly meeting with the candidate in order to discuss results and future goals. In addition, the candidate will be invited to attend the weekly meeting of the photoacoustics group as well as Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory (BORL) and will have the opportunity to interact with other members of the photoacoustics group and BORL.


Project Number: 11

Lay definitions of ethnic hate crime online and offline

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Sandy Schumann
Department of Supervisor: Security and Crime Science
Faculty of Supervisor: Engineering
Email address of Supervisor: s.schumann@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Increasing Ethnic Hate Crime Reporting in Online and Offline Settings
Brief summary of main research project: Most victims of ethnic hate crime do not report their experiences to the police. As a result, perpetrators are not charged/convicted, and victims are left without support. This project will develop tools to increase the reporting of ethnic hate crimes in digital as well as offline spaces. Doing so, the project will focus on victims as well as individuals who observe an ethnic hate crime – bystanders.    Specifically, we will investigate when and why victims and bystanders would report an ethnic hate crime to the police or other third parties. To answer these questions, we explore lay definition(s) of ethnic hate crime among potential victims and bystanders. In addition, we examine how demographic characteristics, attitudes towards outgroups, and contextual factors affect reporting practices.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Lay definitions of ethnic hate crime online and offline
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Examples of possible research questions include:  What crime types are considered an ethnic hate crime offline? (Is the use of violence, racial slurs/hate speech, or the presence of a weapon required?)   Are both directed and generalised incidents of online hate speech considered ethnic hate crimes?  When (using which linguistic markers/content) is hate speech online considered a crime?  Given which combination of the victim’s and perpetrator’s ethnicity is an incident considered a hate crime (online and offline)?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Completing an empirical study to answer the chosen research question.  A short report that includes a literature review and the presentation of one empirical study (with the possibility to develop this into a publication).  An A0 poster.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Initial training in either quantitative or qualitative research methods  
Excellent English-language skills
Details of Supervision arrangements: The scholar will attend weekly meetings with the supervisor (online or in person). Additional meetings with MSc students who are involved in the project may take place as needed.
Additional Information (where applicable): Ethical approval for the empirical study will be handled by the supervisor.

IOE, UCL's Faculty of Education and Society


Project Number: 12

Longitudinal case study analyses of young people following STEM trajectories

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Louise Archer
Department of Supervisor: Education, Practice and Society
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: l.archer@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): ASPIRES 3: Young people's science and career aspirations age 10-23
Brief summary of main research project: ASPIRES3 is the third phase of the longitudinal ASPIRES research, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. The study has been following the lives of a cohort of young people from age 10 to 23 through national surveys and repeated in-depth interviews with young people and their parents. ASPIRES 3 tracks the cohort from age 20-23, and addresses the following questions, both generally and in relation to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM):  - How do 20 to 23 year olds make education and career choices, and how do these change, over time?  - How do early aspirations and factors, at age 10 and 16, relate to later outcomes?  - What factors relate most closely to different education and employment trajectories?  - How are aspirations and outcomes shaped by gender, class and ethnic identities?  - Who participates in formal and informal STEM learning at age 20-23, in what way, and what influences these patterns?
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Longitudinal case study analyses of young people following STEM trajectories
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Are there distinctive features of the trajectories of young people following particular disciplinary STEM pathways (e.g. engineering routes)? What factors make a difference to young people staying or leaving particular STEM trajectories?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Case study summaries of young people on particular STEM trajectories (possibly engineering). A blog (based on the student's experience) for the ASPIRES website.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
High level of written English fluency in reading and writing
Familiarity with qualitative research and research ethics
A commitment to equity and social justice
Details of Supervision arrangements: At least three meetings with the project supervisor and regular (at least weekly) supervisions with other members of the project team.


Project Number: 13

Institutional history and adult education: the case of the Institute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Mark Freeman
Department of Supervisor: Education, Practice and Society
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: M.Freeman@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): A history of the Institute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge
Brief summary of main research project: This project relates to the 150th anniversary of the Institute of Continuing Education (ICE), University of Cambridge. Professor Mark Freeman is writing a history of ICE, formerly the Board of Extra-Mural Studies. The project involves both archival research and oral history, and will focus on the last 50 years.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Institutional history and adult education: the case of the Institute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The Laidlaw scholar will assist with the archival and oral history research. The key issue to be addressed is the evolution of an educational institution - ICE - in its historical context, focusing in particular on the experiences of staff and students. A particular feature will be analysis of the oral history material gathered by the project in the earlier months of 2022.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Transcriptions of oral history interviews.  A paper, presented jointly, at the History of Education Society annual conference, at the University of Exeter (November 2022).  A jointly authored article for a history of education journal exploring one or more specific features of the recent history of ICE.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes - but the conference paper and article will post-date the period of the project.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
An understanding of historical research. 
An awareness of oral history methods.
Written communication skills.
Details of Supervision arrangements: There will be weekly meetings (at least) with the Laidlaw Scholar, and the supervisor will be available by email at other times. There will be an opportunity for travel to Cambridge to conduct some of the work.


Project Number: 14

University Responses to Black Lives Matter (BLM): How to Improve the Experiences of our Black Students and Colleagues

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Zachary Walker
Department of Supervisor: IOE Psychology and Human Development
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: zachary.walker@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): An International Study of University Responses to Black Lives Matter According to Students and Staff
Brief summary of main research project: This project explores the reactions of university students and staff in their individual and collective response to Black Lives Matter (BLM). While 2020 was dominated by Covid-19 and BLM, it appears that attention has subsequently focused on Covid as opposed to the equally important matters of social justice and racial equality brought to the forefront by the BLM movement. We are comparing the reactions of universities around the world based on the voices of students and staff in those specific countries.  We have partners in multiple countries and will compare responses and highlight best practices.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: University Responses to Black Lives Matter (BLM): How to Improve the Experiences of our Black Students and Colleagues
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: How is the response to BLM different among countries?  What are best practices?  Are the differences institutionally or country specific?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: The scholar will be expected to create a literature review and analyse survey and focus group data as part of their project. This project is flexible but the scholar will be part of a larger project team with colleagues around the world..  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? The dates of work are flexible based on scholar needs but six weeks starting in June will be ideal.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Basic Statistical Analysis Skills  
Basic Academic Writing Skills (or the desire to work on them)  
Self-Motivated and Meets Deadlines
Details of Supervision arrangements: We will hold weekly meetings with updates, expectations of outputs, and funny jokes over the course of the 6 weeks.
Additional Information (where applicable): We welcome individuals from diverse backgrounds, with disabilities, or from areas not related to psychology or teaching. We will provide a structured, enjoyable environment with specific outcomes that are ambitious but achievable.


