UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology


UK Parkinson's Disease Consortium (UKPDC)

About the Consortium

UK Parkinson's Disease Consortium (UKPDC) was a group of world-leading genetic, biochemical, clinical and other scientific researchers who possess complementary expertise, technology and other resources to identify and tackle the causes of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

UKPDC had three main goals:

  • To undertake comprehensive genetic analysis of a large number of well characterised Parkinson's disease patients to identify rare variants and novel genes that cause and predispose to the disease.
  • To understand the biochemistry of existing and novel causative Parkinson's disease gene products, and their pathways, to describe the regulation and function of these proteins.
  • To collate the clinical traits of a large group of at-risk patients and to define the early Parkinson's disease symptoms, so that disease modifying treatments could be administered as early as possible.
  • This research should yield crucial new knowledge of the pathways leading to neurodegeneration and shed insight into the causation of Parkinson's disease.


  • Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease that afflicts more than 2 per cent of people aged over 75 years. In the UK, this means there are over 100 000 people with the disease: with the ageing population this number will increase. The annual cost in nursing-home care for Parkinson's disease alone in the UK is estimated to be about £600-800 million.
  • Despite tremendous progress in the identification of genes associated with Parkinson’s and related disorders over the last decade, there is still only outline and sketchy information about the molecular pathways involved, and their constituents and their interactions.
  • Finally, in order to really understand the pathway to human disease, and to be able to influence its progression, the earliest phase needs to be examined. Thus the consortium will also focus on developing understanding of the very early symptoms or warnings of the illness.
  • The consortium hypothesises that there are multiple causes of Parkinson's, which result in a very small number of separate but converging biochemical pathways. These pathways interact with the molecular pathology of ageing and induce neuronal dysfunction and death, producing the characteristic pathological features of the condition.
  • It will need to identify all the significant genetic risk factors, and place these molecules and their variants in their pathways to enable it to understand how the human disease begins and develops.
  • To understand these pathways and mechanisms requires the establishment and integrated use of a range of models.
  • The consortium aims to achieve a much fuller picture of all the major genetic factors that underlie Parkinson's. It will then identify and characterise the biochemical pathways that these genes determine, and explore their role in the development of disease. To dissect these mechanisms, the consortium has brought in expertise from mitochondrial biology, cell signalling and Drosophila biology to complement its other model systems.
  • In parallel it will study the very earliest stages of the illness. It is widely believed that only by understanding these early phases will we be able to modify the disease course for the greatest clinical impact. To aid this work, the consortium has harnessed the clinical and biochemical resources of the national Gaucher's disease clinic. This will help it to build cohorts of individuals who are genetically at risk; detailed studies of these individuals will include imaging and biochemical assessments.
  • Over five years, the consortium’s plan is to produce detailed knowledge of the molecular pathways that lead to Parkinson’s, and validated markers of its evolution.


Wellcome Trust logo
The Wellcome Trust is one of the world's largest biomedical research charities and its mission is to foster and promote research with the aim of improving human and animal health.


MRC logo
The Medical Research Council is dedicated to improving human health through the best scientific research. Its work, on behalf of the UK taxpayer, ranges from molecular level science to public health medicine and understanding of the human body in health and disease. http://www.mrc.ac.uk/

parkinson's UK logo
As the UK's Parkinson's support and research charity we’re leading the work to find a cure, and we're closer than ever. We also campaign to change attitudes and demand better services.




Principal Investigators


UKPDC news

Please see IoN news feed (select "Parkinson's Disease")



Balint, B., Vincent, A., Meinck, H.-M., Irani, S.R., Bhatia, K.P., 2018a. Movement disorders with neuronal antibodies: syndromic approach, genetic parallels and pathophysiology. Brain 141, 13–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx189

Balint, B., Wiethoff, S., Martino, D., Del Gamba, C., Latorre, A., Ganos, C., Houlden, H., Bhatia, K.P., 2018b. Quick Flicks: Association of Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia and Tics. Mov Disord Clin Pract 5, 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12615

