Caren Frosch

Caren Frosch

Research Interests

My research falls into two broad categories. The first examines the cognitive processes involved in causal and counterfactual thinking in children and adults, and the second is focused on fast and frugal heuristics in judgment and decision making. In collaboration with Teresa McCormack and David Lagnado I am currently examining time and intervention in children’s and adult’s causal structure judgments.


Caren Frosch
Research Fellow
Cognitive, Perceptual, and Brain Sciences Department
26, Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, UK
University College London, UK
E-mail: c.frosch [at]


Frosch, C.A., McCormack, T., Lagnado, D.A., & Burns, P. (In Press - Cognitive Science). Temporal influences on causal structure judgments.

McCormack, T., Frosch, C.A., & Burns, P. (In Press). The relationship between children’s causal and counterfactual judgments. In C. Hoerl, T. McCormack, & S. R. Beck (Eds.), Understanding counterfactuals, understanding causation: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Frosch, C. A. & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2011). Is everyday causation deterministic or probabilistic? Acta Psychologica. 137, 280 – 291.

Beaman, C.P., Smith, P. T., Frosch, C.A., & McCloy, R. (2010). Less-is-more effects without the recognition heuristic. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 258–271.

McCloy, R., Beaman, C.P., Frosch, C.A., & Goddard, K. (2010). Fast and frugal framing effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 36(4), 1043-1052.

Frosch, C.A., Beaman, C.P. & McCloy, R. (2007). A little learning is a dangerous thing: An experimental demonstration of ignorance-driven inference. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6(10), 1329 – 1336.

Work in Progress

Frosch, C.A., Egan, S.M., & Hancock, E. (Under Review). Why counterfactual thoughts focus on enablers.

Frosch, C.A., McCormack, T., & Lagnado, D.A. (Under Review). Are causal structure and intervention judgements inextricably linked?

Frosch, C.A., McCloy, R, Beaman, C.P., & Goddard, K. (In Revision). Time to decide: Frugality vs. congruity in comparative judgment.

Frosch, C.A. & Byrne, R.M.J. (In Revision). Indicative and counterfactual causal conditionals.

Frosch, C.A., Cowley, M. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (In Revision). Causes, enablers and the law.

Beaman, C.P., Smith, P.T., & Frosch, C.A. (In Preparation). Estimating the use of recognition and other knowledge in multi-alternative judgments.

Peer-reviewed Conference Proceedings

Frosch, C.A., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (2009). Is causation probabilistic? In N. Taatgen, H. van Rijn, L. Schomaker & J. Nerbonne (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 195-200). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Egan, S.M., Frosch, C.A., & Hancock, E. (2008). Thinking counterfactually – how controllability affects the ‘undoing’ of causes and enablers. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1152-1157). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Frosch, C.A., Beaman, C.P., & McCloy, R. (2007). The Price of Fame: Do Celebrities always appear equally rich? In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1001-1005). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Frosch, C.A., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (2006). The revision of beliefs about causes and enabling conditions. In R. Sun (Ed.). Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1329-1333). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

External Funding

Frosch, C.A. (2008-2009). Postdoctoral Research Fellowship – Cognitive processes in causal and counterfactual thinking. Economic and Social Research Council, £100k for 15 months.