Project Number: 15

Yoga in Special Schools: The Impact of Body, Breath, and Movement for Individuals with Special Needs

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Zachary Walker
Department of Supervisor: IOE Psychology and Human Development
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: zachary.walker@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Yoga in Special Schools: The Impact of Body, Breath, and Movement for Individuals with Special Needs
Brief summary of main research project: This project will begin to explore the impact of yoga, breathing, and movement on the emotional and social well-being of children with disabilities or others with special needs.  We will partner with experts in the field to deliver an intervention with students/patients in schools or medical settings.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Yoga in Special Schools: The Impact of Body, Breath, and Movement for Individuals with Special Needs
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: To what extent does the BBM technique improve the social-emotional responses of individuals with special needs in school or medical settings?  To what extent does yoga improve the social-emotional responses of individuals with special needs in school or medical settings?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: The scholar will be expected to create a literature review and analyse data as part of the project. This project is flexible but the scholar will be part of a team of professionals (doctors, educators, yoga teachers, researchers, etc.). In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? The dates of work are flexible based on scholar needs and school schedules.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
Self-Motivated   
Problem-Solver   
Meets Deadlines
Details of Supervision arrangements: We will hold weekly meetings with updates, expectations of outputs, and funny jokes over the course of the 6 weeks.
Additional Information (where applicable): We welcome individuals from diverse backgrounds, with disabilities, or from areas not related to psychology or teaching. We will provide a structured, enjoyable environment with specific outcomes that are ambitious but achievable.


Project Number: 16

Laidlaw Scholars Celebration Brochure

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Zachary Walker and Christopher Cullen
Department of Supervisor: Psychology and Human Development and Vice-Provost (Education and Student Experience)
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: zachary.walker@ucl.ac.uk / christopher.cullen@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): None
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Laidlaw Scholars Celebration Brochure
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: An opportunity to research, draft and organise a professional quality brochure featuring UCL Laidlaw Scholars across the 6-year history of the scheme at UCL.  Using their investigative skills, and with assistance from the Laidlaw management team, the scholar will locate past scholars from scheme whose contact details may not be up to date, in order to include them in the brochure contact present and recent Laidlaw scholars to gain the information required for the brochure organise professional photography for the scholars design draft and arrange printing of the final brochure complete all tasks within six weeks and within budget.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Professionally produced brochure featuring current and past Laidlaw Scholars including professional photographs of the scholars, descriptions of their summer project work, and other information to be agreed.  A short written report on the project, and a presentation poster.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes, although dates can be flexible.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully
Attention to detail
Journalistic ability including some design skills
A fun, outgoing personality.
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly check-in and support via email where needed.
Additional Information (where applicable): 
This project will require a high degree of autonomy and a tangible output that can be used as a sample of your work for future positions.  We will be here to support you but the scholar selected will need to be very independent and very driven as they will have the creative license to create something incredible for future use both personally and for the Laidlaw Scholarship Programme.


Project Number: 17

The Politics of Religion: Examining Race, Religion and Nationalism in the United States

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Katie Gaddini
Department of Supervisor: Social Research Institute
Faculty of Supervisor: IOE
Email address of Supervisor: k.gaddini@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): The Politics of Religion: Examining Race, Religion and Nationalism in the United States
Brief summary of main research project: In the aftermath of President Trump’s 2016 victory, racially motivated hate crimes and violence surged in the US, especially toward Muslim Americans, creating what Edwards and Rushin (2018) call the ‘Trump Effect’. One of the ideologies bolstering Trump, and other far-right candidates’ success, recent scholarship has shown, is Christian nationalism (Gorski, 2017; Whitehead and Perry, 2020). My previous research, comparing American evangelical support for Trump with British evangelical responses to Brexit, established that the interaction of religious and national identities led to different political actions. Whilst white American evangelicals voted for Trump because of their opposition to immigration, white British evangelicals voted Remain in support of immigration. This project uncovers why white evangelical Christians support Trump’s immigration policies, which groups are considered ‘outsiders’, how those ‘outsiders’ are racialised, and which religious beliefs are attached to these political attitudes. I combine multi-sited ethnography, qualitative interviews, discourse analysis, and social media analysis of prominent white evangelical Christians who support Trump and other Trumpist political figures. By interrogating what I call the “race-religion-nation nexus”, this research demonstrates the importance of studying race alongside religion and nationalism as overlapping modes of identification.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The Politics of Religion: Examining Race, Religion and Nationalism in the United States
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: RQ1: How do religion and race condition evangelical support for Trump and other right wing political candidates? RQ2: How do white evangelical leaders discursively unite notions of race, nationalism, and evangelicalism through their use of social media?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: There are three main outputs I would like to see from the scholar.     1) A literature review of key texts related to research on race, religion, and politics in the US. I have already compiled an annotated bibliography, so the scholar would synthesise this bibliography into a well-written lit review, and add new texts to it.2) A social media analysis of posts by key evangelical political figures analysing a few thematic areas, including immigration and racial politics. I would provide supervision on this task, along with supervision from a junior scholar who is an expert in social media analysis. 3) A thematic analysis of interview data I have collected from January - June 2022. I will do the primary analysis, develop key thematic codes and then ask the scholar to do a secondary analysis either by hand or by using NVIVO software.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: A high level of written fluency in English.  Knowledge of the social sciences and familiarity with the topic of politics and/or race and/or religion. Familiarity with using social media, including Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.
Details of Supervision arrangements: I propose four meetings:  The first with myself to set goals and plans for the project. The second between the scholar and the junior scholar who specialises in social media analysis. The third between all three of us to check on the project, and the final (fourth) meeting between the scholar and myself to wrap up their work.
Additional Information (where applicable): This is a valuable opportunity to work on a topical, cutting edge issue and the learnings can also be applied to other contexts.

Laws Faculty

Project Number: 18

A comparison of duress in contract and unjust enrichment law

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Niamh Connolly
Department of Supervisor: Laws
Faculty of Supervisor: Laws
Email address of Supervisor:
n.connolly@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): The consequences of contractual invalidity
Brief summary of main research project: I am working on a longer-term project about the law governing restitution when people have performed invalid contracts. I will publish a book on this wider subject. In this context, I am interested in the relationship between the reasons why a contract is invalid and the basis on which a court will order restitution of whatever has been done to perform an invalid contract. The same defects of intention pop up in contract law and restitution (eg mistake and duress). In contract, these are vitiating factors that might lead to a contract’s invalidity. In unjust enrichment, they act as “unjust factors” or reasons for restitution of benefits conferred. Some vitiating factors, like mistake, are harder to establish in contract law than when they act as a reason for restitution in unjust enrichment law. Duress - and how specifically it operates in unjust enrichment - has been less scrutinised than mistake. This seeming underdevelopment of the legal analysis leaves room for certain assumptions that may not be correct, or optimal for the development of the law. It seems to be assumed that the same rules would govern duress in contract and unjust enrichment (see eg CTN Cash & Carry v Gallaher [1993] EWCA Civ 19). I consider that there is reason why duress should be less stringent in unjust enrichment – provided there is no valid contract to invalidate before ordering repayment – than in contract.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: A comparison of duress in contract and unjust enrichment law
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: I would like the Laidlaw Scholar to conduct independent research that will enable them to determine whether the courts apply the same test for duress in the different contexts of contract and unjust enrichment, and to critically assess whether the rules and constraints ought to differ depending on whether a payment is justified by a contractual obligation or not.   A scholar who has previously studied duress in contract law will possess the prior knowledge (and skills of working with case law) that they will need to examine how duress operates in unjust enrichment as well. They would need to learn a little about the rules on mistake in contract law and unjust enrichment in order to understand how the law treats that comparator vitiating factor differently in these two contexts.   The student would investigate the case law on duress in both (a) cases where there are valid contracts and (b) those where a payment was made without being required by a contract. They would identify the legal tests and the reasons that justify those tests in both contexts. They would search in particular for evidence that judges have considered that there might be salient differences between duress in contract and in cases where these is not a valid contract. They would investigate secondary literature as well as case law to enhance their understanding of duress. They would develop an understanding as to why duress matters in private law. They would then reflect on the different roles that this impairment of intention plays in the different contexts studied, in light of the reasons why the law makes it difficult to invalidate contracts. They would consider why contract law distinguishes between different types of duress. This research and reflection would enable them to form an informed view on whether the test or tests for duress should be different in unjust enrichment, if a payment was not justified by a contractual obligation.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: During the research process, I expect the scholar to discuss their research findings with me orally, to keep written notes of their research, and occasionally to write me a written note on specific points.  As their research outputs, I expect the scholar to prepare: 
a database (spreadsheet) of the case law on duress that they study 
an essay on this topic (that they might choose prepare for publication)
an A0 poster presenting their findings.  
In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Some knowledge of English law - especially contract law, with proficiency in using databases of case law and journal articles, including formulating effective searches to locate the most relevant primary and secondary legal sources  
Interest in conducting self-directed research, learning about topics that are new to them and developing their own independent analysis  
Clear, concise, effective oral and written communication skills
Details of Supervision arrangements: I propose to discuss the scholar's work with them at least fortnightly, and more likely weekly. After the scholarship period, I will be happy to advise them about submitting an article for publication.