Blauwendraat, C., Kia, D.A., Pihlstrøm, L., Gan-Or, Z., Lesage, S., Gibbs, J.R., Ding, J., Alcalay, R.N., Hassin-Baer, S., Pittman, A.M., Brooks, J., Edsall, C., Chung, S.J., Goldwurm, S., Toft, M., Schulte, C., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), COURAGE-PD Consortium, Hernandez, D., Singleton, A.B., Nalls, M.A., Brice, A., Scholz, S.W., Wood, N.W., 2018a. Insufficient evidence for pathogenicity of SNCA His50Gln (H50Q) in Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging 64, 159.e5-159.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.12.012

Blauwendraat, C., Reed, X., Kia, D.A., Gan-Or, Z., Lesage, S., Pihlstrøm, L., Guerreiro, R., Gibbs, J.R., Sabir, M., Ahmed, S., Ding, J., Alcalay, R.N., Hassin-Baer, S., Pittman, A.M., Brooks, J., Edsall, C., Hernandez, D.G., Chung, S.J., Goldwurm, S., Toft, M., Schulte, C., Bras, J., Wood, N.W., Brice, A., Morris, H.R., Scholz, S.W., Nalls, M.A., Singleton, A.B., Cookson, M.R., COURAGE-PD (Comprehensive Unbiased Risk Factor Assessment for Genetics and Environment in Parkinson’s Disease) Consortium, the French Parkinson’s Disease Consortium, and the International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), 2018b. Frequency of Loss of Function Variants in LRRK2 in Parkinson Disease. JAMA Neurol 75, 1416–1422. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.1885

Boot, E., Butcher, N.J., Udow, S., Marras, C., Mok, K.Y., Kaneko, S., Barrett, M.J., Prontera, P., Berman, B.D., Masellis, M., Dufournet, B., Nguyen, K., Charles, P., Mutez, E., Danaila, T., Jacquette, A., Colin, O., Drapier, S., Borg, M., Fiksinski, A.M., Vergaelen, E., Swillen, A., Vogels, A., Plate, A., Perandones, C., Gasser, T., Clerinx, K., Bourdain, F., Mills, K., Williams, N.M., Wood, N.W., Booij, J., Lang, A.E., Bassett, A.S., International Research Group on 22q11.2DS-associated Parkinson’s Disease, 2018. Typical features of Parkinson disease and diagnostic challenges with microdeletion 22q11.2. Neurology 90, e2059–e2067. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000005660

Brainstorm Consortium, Anttila, V., et al., 2018. Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain. Science 360. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8757

Ferrari, R., Kia, D.A., Tomkins, J.E., Hardy, J., Wood, N.W., Lovering, R.C., Lewis, P.A., Manzoni, C., 2018. Stratification of candidate genes for Parkinson’s disease using weighted protein-protein interaction network analysis. BMC Genomics 19, 452. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-4804-9

Kia, D.A., Noyce, A.J., White, J., Speed, D., Nicolas, A., IPDGC collaborators, Burgess, S., Lawlor, D.A., Davey Smith, G., Singleton, A., Nalls, M.A., Sofat, R., Wood, N.W., 2018. Mendelian randomization study shows no causal relationship between circulating urate levels and Parkinson’s disease. Ann. Neurol. 84, 191–199. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.25294

Manzoni, C., Kia, D.A., Vandrovcova, J., Hardy, J., Wood, N.W., Lewis, P.A., Ferrari, R., 2018a. Genome, transcriptome and proteome: the rise of omics data and their integration in biomedical sciences. Brief. Bioinformatics 19, 286–302. https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbw114

Manzoni, C., Mamais, A., Dihanich, S., Soutar, M.P.M., Plun-Favreau, H., Bandopadhyay, R., Abeti, R., Giunti, P., Hardy, J., R Cookson, M., Tooze, S.A., Lewis, P.A., 2018b. mTOR independent alteration in ULK1 Ser758 phosphorylation following chronic LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Biosci. Rep. 38. https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20171669

Sassi, C., Nalls, M.A., Ridge, P.G., Gibbs, J.R., Lupton, M.K., Troakes, C., Lunnon, K., Al-Sarraj, S., Brown, K.S., Medway, C., Lord, J., Turton, J., Bras, J., ARUK Consortium, Blumenau, S., Thielke, M., Josties, C., Freyer, D., Dietrich, A., Hammer, M., Baier, M., Dirnagl, U., Morgan, K., Powell, J.F., Kauwe, J.S., Cruchaga, C., Goate, A.M., Singleton, A.B., Guerreiro, R., Hodges, A., Hardy, J., 2018. Mendelian adult-onset leukodystrophy genes in Alzheimer’s disease: critical influence of CSF1R and NOTCH3. Neurobiol. Aging 66, 179.e17-179.e29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.01.015