Project Number: 19

A critical perspective on English contract law

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Niamh Connolly
Department of Supervisor: Laws
Faculty of Supervisor: Laws
Email address of Supervisor: n.connolly@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Critical perspectives on contract law
Brief summary of main research project: I am interested in conducting research on critical perspectives on contract law, in order to inform and enrich my teaching of contract law at UCL. This is a process that we have begun by, for example, asking student curriculum partners to review our contract law syllabus. The Laidlaw Scholar's own research will contribute to this overarching project.  Traditionally, contract law has been taught in quite a doctrinal way, in which we accept judges’ values and assumptions about what justice in private law relations looks like. Contract law generally assumes that people interact on an equal footing, and that any inequalities that actually exist between people are not properly its concern. Limiting the frame of debate in this way can make the law quite conservative. It dovetails with the prioritisation within contract law of guiding values such as individual freedom and commercial certainty. While these liberal values are important, we can observe that a contract law designed to uphold them might assist those who are already privileged in society in retaining their privilege. By focusing on this limited group of core values as the most important legitimate concerns within contract law, we are likely to neglect other important perspectives on what the law ought to achieve, and how it can promote justice in the interactions between private parties. American legal scholarship has adopted critical perspectives on legal doctrine for a long time already. In particular, some of these critical perspectives examine the effect of the law on people of different races or gender. Less work has been done here to interrogate critically the effect of English contract law on people of different races, wealth, genders or sexualities. Identifying insights from American scholarship and investigating how they might apply in the different UK context requires research into the primary legal materials of English contract law.   I am beginning to conduct some of this research over the past year or so. My primary purpose with this project is to enrich my teaching of contract law. I plan also to present outputs on our research findings at conferences, and perhaps to publish a journal article about my findings.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: A critical perspective on English contract law
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: For this project, I would like to leave the scholar quite free to decide for themselves on a specific research project that fits into the overarching theme. For instance, the scholar may be interested in a critical analysis of law from a race- or gender- based perspective. They might consider that the law – or some doctrine within it – is likely to work against the interests of a certain group of people. I will be very interested if they have alternative proposals beyond the possibilities that I sketch here. They will be welcome to draw on any other expertise or insights that they possess. They will also be free to propose their own method or plan for how they would like to investigate their chosen topic.   Their research project can have quite a narrow focus. It will be a valuable contribution to scholarship concerning the overall theme of critical perspectives on English contract law if it chooses a salient subtopic and explores it thoroughly and insightfully. I expect that it will take a little prior research and reflection for the scholar to identify a topic or question that is likely to provide an illuminating research focus.  I expect that, when conducting the research project, the scholar would begin by conducting preliminary research on the secondary literature, to familiarise themselves with the existing scholarship that articulates critical perspectives on contract law. They would also conduct original primary research into English case law, using legal databases. They will use their critical analytical skills to interrogate what they discover in the case law. This will not just be the doctrinal legal analysis that we typically do in a law degree, which takes the law’s basic assumptions for granted and focuses on the quality of legal reasoning. Rather, the scholar will engage in a broader critique of the law’s values and operation. Given the plurality and complexity of the common law, it is conceivable that the student might discover ways in which the case law does actually try to protect less-advantaged people, despite its articulated commitment to upholding the terms of bargains. They are quite likely to discover judgments that have been influenced by the judges' lack of awareness of the lived experiences of litigants.   The scholar might use empirical evidence or material from disciplines other than law to highlight deficiencies in the law. If the scholar wishes to do empirical research (such as a survey) they should talk to me about this early so that they can write a request for ethics approval in good time before starting the project.   In addition to identifying difficulties with the operation of the current law, the student might be able to formulate and advocate for specific reforms to the law. I welcome the scholar’s own ideas about how they will investigate their research question. They will have a high degree of ownership of this research project.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: During the research process, I expect the scholar to discuss their research findings with me orally, to keep careful written notes of their research, and occasionally to write me a written note on a point.  As their research outputs, I expect the scholar to prepare:  •    a database (spreadsheet) that presents the relevant information about the case law that they locate and analyse  •    an essay on this topic (that they might choose prepare for publication)  •    a poster presenting their findings.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Some knowledge of English law, including conducting legal research on English contract law using databases effectively to locate relevant case law and secondary materials (literature) and understanding the reasoning in the cases that they locate
Conducting their own critical analysis of this material, drawing on wider perspectives and (perhaps) evidence from other fields of study
Communicating clearly and concisely in both oral and written form.
Details of Supervision arrangements: I will discuss the scholar's research with them at least fortnightly and likely once a week. I am likely to hold these discussions over Zoom. After the initial scholarship period, I will be available to advise the scholar on preparing their research for publication.
Additional Information (where applicable): I welcome applications from scholars who have their own perspectives to bring to bear on this project and their own ideas about fruitful directions that it could take.

Life Sciences Faculty

Project Number: 20

Mitochondrial function in health and disease

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Michael Duchen
Department of Supervisor: Cell and Developmental Biology
Faculty of Supervisor: Life Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: m.duchen@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Mitochondrial dysfunction in human disease
Brief summary of main research project: Mitochondria are essential for health and survival of cells, tissues and organisms. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of a number of major human diseases. We are interested in the causes and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction with the overarching goal of identifying novel potential therapeutic pathways to help patients with otherwise intractable diseases. The student will be introduced to a range of approaches to measure mitochondrial function in living cells from patients with mitochondrial disease to include fluorescence microscopy and imaging and measurements of oxygen consumption.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Mitochondrial function in health and disease
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Mutations of mitochondrial proteins cause a number of severe diseases which are poorly understood. Different mutations cause different diseases. We have cells from patients with a range of mitochondrial diseases. The student will ask how different mutations affect mitochondrial function, anticipating that there are likely to be differences associated with the different manifestations of disease.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Expected outputs would be a data set showing measures of an aspect of mitochondrial function associated with a specific pathogenic mutation. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Some basic knowledge of cell biology
Otherwise the most important attributes are curiosity and a willingness to learn.
Details of Supervision arrangements: The student would be directly supervised in the lab on a daily basis by a PhD student and a post doc. This small team would meet with the supervisor before the start of the project to agree details of what will be done, and will then meet every two weeks to monitor progress.
Additional Information (where applicable): The student would join a busy lab with an enthusiastic and friendly group and will be integrated into the life of the lab as much as time and circumstances allow.


Project Number: 21

Author name memorability and citations

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Marianna Kapsetaki
Department of Supervisor: Cell and Developmental Biology
Faculty of Supervisor: Life Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: marianna.kapsetaki.15@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Does author name memorability influence citation rate?
Brief summary of main research project: This project will examine whether people who have more memorable names receive more citations. This project will involve creating an online memory task, recruiting participants, and then analysing the results.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Author name memorability and citations.
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Does author name memorability influence citation rate?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: An A0 poster and a written report (these could be presented at a conference or published in a journal).  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes. However, the outputs (poster and/or publication) will likely be presented/published after this period. This is because an appropriate conference may not be taking place during that period and because the publication process is usually quite slow.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
A high level of written fluency in English
Genuine interest in memory research
Attention to detail. 
Details of Supervision arrangements: A meeting will take place at least twice a month between the student and the supervisor.
Additional Information (where applicable): Prior experience in memory research would be preferable but not essential.
This question has not been addressed before and I think it is very interesting. Although other factors have been found to influence number of citations (e.g. gender), previous studies have not looked at whether people with more memorable names tend to receive more citations.


Project Number: 22

Self-generated sounds in human neonates: how are they tracked by the brain?

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Kimberley Whitehead
Department of Supervisor: Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology
Faculty of Supervisor: Life Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: k.whitehead@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Neonatal brain injury: can modulating brainwaves aid repair?
Brief summary of main research project: A brainwave is an electrical impulse in the brain – the transmission of a signal from one cell to the next. The size of brainwaves is an indication of how much the cells are communicating.    Straight after a brain injury, brainwaves become much flatter than usual. However, over the next several weeks, they subsequently become much bigger than usual. It is thought that these extra-large brainwaves are compensating for the reduced brainwaves straight after the injury and may be a natural repair mechanism. There is support for this from animal studies where it has been shown that bringing back brainwaves sets the brain working properly again.    This research project explores how we might help babies with brain injury to have even bigger brainwaves, and to first model this in healthy infants.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Self-generated sounds in human neonates: how are they tracked by the brain?
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Human neonates self-generate sounds including cries, which are likely involuntary (controlled below the cerebral cortex). How does the brain encode these cries? This is highly relevant because cries are one of the first stereotyped sensory inputs that the developing brain receives. Eventually, the neonate needs to learn to associate their own cries with caregiver response, so that they can consciously use crying as a signal.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Literature review on neonatal self-generated sounds, in healthy infants and those with brain injury, and how they have been analysed by other research groups.  Exploration of an existing dataset of sound recordings with time-locked EEG data in Matlab  A0 poster on the results..  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
High level of written and verbal fluency in English  
Familiarity with Matlab or willingness to independently learn how to use the software (e.g. using textbooks from the library, online help forums etc.)
Details of Supervision arrangements: The scholar will meet the project supervisor at the start, middle and end of the period of project work as a minimum, but weekly supervision meetings are anticipated. During these, the scholar will present a progress update and receive feedback.
 

Project Number: 23

Understanding the role of respiratory supercomplexes

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Amandine Marechal
Department of Supervisor: Structural and Molecular Biology
Faculty of Supervisor: Life Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: a.marechal@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes
Brief summary of main research project: To live we need a permanent supply of energy. This is provided to our cells in the form of ATP which is continuously formed by the respiratory chains of our mitochondria. Respiratory chains are made of five main enzymes. Complexes I to IV are responsible of the build-up of the proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis by complex V, the ATP-synthase.  Complexes I, III and IV are known in vivo to assemble into different superassemblies called supercomplexes (SCs). Their role is uncertain but there is increasing evidence to link SC formation to cellular energy requirements.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Understanding the role of respiratory supercomplexes
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Of particular interest are those SCs that contain complex IV (or cytochrome c oxidase) which is the main regulator of our respiratory chains. We want to understand if different tissue-specific isoforms of complex IV lead to different SC assemblies and energy output for the mitochondria. We also want to determine if complex II can form SCs with other respiratory complexes.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: You will gain experience in cell culture, gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE and SDS-PAGE), western blotting, mitochondria preparation, UV visible spectroscopy and activity assays (O2 electrode).  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Basic knowledge of mitochondria  
Basic skills in biochemistry
Details of Supervision arrangements: The Laidlaw Scholar would be supervised daily in the lab by a senior group member and meet weekly with the project supervisor during the course of the project.

Mathematical and Physical Sciences (MAPS)

Project Number: 24

Nature inspired self-healing for organic electronics

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Bob C. Schroeder
Department of Supervisor: Chemistry
Faculty of Supervisor: Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: b.c.schroeder@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Self-healing organic semiconductors for bionic skin
Brief summary of main research project: As electronic devices are becoming further integrated within our lives, the transition from portable to wearable devices is imminent. Skin-inspired electronic materials are needed to develop devices that can be worn on the skin for applications such as medical diagnostics and monitoring to provide enhanced healthcare in the future. Organic conjugated polymers are ideal materials for this function due to their intrinsic flexibility, solution processability and ability to tune the electronic properties through chemical design which is important for the integration into different electronic devices. Additionally, these biomimetic materials require the ability to heal themselves upon deformation and subsequent damage to restore their mechanical and electronic properties. A potential method achieving intrinsic self-healing is based upon supramolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding which offer dynamic and reversible crosslinking within the polymer matrix.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Nature inspired self-healing for organic electronics
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Can we integrate catechol into conjugated polymers and exploit its hydrogen bonding functionality to induce self-healing?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Synthesis of catechol containing conjugated polymers and testing of their physical properties to evaluate the self-healing potential.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Laboratory skills
Organic chemistry knowledge
Interest in material characterisation
Details of Supervision arrangements: The Laidlaw scholar will meet weekly with the PI (Dr Bob Schroeder) and will be directly supervised in the laboratory by a postdoctoral researcher and/or senior PhD student