Antipova, D., Bandopadhyay, R., 2017. Expression of DJ-1 in Neurodegenerative Disorders. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1037, 25–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6583-5_3

Bartolome, F., Esteras, N., Martin-Requero, A., Boutoleau-Bretonniere, C., Vercelletto, M., Gabelle, A., Le Ber, I., Honda, T., Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Hardy, J., Carro, E., Abramov, A.Y., 2017. Pathogenic p62/SQSTM1 mutations impair energy metabolism through limitation of mitochondrial substrates. Sci Rep 7, 1666. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01678-4

Beesley, C., Guerreiro, R.J., Bras, J.T., Williams, R.E., Taratuto, A.L., Eltze, C., Mole, S.E., 2017. CLN8 disease caused by large genomic deletions. Mol Genet Genomic Med 5, 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.263

Blauwendraat, C., Faghri, F., Pihlstrom, L., Geiger, J.T., Elbaz, A., Lesage, S., Corvol, J.-C., May, P., Nicolas, A., Abramzon, Y., Murphy, N.A., Gibbs, J.R., Ryten, M., Ferrari, R., Bras, J., Guerreiro, R., Williams, J., Sims, R., Lubbe, S., Hernandez, D.G., Mok, K.Y., Robak, L., Campbell, R.H., Rogaeva, E., Traynor, B.J., Chia, R., Chung, S.J., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), COURAGE-PD Consortium, Hardy, J.A., Brice, A., Wood, N.W., Houlden, H., Shulman, J.M., Morris, H.R., Gasser, T., Krüger, R., Heutink, P., Sharma, M., Simón-Sánchez, J., Nalls, M.A., Singleton, A.B., Scholz, S.W., 2017. NeuroChip, an updated version of the NeuroX genotyping platform to rapidly screen for variants associated with neurological diseases. Neurobiol. Aging 57, 247.e9-247.e13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.05.009

Carecchio, M., Mencacci, N.E., Iodice, A., Pons, R., Panteghini, C., Zorzi, G., Zibordi, F., Bonakis, A., Dinopoulos, A., Jankovic, J., Stefanis, L., Bhatia, K.P., Monti, V., R’Bibo, L., Veneziano, L., Garavaglia, B., Fusco, C., Wood, N., Stamelou, M., Nardocci, N., 2017. ADCY5-related movement disorders: Frequency, disease course and phenotypic variability in a cohort of paediatric patients. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 41, 37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.05.004

Delgado-Camprubi, M., Esteras, N., Soutar, M.P., Plun-Favreau, H., Abramov, A.Y., 2017. Deficiency of Parkinson’s disease-related gene Fbxo7 is associated with impaired mitochondrial metabolism by PARP activation. Cell Death Differ. 24, 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2016.104

Ferrari, R., Lovering, R.C., Hardy, J., Lewis, P.A., Manzoni, C., 2017. Weighted Protein Interaction Network Analysis of Frontotemporal Dementia. J. Proteome Res. 16, 999–1013. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00934

Gandhi, S., Plun-Favreau, H., 2017. Mutations and mechanism: how PINK1 may contribute to risk of sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Brain 140, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww320

Geissler, J.M., International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium members, Romanos, M., Gerlach, M., Berg, D., Schulte, C., 2017. No genetic association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson’s disease in nine ADHD candidate SNPs. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 9, 121–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-017-0219-8

Giri, A., Mok, K.Y., Jansen, I., Sharma, M., Tesson, C., Mangone, G., Lesage, S., Bras, J.M., Shulman, J.M., Sheerin, U.-M., International Parkinson’s Disease Consortium (IPDGC), Díez-Fairen, M., Pastor, P., Martí, M.J., Ezquerra, M., Tolosa, E., Correia-Guedes, L., Ferreira, J., Amin, N., van Duijn, C.M., van Rooij, J., Uitterlinden, A.G., Kraaij, R., Nalls, M., Simón-Sánchez, J., 2017. Lack of evidence for a role of genetic variation in TMEM230 in the risk for Parkinson’s disease in the Caucasian population. Neurobiol. Aging 50, 167.e11-167.e13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.10.004