Project Number: 25

Self-assembly and ion transport by stimuli-responsive ruthenium(II) complexes

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Cally Haynes
Department of Supervisor: Chemistry
Faculty of Supervisor: Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: cally.haynes@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Antimicrobial activity of stimuli-responsive ruthenium(II) complexes
Brief summary of main research project: There is a growing need for the development of new classes of antimicrobial agents given the growing rates of infection by antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria and resulting high mortality rates from lack of treatment options. Ruthenium(II) complexes have been widely investigated for biological applications for a number of reasons, including: i) long-lived luminescence for monitoring cellular uptake and localization; ii) biocompatibility and stability under physiological conditions; iii) their ability to bind to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. The anti-cancer activity of ruthenium(II) complexes has been intensely studied over the last few decades, and the antimicrobial properties of ruthenium(II) complexes have gained more attention in recent years; however, their mechanism of action is not well understood.    This project aims to synthesise a new class of stimuli-responsive ruthenium(II) complexes and investigate their ability to permeabilise cell membranes. The “switchable” behaviour of such complexes could be applied to target their activity and avoid toxicity towards human cells. The results of this work will provide key insight into the mode of action of ruthernium(II)-based antimicrobial agents, and aid the development of novel, more potent derivatives.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Self-assembly and ion transport by stimuli-responsive ruthenium(II) complexes
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Can we assemble complex architectures from ruthenium(II) salts in combination with suitable organic ligands? Can we observe stimuli-responsive behaviour?    Do the complex architectures self-assemble further into larger aggregates or well-organised structures? Can the architectures or larger aggregates permeabilise lipid membranes to allow ions to flow into or out of a cell?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: A detailed synthetic protocol to assemble ruthenium(II) architectures from suitable organic ligands and metal salts. A written account of the self-assembly properties of these complexes in different solvents, including critical micelle concentration determination. The results of ion transport screening experiments using established vesicle assays.    An A0 poster summarising the full results from the project.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
A background in chemistry or a related scientific discipline.    
Good spoken and written English to enable effective communication within the collaborative project team.   
High attention to detail to allow multi-step procedures to be followed accurately (with training provided).
Details of Supervision arrangements: The first part of this project (Week 1) will be carried out at Otto-Diels-Institute, University of Kiel under the supervision of Dr Anna McConnell and Tjorge Neumann. Dr McConnell is an expert in the synthesis and characterisation of ruthenium(II) complexes.    Analysis of the self-assembly properties of the complexes (Week 2) will be carried out at the University of Kent, under the supervision of Dr Jennifer Hiscock and Dr Lisa White. Dr Hiscock is an expert in studying and predicting the self-assembly of amphiphilic small molecules.    Analysis of the ion transport/ membrane permeabilisation properties of the complexes (Weeks 3-6) will be carried out at UCL under the supervision of Dr Cally Haynes and Dr Kylie Yang. Dr Haynes is an expert in studying ion transport processes using vesicle bilayer experiments.
Additional Information (where applicable): Participation in this project will enable the student to experience multi-disciplinary working and being part of a large, collaborative project. They will be invited (and supported) to present their results at a quarterly collaborative meeting involving numerous senior academics and stakeholders from industry, including senior figures from Public Health England. This experience will enable them to (i) gain confidence in presenting their results to a distinguished audience; (ii) gain exposure to the long-term applications of their project and an understanding of the societal impact; (iii) develop a scientific network to support their future career ambitions.


Project Number: 26

Multiscale modelling of blood flow in health and disease

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Philip Pearce
Department of Supervisor: Mathematics
Faculty of Supervisor: Mathematical and Physical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: philip.pearce@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Multiscale modelling and control of soft biological matter
Brief summary of main research project: In this project, we use mathematical modelling and simulation to investigate how molecular and cellular properties determine biological function in cell populations, tissues and organs in health and disease.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Multiscale modelling of blood flow in health and disease
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The scholar could work on simulations of fibril kinetics in sickle cell disease, on simulations of red blood cell dynamics in blood vessels, or on analytical modelling of blood flow in networks, depending on their interest. The student will have access to newly emerging experimental data, and will receive supervisory support from PhD students and postdoctoral scientists in the group. The student will gain experience of coding in Python.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: A0 poster describing the results of the work. Potential input into publications, depending on progress. Generation of new code for performing simulations.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Some mathematical skills: ideally knowledge of differential equations  
An interest in learning to write code in e.g. Python
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly meetings with supervisor. Meetings with PhD students and/or postdocs as necessary.

Medical Sciences Faculty
Project Number: 27

Actionable alterations in cholangiocarcinoma

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: John Bridgewater
Department of Supervisor: Oncology
Faculty of Supervisor: Medicine
Email address of Supervisor: j.bridgewater@ucl.ac.uk
Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Outcome of cholangiocarcinoma patient with actionable alterations
Brief summary of main research project: Cholangiocarcinoma has been identified and as a malignancy with targetable alterations resulting in positive long-term outcomes. A normal compound targeting FGFR fusions, pemigatinib, has recently been approved by NICE, mandating the routine testing for these driver alterations in all patients with cholangiocarcinoma.    The data  are less although not yet assessed by NICE, primarily because of the paucity of data, the several other alterations commonly identified as driver events in cholangiocarcinoma have been treated empirically, either on clinical study or as part of compassionate use programmes for the last several years.    This process has been made possible through the ad hoc availability of tumour profiling of which over 300 reports  had been accumulated at the GI unit at UCH. The value of profiling all patients in terms of action ability and outcome has yet to be determined.    The proposal is to assess all patients who underwent a profile, determine which patients were found to have an actionable alteration, which patients then went on to receive treatment and ultimately the benefit of that treatment.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Actionable alterations in cholangiocarcinoma
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: These data could be compared to similar data sets in oesophagogastric and colorectal cancer. The ultimate aim is to evaluate benefit from blanket screening.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: These data would be suitable for poster presentation (A0 poster) and ultimately publication.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? No.  Dates in summer 2022 to be agreed between the scholar and the supervisor.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Simple statitistics  
Access and training in EPIC  
Basic molecular biology
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly meeting

Professional Services - Central Faculty

Project Number: 28

Developing a Most Significant Change methodology

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Anne Laybourne
Department of Supervisor: Volunteering Service
Faculty of Supervisor: Professional Services
Email address of Supervisor: a.laybourne@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Increasing and Evaluating Student Impact of Knowledge and Learning Exchange (ISIKLE)
Brief summary of main research project: ISIKLE is an overarching project which aims to demonstrate and evaluate effective practices in student engagement in knowledge exchange activities to assess their economic and social benefits to individual students and to external partners and communities. It is focused on three case study knowledge exchange services at UCL, including the Evaluation Exchange and the Community Research Initiative the focus of this Laidlaw Scholarship Project.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Developing a Most Significant Change methodology to explore what really changes for students and charities after cross-sector and multidisciplinary collaboration?
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: What do charities report as the most significant changes following university-community collaboration?  What do students report as the most significant changes following university-community collaboration?  To what extent do different stakeholders' experiences align?  What improvements can be made to the Evaluation Exchange and Community Research Initiative to maximise stakeholder benefits?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: We would expect scholars, through close supervision, to follow the Most Significant Change participatory methodology to collect significant 'significant change' stories from stakeholders (students and charities).   The scholar would create a database of detailed field notes and images taken during storytelling. This would be considered an important benchmark database.  The scholar would create an A0 poster summarising one of two things: the Most Significant Change panel's findings of the significant stories (time-permitting) or the process of implementing this methodology thus creating a learning output for UCL's engaged learning practitioners and shared with our wider national and international networks.  The scholar and supervisors would co-create a draft Standard Operating Procedure for the Most Significant Change methodology in community-university collaboration work.   The scholar(s) would be acknowledged on all future outputs related to this work and invited to learn about co-authoring through the peer-review process of an academic paper (likely to be 2023).  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Excellent communication skills, especially active listening skills
Organisational skills, particularly ability to take and manage field notes.  
Recruitment skills (to approach our charity partners).
Details of Supervision arrangements: The student would be co-supervised with Dr Gemma Moore (Evaluation Exchange). 
Additional Information (where applicable): The Community Research Initiative is working with colleagues in the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinarity, Paris. We envisage data collection to include students and non-profit organisations there.   June-Sept is the development part of any year for the Community Research Initiative and so the timing of this project fits in really well and the student would benefit from the relative quiet during this time. Evaluation Exchange will have just finished and the student experience would coincide with the exciting phase of beginning to understand the impact of the project from the previous 6 months.