Jansen, I.E., Gibbs, J.R., Nalls, M.A., Price, T.R., Lubbe, S., van Rooij, J., Uitterlinden, A.G., Kraaij, R., Williams, N.M., Brice, A., Hardy, J., Wood, N.W., Morris, H.R., Gasser, T., Singleton, A.B., Heutink, P., Sharma, M., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium, 2017a. Establishing the role of rare coding variants in known Parkinson’s disease risk loci. Neurobiol. Aging 59, 220.e11-220.e18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.07.009

Jansen, I.E., Ye, H., Heetveld, S., Lechler, M.C., Michels, H., Seinstra, R.I., Lubbe, S.J., Drouet, V., Lesage, S., Majounie, E., Gibbs, J.R., Nalls, M.A., Ryten, M., Botia, J.A., Vandrovcova, J., Simon-Sanchez, J., Castillo-Lizardo, M., Rizzu, P., Blauwendraat, C., Chouhan, A.K., Li, Y., Yogi, P., Amin, N., van Duijn, C.M., International Parkinson’s Disease Genetics Consortium (IPGDC), Morris, H.R., Brice, A., Singleton, A.B., David, D.C., Nollen, E.A., Jain, S., Shulman, J.M., Heutink, P., 2017b. Discovery and functional prioritization of Parkinson’s disease candidate genes from large-scale whole exome sequencing. Genome Biol. 18, 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-017-1147-9

Lynch, D.S., Loh, S.H.Y., Harley, J., Noyce, A.J., Martins, L.M., Wood, N.W., Houlden, H., Plun-Favreau, H., 2017. Nonsyndromic Parkinson disease in a family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy due to OPA1 mutations. Neurol Genet 3, e188. https://doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000188

Malek, N., Lawton, M.A., Grosset, K.A., Bajaj, N., Barker, R.A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Burn, D.J., Foltynie, T., Hardy, J., Morris, H.R., Williams, N.M., Wood, N., Grosset, D.G., PRoBaND clinical consortium, 2017. Utility of the new Movement Disorder Society clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease applied retrospectively in a large cohort study of recent onset cases. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 40, 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.04.006

Meyer, E., Carss, K.J., Rankin, J., Nichols, J.M.E., Grozeva, D., Joseph, A.P., Mencacci, N.E., Papandreou, A., Ng, J., Barral, S., Ngoh, A., Ben-Pazi, H., Willemsen, M.A., Arkadir, D., Barnicoat, A., Bergman, H., Bhate, S., Boys, A., Darin, N., Foulds, N., Gutowski, N., Hills, A., Houlden, H., Hurst, J.A., Israel, Z., Kaminska, M., Limousin, P., Lumsden, D., McKee, S., Misra, S., Mohammed, S.S., Nakou, V., Nicolai, J., Nilsson, M., Pall, H., Peall, K.J., Peters, G.B., Prabhakar, P., Reuter, M.S., Rump, P., Segel, R., Sinnema, M., Smith, M., Turnpenny, P., White, S.M., Wieczorek, D., Wiethoff, S., Wilson, B.T., Winter, G., Wragg, C., Pope, S., Heales, S.J.H., Morrogh, D., UK10K Consortium, Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, NIHR BioResource Rare Diseases Consortium, Pittman, A., Carr, L.J., Perez-Dueñas, B., Lin, J.-P., Reis, A., Gahl, W.A., Toro, C., Bhatia, K.P., Wood, N.W., Kamsteeg, E.-J., Chong, W.K., Gissen, P., Topf, M., Dale, R.C., Chubb, J.R., Raymond, F.L., Kurian, M.A., 2017. Mutations in the histone methyltransferase gene KMT2B cause complex early-onset dystonia. Nat. Genet. 49, 223–237. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3740