Social and Historical Sciences Faculty

Project Number: 29

What works and doesn't work in online economics education?

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Parama Chaudhury
Department of Supervisor: Economics
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: p.chaudhury@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Teaching Economics Online
Brief summary of main research project: The past 2 years of pandemic-induced disruption have showed us the importance of developing good models on online education and that discipline-specific models are key. This book project connects experts in online economics education across the world to produce an evidence-based guide for practitioners covering good practice in learning and assessment design, building learning communities, co- and extra-curricular education, and inclusivity of learning experience. The book will be published by Edward Elgar, one of the biggest academic publishers in the world.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: What works and doesn't work in online economics education? A book project bringing the tools of economic analysis to new methods in education
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: This project entails both answering the following research questions for individual chapters as well as assisting the editors to bring the whole book together as a coherent whole:    1) How can we build learning communities online in large and diverse groups in economics programmes?  2) How can we teach using "authentic" methods and assessment to bring a university education more in line with skills required in the labour market?  3) How can we engage non-traditional learners, in particular, those involed in continuous professional development in economics?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: 1) Literature reviews of each of the research questions above  2) A spreadsheet overview of each chapter in the book, progress by each authors, and the connections between the chapters ahead of the editors writing the introduction. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes, though if the scholar wanted to and was able to keeping their assessment schedule in mind, they could start a bit earlier.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Ability to understand and summarize research literature in economics education
Ability to organise workload and to document progress and report in a systematic and professional manner
Ability to take the initiative in particular work strands, given relatively broad guidelines.
Details of Supervision arrangements: I expect to meet with the scholar every week to 10 days both to explain the next steps and to monitor progress and to troubleshoot any issues. As my co-editor for this book project in the US, we may be able to organise a short trip to the US for the scholar to meet with and interview some of the other experts involved in the project, and be supervised in this process more regularly by my co-editor as well. However, this may not be possible, depending on the travel restrictions at the time.
Additional Information (where applicable): The overall research project aims at bringing together best practice in online (economics) education in an evidence-based way. For both economics and non-economics students, involvement in such a project is a way for them to get inside the black box of how something that affects them directly, with many universities embracing online education in response to the pandemic. It is also a change for the scholar to make connections with the leading experts in the field around the world and learn about the field, which may help them in their choices about employment and further study. Finally, as this is a book project with a large publisher, this is a chance for the scholar to gain insight into the organisation and professional skills involved in project managing such an international and complex undertaking.


Project Number: 30

UCL Economics Walk: Incorporating students' voices

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Ramin Nassehi
Department of Supervisor: Economics
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: r.nassehi@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): UCL Economics Walk
Brief summary of main research project: UCL Economics Walk is a walking tour of Bloomsbury London, where the tour leader (i.e. Ramin Nassehi) takes the audience (students or members of public) through different locations (statues, buildings and shops) that have an economic story to tell. The project’s aim is to explain complex economic ideas in an accessible way to students and/or members of the public and encourage critical discussion on those ideas. I have offered this tour in person and virtually for sixteen times so far, with more than 200 total attendees.    As the next step, I would like to involve two student as co-presenters and co-researchers in this tour. Following their preferences, the students choose to do research on an unexplored aspect of UCL Economics history and will add that as a new segment to the story of the tour (for instance that new aspect could be can be the connection between UCL Economics and East India Company or the role of women in the department). Once the students conduct their research and develop their story, they will present it together with me on two summer walking tours on campus. Most importantly, they will "pass" their story to be told and adapted by other students in the future tours. In this way, the project incorporates students as partners in history telling of UCL. It also aims to rebuild UCL Economics community after two difficult years of remote education by delivering an exciting on-campus activity. Of course, the students will be supported and supervised by me during all of the above stages. I will provide the relevant archival material to them and they will choose which aspects they would like to focus on for their research and story telling. I will also help them in drafting their presentation scrips and delivery for the summer tours.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: UCL Economics Walk: Incorporating students' voices
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: I would like the students to provide innovative ideas on the following: 
What are the missing aspects in the UCL Economic Walk? Whose story is left out?How can the Walk incorporate students' voices? How can we enhance the student ownership of the walk? How can we effectively incorporate digital technologies (such as QRL codes to relevant online sources) to the on-campus tour? After brainstorming on these questions, the students will add a new segment to the tour and will present it on two on-campus tours during the summer.
Outputs expected by the Scholar:  Research on an underempahised aspect of UCL Economics hisotry.   -Writing a script to be presented in the walking tour. Designing a handout to be distributed to the tour's audience. Delivery of two walking tours during the summer, together with the project leader (i.e Ramin Nassehi).  A blogpost written by students in which they reflect on their learning journey during this project. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
Presentation skill
Writing skill
Reviewing the archival material (supplied by the project leader).
Details of Supervision arrangements: I will set one a preliminary online meeting on Mid-June, where I give students all the relevant digitalised archival material. This for them to choose a new aspect to add to the walking tour and prepare their presentation script.  I will hold two additional online meetings in July to go through the students' presentation scripts.   We we hold two walking tours in the summer (dates to be confirmed).


Project Number: 31

Where do our discarded diesel vehicles go?

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Eloise Marais
Department of Supervisor: Geography
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: e.marais@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Unintended consequences of air quality policies
Brief summary of main research project: Vehicles that are discarded by high-income countries typically end up in middle- and low-income countries. Cars emit large quantities of air pollutants that affect air quality, climate and human health. Environmental policies are lax or absent in many of the middle- and low-income countries where discarded vehicles often end up. European countries have recently disincentivized the use of diesel vehicles due to the air pollution these produce. In this project, the student will use the academic literature and other online sources to track the fate of Europe's discarded diesel vehicles and determine what the impact is on air quality, climate and human health in these countries. This will contribute to understanding the unintended consequences of air quality policy decisions.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Where do our discarded diesel vehicles go?
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: How many diesel vehicles have been discarded in Europe over the last 5 years?  In which countries do these end up?  What are the impacts on air quality and climate in these countries?  What is the impact on the health of people in these countries?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: 15-20 min presentation at the UCL Atmospheric Composition and Air Quality research group biweekly meetings in the last week of the project (https://maraisresearchgroup.co.uk/meetings.html). In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Quantitative skills
Persistence
Willingness to learn
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly in-person supervisory meetings with Dr Marais (assuming in-person meetings are allowed) and additional mentorship by PhD students and postdocs in Dr Marais' group.

Project Number: 32

Medieval Magic in 50 Objects

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Sophie Page
Department of Supervisor: History
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: sophie.page@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Medieval Magic in 50 Objects
Brief summary of main research project: This book and online exhibition project builds on my work in the history of medieval magic and my curation of the exhibition, Spellbound: Magic, Ritual and Witchcraft at the Ashmolean Museum (2018-19). Scholars in the relatively new field of the history of medieval magic have shown that, far from being associated with superstitious ignorance and irrationality, magic texts were debated by intellectuals, collected by monks, and expressed new, rich and surprising views of the medieval cosmos. Although texts of medieval learned magic have now been studied for some decades, this book will be the first monograph on medieval magical objects and it is intended to be scholarly but useful for university teaching. Visual elements in magic rituals matter because they were often where the creativity of scribes, makers and artists was focused as well as the censure of critics, and understanding and categorising them is intended to build connections with the ‘ritual residues’ and ‘odd deposits’ studied in archaeology. The project is cross-disciplinary – drawing on history, art history, religious studies, the history of science and archaeology - and will have guest contributors for some objects. It will also include Christian, Islamic and Jewish material culture linked to the supernatural and circulating in medieval Europe.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Medieval Magic in 50 Objects
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The bigger research questions are these: What kinds of sources survive for the material culture of medieval magic? How do we judge whether an object is ‘magical’? For example, is a relic believed to have miracle-working powers, a narwhal’s horn marketed as unicorn horn, a shoe placed in a chimney or a brooch inscribed with ‘ananizapta’ (a word believed to help with epilepsy) magical? What are the connections between Jewish, Islamic and Christian ritual objects in medieval Europe? What different approaches do historians and archaeologists have to objects that do not fit normative categories and dominant patterns? The main role of the student will be to identify magical objects that can be used to think with these questions in interesting ways. Once objects have been identified (and I am happy for the scholar to specialise on a small group or even one object within the long list of 50 objects), the following questions are important: Why is it classified as 'magical'? What materials are used and why, who used it, and what was it used for? Is the object personal? decorative? part of a ritual? How does it relate to the written sources for medieval magic?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Outputs: 1. Create a final list of 50 objects (I have a current long list so this will not be starting from scratch), from research in museum catalogues and scholarly literature, but (covid rules permitting) also through visits to museums (eg the Cluny Museum in Paris and/or Museums in the UK)  2. Choose one or a small group of objects to do deeper research on. Depending on the scholar’s interest, findings, and the quality of their writing, their object entry may be published in the final book under their name. 3. (optional) Again, depending on the scholar’s interest and skills and perhaps as an alternative to (2.) developing an online exhibition of the objects.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
Strong analytical and research skills
Experience of some sort with visual sources/material culture
Good communicator (written and oral)
Details of Supervision arrangements: We will have at least 3 supervisions of at least one hour each and communicate regularly by email.


Project Number: 33

The discovery of lost Republican texts

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Valentina Arena
Department of Supervisor: History
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: v.arena@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Ordering, Constructing, Empowering: Fragments of the Roman Republican Antiquarians
Brief summary of main research project: The antiquarian texts are works united by a family resemblance in the way they approach the past: contrary to the chronological approach of narrative history writing, they are tied to a synchronic arrangement and appear to collect all evidence for a given phenomenon indiscriminately without evaluating its relevance to a particular problem. By adopting a philological method, they moved from the present to reconstruct the past. Their subject matters concentrate on political institutions and laws, religion, private life and customs, topography, and language. However, although they cast their findings in terms of continuity with the past, these authors are intrinsically political, profoundly innovative, and culturally radical.   This project aims at making available for the first time a synoptic view of Roman antiquarians from the Republican period who laid out a new way of ordering knowledge, and in the process, described the world for their contemporaries as well as for us. This, in turn, will have an enormous impact on the study of those later periods, which look back at Rome as a focal point of cultural reference.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The discovery of lost Republican texts
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The letters of Cicero are an exceptionally rich source that enable us to get close to the intimate thinking of one of the leading statemen of the Republic at the time of its most acute crisis. They are also goldmine of all sorts of information, gossip, and scandal. Their rediscovery was one of the catalysts of the Italian Renaissance. How does Cicero (or one of his friends/addressees) talk about the past? What does he do in claiming certain traditions as Roman (and conversely others as non-Roman)? Why does he say what he says about the past in each context? Who does he cite? and why? In collaboration with the supervisor, the scholar will select a group of Cicero’s letters (to a particular addressee or from a particular year/ set of years), and will search for any distinctive ‘antiquarian’ material in them and might even be able to discover the profile of a previously unknown antiquarian author.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: The scholar will produce a brief written description of what is distinctively antiquarian about these texts and, if possible, depending on findings, a full profile of the newly discovered author. On this basis they will then create a new section of the overall project’s website, which will feature links to the digitized versions of these items as well as the descriptions of them the scholar has produced, in some cases supplemented by further comment from the supervisor and/or other members of the overall project. In addition, the scholars will have the opportunity to present their findings in form of a short video, podcast, or blog post on the project’s website. Three selected passages, chosen by the scholar, with brief discussion will also feature in the project’s newsletter (in the ‘fragment of the week’ section). In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? These dates will approximately work - they might moved forward to the beginning of June, pending agreement with the scholar.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
A high level of written fluency in English
Excellent analytical skills
An inquisitive mind with an interest in classical and early modern intellectual life
Details of Supervision arrangements: In addition to supervisory meetings throughout the six weeks (exact number to be decided in agreement with the scholar, but approximately once week) the scholar will have the opportunity to join the research meetings of the international research team that is currently working on the project and take part in the research seminars (and academic culture of the group and department)
Additional Information (where applicable): This is an unusual opportunity to be involved with a major European Research Council project alongside scholars from across Europe and North America.   The scholar does not need to be an ancient historian or a classicist. This project would suit well a scholar with also early modern history or literature interests. All texts will be studied in English translation, unless the scholar is confident in handling Latin.


Project Number: 34

Written and Visual Heritage of Medieval Africa

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Jacopo Gnisci
Department of Supervisor: History of Art
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: j.gnisci@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Demarginalizing medieval Africa: Images, texts, and identity in early Solomonic Ethiopia (1270-1527)
Brief summary of main research project: The colourful hieratic images that decorate Ethiopic manuscripts produced during the time span considered by this project – conventionally known as the early Solomonic period (1270–1527) – are unlike anything else produced in sub-Saharan Africa. These illustrations embody the spiritual aspirations and cultural identity of the artists who made them. The Ethiopian Empire was the longest-lived empire in Africa after that of Ancient Egypt. However, while there have been thousands of publications on the arts of Ancient Egypt, the visual culture of Ethiopia continues to be marginalized and misrepresented. By looking at the illustrations in medieval Ethiopic manuscripts, focusing especially on hitherto little-known examples in collections in Germany and the UK, the ITIESE project aims to improve our understanding of this material through a range of publications and activities that will reconstruct the vibrant cultural and religious history of the Ethiopian Empire during the early Solomonic period. The ITIESE project has been funded for three years by the AHRC and the DFG. It brings together researchers from UCL, Oxford University and Hamburg and is working in partnership with colleagues, museums and institutions across the world including Cambridge University Library, The National Archives in Addis Abeba, and La Sapienza.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Written and Visual Heritage of Medieval Africa
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The written and visual creations of medieval Africa have unjustly remained at the fringes of academic discourse for most of the 20th century, though the last years have seen a surge in interest in these topics. Within the framework of the ITIESE project, the Laidlaw Scholar could tackle one of the following questions: a) survey institutions in Africa which teach courses on manuscript cultures or hold collections of codices (to be developed using some existing data on the topic that is available online); b) analyse how Ethiopian manuscripts are displayed/represented in one/several collections in an institution in a target country (Italy, Germany, France, Ethiopia, UK, USA) and reflect on the implication of these display practices; c) produce a short research piece on a topic to be agreed with supervisor by using the British Institute in Eastern Africa Image Archive (e.g. survey cross types in monuments; locate photographs that are relevant to the ITIESE project); d) help locate Open Access images for exhibition on medieval Ethiopia that is being organized in UCL cloisters in 2023 in partnership with other UK colleagues and prepare these for publication (inc. Bodleian Libraries; and Ethiopian Heritage Fund; British Library).
Applications are welcome from people from all sexual orientations and gender identities and particularly from Asian, Black, and minority ethnic candidates.
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Project outputs would slightly vary based on research topic, but, in general terms, scholar would be expected to: a) produce one piece of research (e.g. a spreadsheet with information about photographs in BIEA or relevant photographic images with info about author, subject, etc.); this research should be used to write a short contribution for the blog of the ITIESE website (https://www.ucl.ac.uk/art-history/research/demarginalizing-medieval-afri...); c) this research should be promoted via social media; and d) it should be synthetized in an A0 poster.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Digital Skills
Organization Skills
Some familiarity with art historical, archaeological, or anthropological research
Details of Supervision arrangements: The scholar will be expected to have weekly meetings with supervisor and occasional meetings with project members and advisors (listed on ITIESE website).