Murthy, M.N., Blauwendraat, C., UKBEC, Guelfi, S., IPDGC, Hardy, J., Lewis, P.A., Trabzuni, D., 2017. Increased brain expression of GPNMB is associated with genome wide significant risk for Parkinson’s disease on chromosome 7p15.3. Neurogenetics 18, 121–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10048-017-0514-8

Noyce, A.J., Kia, D.A., Hemani, G., Nicolas, A., Price, T.R., De Pablo-Fernandez, E., Haycock, P.C., Lewis, P.A., Foltynie, T., Davey Smith, G., International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium, Schrag, A., Lees, A.J., Hardy, J., Singleton, A., Nalls, M.A., Pearce, N., Lawlor, D.A., Wood, N.W., 2017a. Estimating the causal influence of body mass index on risk of Parkinson disease: A Mendelian randomisation study. PLoS Med. 14, e1002314. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002314

Noyce, A.J., R’Bibo, L., Peress, L., Bestwick, J.P., Adams-Carr, K.L., Mencacci, N.E., Hawkes, C.H., Masters, J.M., Wood, N., Hardy, J., Giovannoni, G., Lees, A.J., Schrag, A., 2017b. PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson’s disease. Mov. Disord. 32, 219–226. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26898

Noyce, A.J., Schrag, A., Masters, J.M., Bestwick, J.P., Giovannoni, G., Lees, A.J., 2017c. Subtle motor disturbances in PREDICT-PD participants. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 88, 212–217. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314524

Robak, L.A., Jansen, I.E., van Rooij, J., Uitterlinden, A.G., Kraaij, R., Jankovic, J., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), Heutink, P., Shulman, J.M., 2017. Excessive burden of lysosomal storage disorder gene variants in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 140, 3191–3203. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx285

Rott, R., Szargel, R., Shani, V., Hamza, H., Savyon, M., Abd Elghani, F., Bandopadhyay, R., Engelender, S., 2017. SUMOylation and ubiquitination reciprocally regulate α-synuclein degradation and pathological aggregation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 13176–13181. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704351114

Witoelar, A., Jansen, I.E., Wang, Y., Desikan, R.S., Gibbs, J.R., Blauwendraat, C., Thompson, W.K., Hernandez, D.G., Djurovic, S., Schork, A.J., Bettella, F., Ellinghaus, D., Franke, A., Lie, B.A., McEvoy, L.K., Karlsen, T.H., Lesage, S., Morris, H.R., Brice, A., Wood, N.W., Heutink, P., Hardy, J., Singleton, A.B., Dale, A.M., Gasser, T., Andreassen, O.A., Sharma, M., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), North American Brain Expression Consortium (NABEC), and United Kingdom Brain Expression Consortium (UKBEC) Investigators, 2017. Genome-wide Pleiotropy Between Parkinson Disease and Autoimmune Diseases. JAMA Neurol 74, 780–792. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0469


Adams-Carr, K.L., Bestwick, J.P., Shribman, S., Lees, A., Schrag, A., Noyce, A.J., 2016. Constipation preceding Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 87, 710–716. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2015-311680

Angelova, P.R., Ludtmann, M.H.R., Horrocks, M.H., Negoda, A., Cremades, N., Klenerman, D., Dobson, C.M., Wood, N.W., Pavlov, E.V., Gandhi, S., Abramov, A.Y., 2016. Ca2+ is a key factor in α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity. J. Cell. Sci. 129, 1792–1801. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.180737

Bandrés-Ciga, S., Mencacci, N.E., Durán, R., Barrero, F.J., Escamilla-Sevilla, F., Morgan, S., Hehir, J., Vives, F., Hardy, J., Pittman, A.M., 2016. Analysis of the genetic variability in Parkinson’s disease from Southern Spain. Neurobiol. Aging 37, 210.e1-210.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.09.020

Berezhnov, A.V., Soutar, M.P.M., Fedotova, E.I., Frolova, M.S., Plun-Favreau, H., Zinchenko, V.P., Abramov, A.Y., 2016. Intracellular pH Modulates Autophagy and Mitophagy. J. Biol. Chem. 291, 8701–8708. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.691774

Bettencourt, C., Forabosco, P., Wiethoff, S., Heidari, M., Johnstone, D.M., Botía, J.A., Collingwood, J.F., Hardy, J., UK Brain Expression Consortium (UKBEC), Milward, E.A., Ryten, M., Houlden, H., 2016. Gene co-expression networks shed light into diseases of brain iron accumulation. Neurobiol. Dis. 87, 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2015.12.004

Charlesworth, G., Balint, B., Mencacci, N.E., Carr, L., Wood, N.W., Bhatia, K.P., 2016. SLC25A46 mutations underlie progressive myoclonic ataxia with optic atrophy and neuropathy. Mov. Disord. 31, 1249–1251. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.26716

Deas, E., Cremades, N., Angelova, P.R., Ludtmann, M.H.R., Yao, Z., Chen, S., Horrocks, M.H., Banushi, B., Little, D., Devine, M.J., Gissen, P., Klenerman, D., Dobson, C.M., Wood, N.W., Gandhi, S., Abramov, A.Y., 2016. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson’s Disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2015.6343

Esteras, N., Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Abramov, A.Y., 2016. Nrf2 activation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: a focus on its role in mitochondrial bioenergetics and function. Biol. Chem. 397, 383–400. https://doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2015-0295

Ferrari, R., Forabosco, P., Vandrovcova, J., Botía, J.A., Guelfi, S., Warren, J.D., UK Brain Expression Consortium (UKBEC), Momeni, P., Weale, M.E., Ryten, M., Hardy, J., 2016. Frontotemporal dementia: insights into the biological underpinnings of disease through gene co-expression network analysis. Mol Neurodegener 11, 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13024-016-0085-4

Foulger, R.E., Denny, P., Hardy, J., Martin, M.J., Sawford, T., Lovering, R.C., 2016. Using the Gene Ontology to Annotate Key Players in Parkinson’s Disease. Neuroinformatics 14, 297–304. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12021-015-9293-2

Guerreiro, R., Brás, J., Batista, S., Pires, P., Ribeiro, M.H., Almeida, M.R., Oliveira, C., Hardy, J., Santana, I., 2016. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I-b with neurological involvement is associated with a homozygous PTH1R mutation. Genes Brain Behav. 15, 669–677. https://doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12308

Guerreiro, Rita, Escott-Price, V., Darwent, L., Parkkinen, L., Ansorge, O., Hernandez, D.G., Nalls, M.A., Clark, L., Honig, L., Marder, K., van der Flier, W., Holstege, H., Louwersheimer, E., Lemstra, A., Scheltens, P., Rogaeva, E., St George-Hyslop, P., Londos, E., Zetterberg, H., Ortega-Cubero, S., Pastor, P., Ferman, T.J., Graff-Radford, N.R., Ross, O.A., Barber, I., Braae, A., Brown, K., Morgan, K., Maetzler, W., Berg, D., Troakes, C., Al-Sarraj, S., Lashley, T., Compta, Y., Revesz, T., Lees, A., Cairns, N.J., Halliday, G.M., Mann, D., Pickering-Brown, S., Powell, J., Lunnon, K., Lupton, M.K., International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC), Dickson, D., Hardy, J., Singleton, A., Bras, J., 2016. Genome-wide analysis of genetic correlation in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Neurobiol. Aging 38, 214.e7-214.e10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.10.028

Iljina, M., Garcia, G.A., Horrocks, M.H., Tosatto, L., Choi, M.L., Ganzinger, K.A., Abramov, A.Y., Gandhi, S., Wood, N.W., Cremades, N., Dobson, C.M., Knowles, T.P.J., Klenerman, D., 2016. Kinetic model of the aggregation of alpha-synuclein provides insights into prion-like spreading. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, E1206-1215. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524128113

Kara, E., Tucci, A., Manzoni, C., Lynch, D.S., Elpidorou, M., Bettencourt, C., Chelban, V., Manole, A., Hamed, S.A., Haridy, N.A., Federoff, M., Preza, E., Hughes, D., Pittman, A., Jaunmuktane, Z., Brandner, S., Xiromerisiou, G., Wiethoff, S., Schottlaender, L., Proukakis, C., Morris, H., Warner, T., Bhatia, K.P., Korlipara, L.V.P., Singleton, A.B., Hardy, J., Wood, N.W., Lewis, P.A., Houlden, H., 2016. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain 139, 1904–1918. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww111

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