Project Number: 35

Triggering politics: The gendered and racialised dynamics of emotions and political engagement in Brazil

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Malu A. C. Gatto
Department of Supervisor: Institute of the Americas
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: m.gatto@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Political engagement in times of crisis
Brief summary of main research project: Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro has become widely known for his masochistic, racist, and homophobic rhetoric and policy agenda. In the months leading up to Bolsonaro’s election in 2018, women organised in record numbers to oppose his candidacy. At the time, I conducted a survey of 800 women who participated in the Facebook group “United Women Against Bolsonaro” to understand their political motivations and engagement in the 2018 elections. When the survey was conducted, the group had over 4 million members and organised the largest women-led street protests in the history of Brazil. Initial findings from this exploratory work suggest that perceptions of women’s political exclusion and anger led women to become more politically engaged in the 2018 elections.     Building on these initial findings and following the literatures on symbolic representation (Clayton et al., 2019; Stauffer, 2021) and the politics of emotions (Dittmar, 2020; Traister, 2018), this study seeks to explore whether and how political exclusion and inclusion shape emotional responses towards politics and, in turn, political engagement.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Triggering politics: The gendered and racialised dynamics of emotions and political engagement in Brazil
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Do perceptions of political exclusion affect people's emotions towards politics? And, in turn, do emotions towards politics shape people's levels of political engagement? More specifically, can anger that emerges in response to perceptions of exclusion, serve as a trigger for women's political mobilisation? Can distrust towards traditional politics instigate broader pro-diversity initiatives?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: 1) Compile/clean datasets/spreadsheets  2) Conduct preliminary analyses in statistical software (Stata or R), following guidance in pre-analysis plan  3) Annotated bibliography.  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully:
Knowledge of Excel, Stata and/or R
An ability to understand and summarise academic scholarship
A high level of written fluency in English
Details of Supervision arrangements: Weekly meetings for progress updates/instructions of next steps.


Project Number: 36

Latin American Revolts Dataset (LARD): understanding two centuries of political violence

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Luis Schenoni
Department of Supervisor: Political Science
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: luis.schenoni@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): Latin American Revolts Dataset (LARD)
Brief summary of main research project: LARD is an international project based at the University of Texas (Austin), University of Konstanz, and UCL, collecting data about episodes of political violence (broadly defined) that took place in Latin America since 1830. So far, more than 1,284 events have been coded surveying historical sources and working with a network of historians of Latin America. This data allows for a long-term understanding of political violence in the region, which originally illuminates current tendencies.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Latin American Revolts Dataset (LARD): understanding two centuries of political violence
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Which were the main characteristics of revolts in Latin America throughout history?    Which types of revolts were more frequent in different periods/countries, and why?
Outputs expected by the Scholar: Comprehensive revision of the existing dataset using sources available at UCL and the British Library, and in close contact with a network of historians and political scientists working on Latin America. As a main output of this revision, the Scholar will produce a poster and a presentation, and participate of seminars in Mexico City and/or Buenos Aires (to be confirmed) in which she/he will present the project..  In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will produce an A0 presentation poster, and complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
Demonstrable interest in political violence, history, and Latin America    
Good command of Spanish and/or Portuguese    
Good command of Microsoft Excel
Details of Supervision arrangements: The Scholar and PI will meet weekly.


Project Number: 37

Reflections on the research process of disabled students conducting an innovative study on their lived experience of Covid-19

Supervisor Details
Name of Scholarship Project Supervisor: Dr Sarabajaya Kumar
Department of Supervisor: Political Science
Faculty of Supervisor: Social and Historical Sciences
Email address of Supervisor: sarabajaya.kumar@ucl.ac.uk

Project Details
Title of main project (the main project to which the Laidlaw Scholar's project will relate): The Everyday Lived Experiences of Disabled University Students in London and Osaka during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Brief summary of main research project: The Laidlaw Scholar will explore the experiences of disabled student research participants, gathering their reflections on a recently completed international comparative project, funded by UCL's Global Engagement Office. The summary of the UCL GEO funded project is as follows: Working from a social model of disability, the project aims to understand the everyday lived experiences of disabled university students in London and Osaka during the COVID-19 pandemic. It will comprise two parts. First, an auto-ethnography, through recording of videos of the everyday lives of disabled students; and second, semi-structured interviews, to be conducted by the disabled research student participants, involved in the study.    
As the fieldwork and analysis stages of the project would have been completed by March 2022, the Laidlaw Scholar's research would extend the GEO-funded project by gathering reflections from the disabled research student participants. This is to understand the research process and their experience of having participated in an innovative project of this nature.
Title of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: Reflections on the research process of disabled students conducting an innovative study on their lived experience of Covid-19
Summary of Laidlaw Scholar's Project: The research question that the Laidlaw Scholar will explore is how the project (on the everyday lived experiences of disabled students during the Covid-19 pandemic), and its innovative methodological approach, was experienced by the student research participants. This is in order to understand the benefits and challenges of this research design. The study could cover the following topics:     - The experience of the student research participants in undertaking this project;  - The student research participants' feelings about the methodological approach (specifically, the auto-ethnography through film and the semi-structured interviews);  - The student research participants' learning from the the research process; and  - The student research participants' reflections on undertaking a similar research project in the future (challenges and opportunities)
Outputs expected by the Scholar: A project report of approximately 3000 words, addressing the  research questions and topics outlined above, with the A0 poster, which summarises the Laidlaw Scholar's research project. In addition each Laidlaw Scholar will complete a short online report.
Do you expect the Laidlaw project to run over the standard six week period? Yes, depending on ethical approval.
Outline up to THREE essential skills which the scholar must have in order to undertake your project successfully: 
High level of written fluency in English  
Basic qualitative research skills
Details of Supervision arrangements: Formal meeting once a week between the Scholar and the supervisor.
Additional Information (where applicable): As the Laidlaw Scholar's project is exploring the research student participants' experiences of the international comparative project between UCL and Osaka University, it would greatly assist the research if the Laidlaw scholar was both fluent in English and Japanese. However, I realise that this is possibly quite a tall order, so it is not listed as an essential skill earlier in the proposal.